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POLS 2312-001 Exam One Study Guide [Full]

by: M.G

POLS 2312-001 Exam One Study Guide [Full] POLS 2312-001

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > POLS 2312-001 > POLS 2312 001 Exam One Study Guide Full
GPA 3.85
State and Local Government
Kimberly Harper

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This study guide contains all of the information covered in class pertinent to the test. Good luck!
State and Local Government
Kimberly Harper
Study Guide
POLS 2312
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by M.G on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 2312-001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kimberly Harper in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 283 views.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
Exam One Study Guide Condensed POLITICS The three de nitions ofpoliticss 1 The process by which we form a public policy 2 Who gets what when and how 3 Michael Foucault War by other means POLITICAL CULTURE Political culture shared beliefs attitudes etc Types ofPolitical Culture 1 Moralistic a Northeastern states are a prime example of a moralistic political culture 2 Individualistic a Texas is individualistic 3 Traditionalistic a Texas is also traditionalistic SIX FLAGS OF TEXAS Spain France Mexico Texas Confederate States United States 9999959 LAND 1 Our land and our people are big and diverse a Diversity allows for a vast amount of industry b We have mountains basins plains the coast and more that contributes to this diversity of land c Cattle cotton oil and timber are our landbased industries i 14 million cattle in state ii 1 in cattle production iii We produce 10 of world cotton iv We produce 50 of US cotton V Oil is regulated by the Railroad Commission vi Agency capture is when an agency that is supposed to regulate an industry instead capture it for their own pro t vii Example Fracking FDA PEOPLE 1 Texas is 2nd in population only to California a 27 million people in the state Does not include 34mil illegal population b Harris County is most populated in the state with 4mil people c Loving County is smallest with 80 people 2 Texas is diverse in people a Caucasian anglo czech german latino b Latino is the fastest growing population in the state and country c African American rate is a steady 1112 d Asian population is wellrepresented in universities e Native American reservation and casino southwest TX f TX has one of the largest middle eastern populations in the country LAND BASED INDUSTRIES 1 Cattle cotton oil and timber are our landbased industries a 14 million cattle in state 1 in cattle production We produce 10 of world cotton We produce 50 of US cotton Oil is regulated by the Railroad Commission r699 Agency capture is when an agency that is supposed to regulate an industry instead capture it for their own profit g Example Fracking FDA NEW ECONOMIC DIRECTIONS 1 Energy a oil amp gas i 3 of the 4 major oil gas corporations are located in TX ii Fracking Air water land pollution b wind i 8 of our state energy 2 Hightech a HP Texas Instruments etc b Great pay benefits 3 Biotechnology a Bread cheese wine b Vaccines c Problem solving in agriculture 4 Service a 1 provider of jobs in the state b Lowpaying c Low bene ts 5 Agriculture a Beef grain cotton b 22 billion in agriculture 6 Trade a North American Free Trade Agreement Mexico Canada US b Maquiladoras factory plants on the Mexico side c Colonias Severe pockets of poverty along the border i Cities will not annex them because of costs to city TEXAS CHALLENGES 1 Immigration 2 Water concerns a Drought b Infrastructure 3 Environmental concerns a Delicate balance between business and environment b 1 for water air etc pollution c TX is very probusiness 4 Poverty and Social Issues a Homeless b Working poor c TX is a low tax and low service state i Low service low spending ii Worst in mental health service funding FEDERALISM l The division of power or sovereignty between a national and regional state government 2 Allows for experimentation with policies a Marijuana is an example with some states legalizing it completely roughly 20 states legalizing medical marijuana and the federal government completely outlawing it SameseX marriage prior to 2015 decision Obergefell V Hodges Gun laws open carry concealed carry clip sizes background checks Cop recording laws Abortion policies SeX ed i TX 1 teen pregnancy r6999 g Physician