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Biology FRO 3

by: Hannah B.

Biology FRO 3 BIOL 1020

Hannah B.
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Study guide for fro 3
Principles of Biology
Scott Anthony Bowling
Study Guide
Auburn University, auburn, BIOL 1020, BIOL, Bio, Biology, Bowling, Principles of biology
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah B. on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1020 at Auburn University taught by Scott Anthony Bowling in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
Biology 1020 Final Replacement Opportunity (FRO) 3 Study Guide
 Chapters 1-10, 12-17, 22, Into the Jungle 1-3 (focus on material from 14-17, 22, and Into the Jungle 1-3) The activities for the material from Chs. 14-17, 22, and Into the Jungle 1-3 serve as a good study guide.As before, your other activities (MasteringBiology homework, Learning Catalytics, and activities given in the notes/slideshows) also serve as very useful study tools, especially Learning Catalytics and the activities in the slideshows since I wrote those.Also, take advantage of the StudyArea in MasteringBiology. The FRO will consist only of multiple-choice questions. It will be based on 50 questions, but I’ll add in an extra question or so to build some bonus points in. The group version of this FRO will count as your Group Exam 3. Chapters 1-13: See FRO 1 and FRO 2 materials (2-8 questions) Molecular Biology Unit Chapter 16: DNA(7-13 questions total) Group 1: (3-5 questions) Evidence that DNAis the genetic material – know why these Griffith pneumococcus and Hershey-Chase bacteriophage experiments provide evidence that DNAis genetic material The genetic material must be able to replicate itself and direct and control living processes Mendel’s laws of genetics states that one copy of each gene comes from each parent Griffith studies pneumococcus in mice and showed that some transforming principle from the heat-killed S strain changed the R strain to make it deadly Hershey and Chase experiment viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages phage injected DNA into bacteria to infect them Structure of DNA– know the roles of Franklin and Wilkins as well as Watson and Crick in determining the structure of DNA; know Page of 8 basepairing rules; terms; the double helix structure with antiparallel strands (know roles of phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and nitrogenous bases in the structure) Franklin and Wilkins did x-ray diffraction studies molecule has three repeating patterns that any model of its structure must account for the data indicated a helix Watson and Crick made accepted model for DNA double helix structure DNA twisted ladder; sugar-phosphate backbone forms sides and basepairs forms rungs explained all three repeating patterns that any model of its structure must account for double helix with antiparallel strands each strand is a nucleotide chain held together by phosphodiester linkages strands held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases (basepairs) A paired with T, with two hydrogen bonds predicted C paired with G, with three hydrogen bonds predicted Group 2: (3-6 questions) DNAreplication – know what the semiconservative model is and how the Meselson-Stahl experiment supports that model; know details of the replication machinery and process 
 Group 3: (1-2 questions) DNApackaging – know about nucleosomes, histones, etc. and their roles in DNApackaging Chapter 17: Genes and How They Work (8-15 questions total) Group 1: (1-3 questions) What is a gene? – know about black urine disease, Beadle and Tatum’s work, and the “one gene, one enzyme” and “one gene, one polypeptide” ideas 
 RNA(ribonucleic acid) – know the structural differences from DNA; the three main forms and their functions 
 Page 2 of 8 Know the central dogma of gene expression (DNA—>RNA—>protein) and related terms (transcription, translation) 
 Group 