assisted suicide West Coast states legalized mainly 3 Federalism in a Nutshell a Some countries engage in a unitary system We leave England Federal only b We then create a confederal system States only Articles of confederation c We then have the constitutional convention where we create Federalism where there is a federal structure and a state structure 4 History of Federalism a Indestructible union i Oldest child is the most protective bubbled child ii When something is new you want to protect it iii Lasted from founding to civil war b Dual Federalism i The power which one has the other does not possess ii Civil War to Great Depression iii Two distinct layers on a cake Chocolate and White cake c Cooperative Federalism i Working relationship between two levels ii Great Depression to present iii Marble cake d Coercive Federalism i Some states feel they are being pushed into certain programs ii Some states still work well with the government in a cooperative state 10TH AMENDMENT Gives the states their powers RESERVED POWERS 1 State Powers a Reserved b Given through the 10th amendment c Not speci ed d Policing taxing proprietary eminent domain public safety education e Powers local gov has derived from state f Election issues mostly a state level item SUPREMACY CLAUSE 1 When the state has a law and the federal government has a law the federal government wins 2 Obergefell v Hodges example DELEGATED POWERS 1 Federal Powers a Delegated specific eXpressed enumerated b Given through article 1 c Coining money foreign affairs post office IMPLIED POWERS l Necessary and Proper clause a The federal government can do anything that is necessary and proper for carrying out other powers 2 Elastic 3 I have the power to do this 4 Allows for government eXpansion FULL FAITH AND CREDIT CLAUSE 1 States supposed to recognize legal documents from other states 2 Samesex marriage legal marriages from other states not recognized in certain states TRENDS OF FEDERALISM 1 Expansion of the Federal Government a Massive growth under FDR during the great depression b LBJ made it bigger with Medicaid Medicare etc c Bush with war 2 Devolution a The idea that the government is strengthened by handing power from the federal government down to the state governments DEVOLUTION O The idea that the government is strengthened by handing power from the federal government down to the state governments GRANTS IN AID CATEGORICAL 0 Speci c O ie for public school lunches It can only be used for public school lunches BLOCK GRANTS 0 Allow exibility for states to dictate where money is spent 0 ie Health and Human services That money can be spent anywhere that ful lls this basic requirement 0 States can choose where or where not to give the money 0 Example of devolution because it gives states more power with spending TEXAS CONSTITUTION O Constitutions O 0 1st Constitution I Written under Mexico 2nd Constitution I Written as the Republic of Texas 3rd Constitution I Written in 1835 upon joining the Union 4th Constitution I Written upon joining Confederate States 5th Constitution I Written in 1866 under the United States I Written to appease the North 6th Constitution I Written in 1869 I EJ Davis 0 Last Republican Gov for 100 years 0 Associated with corruption abuse of power 0 Appointed minorities to power allowed minorities to vote 0 Defeated by Richard Pope a democrat O Barricaded himself in his office to avoid leaving 7th Constitution I Ratified in 1876 I Plural executive 0 Power of the executive is spread out between 7 8 people 0 Commissioner of Agriculture 0 Commissioner of general land office 0 Lt Governor 0 Governor 0 Secretary of State 0 Railroad commission AMENDMENT PROCESS 0 House and Senate Legislative Branch 0 Come together in a joint resolution that must pass each chamber with 23 of the vote 0 After it is passed it goes to the secretary of state who formats it into a user friendly format and publishes the information 0 Voters approve with a simple majority 51 Goes to governor for signature 0 No veto power for constitutional amendments CONSTITUTION SUMMARY 0 Article 1 0 Bill of Rights I 30 sections I Has everything the US has and then some 0 Article 2 0 Separation of Powers 0 Article 3 0 Legislative Lawmaking 0 Article 4 0 Executive Lawenforcing 0 Article 5 0 Judicial Lawinterpreting 0 Article 6 O Suffrage I The right to vote I Over 18 to vote I Felons cannot vote I Mentally incompetent cannot vote SEPARATION OF POWERS The Republic of Texas wanted a separation of church and state so that the Catholic church and hispanic culture wouldn t in uence its policies 0 In Article 2 LEGISLATIVE 0 Powers are given in Article 3 O Lawmaking EXECUTIVE 0 Powers are given in Article 4 O Lawenforcing JUDICIAL 0 Powers are given in Article 5 O Lawinterpreting GENERAL LAW CITIES 0 Small towns 0 Restricted 0 Cookie cutter governments due to sameness per the state constitution 0 Example Apartments 0 Restricted 0 Same oor plans HOME RULE CITIES 0 Larger towns 5000 0 More exibility O Establishes own charter rules 0 Example Houses 0 More exible 0 Larger o Diverse 0 Most are CouncilManager RECALL 0 Only in homerule cities A procedure that allows citizens to remove an of cial from of ce through a vote Happened in Arlington Voters remove a local of cial from of ce Better to resign than to be impeached or recalled INITIATIVE o Initiation of legislation 0 Citizendriven legislation 0 Voters can petition to change something via vote REFERENDUM 0 Voters petition a senator to start a change 0 Repeals existing ordinance o The popular referendum is a device which allows voters to approve or repeal an act of the Legislature 0 Changes to the state constitution must be done through referendum STRONGWEAK MAYOIUCOUNCIL 0 More strengthless strength COUNCILMANAGER o Homerule city associated 0 City manager manages the city the way one would manage a business 0 Manager appointed by city council 0 Councilmanager started in TX in San Antonio NONPARTISAN ELECTIONS 0 No label with the name DR 0 Less exciting 0 People engage in weird selection practices because there are no labels For example they ll vote for the best sounding name REDISTRICTING o TX has 27 million legal residents 0 All of W TX is one district Except El Paso O Districts are drawn in really odd shapes due to gerrymandering O Gerrymandering drawing lines to include or exclude minorities to in uence voting 0 Done every ten years to map out where everyone is in order to have districts with an equal population AT LARGE ELECTIONS 0 Mayor voted in through a citywide atlarge election 0 3 atlarge council members 678 in Arlington 0 Everyone in city votes for that position SINGLE MEMBER DISTRICTS 0 One member per district solely committed to knowing their constituency o More minority representation PROPERTY TAX 0 Most of a city s revenue is obtained through property taxes 0 Property taxes can be looked at for Tarrant County on tadorg 0 Property taxes are main revenue for counties 0 Schools are mostly funded by property taxes FINANCIAL ISSUES 0 Bottom line of all government is finances COLONIAS 0 Along the American side of the border Most impoverished area of the country 0 0 Around 500k Texans living with no utilities 0 Cities will not anneX the colonias because they do not want to provide services SPECIAL DISTRICTS O 3000 special districts 0 Special districts have a speci c function for a group in a specific area 0 Educational 0 Independent school districts 0 I Funding 0 Federal 10 of funding 0 State 40 of funding 0 Local 50 of funding 0 Most of the funding comes from property taxes 0 Southlake ISD vs Keller ISD 0 Robin Hood Plan 0 Takes money from wealthy ISDs and puts the money in less wealthy ISDs 0 Has been around since 1993 Community colleges 0 Noneducational O O O 0 Fire districts Water districts Some areas rely on volunteer fire departments Mass transit I Dart etc 0 Anything noneducational transcending countycity lines COGS O Councils of Government 0 Voluntary 0 Texas is split into roughly 24 COG areas for regional planning 0 Helps ensure that transportation health services etc are distributed evenly METRO AREAS 0 Approximately 8590 88 of Texans today live in a metropolitan area 0 DFW metro 0 Austin metro 0 San Antonio metro 0 Houston metro ANNEXATION 0 Cities Will not anneX the colonias because they do not want to provide services 0 Annexation is the way cities can incorporate new areas VOTER TURNOUT NUMBERS 0 National voter turnout is 55 sometimes 60 for a presidential election 0 State voter turnout for a presidential election is 45 o TX gubernatorial voter turnout is 25 0 Less than 10 7 voter turnout in odd year elections READING QUIZ ANSWERS Note These are supplemental quizzes not given for a grade Answers given out in class 0 d l l N j k 9 39EJ39P99P onouuwww j k P O 11 H quot1 S D QUIZ 2 DCBEC 12345a7amp91 True 1876 EABC 0 DAC L13 4 False 6 False 7 C 8 A 9 True 10 B


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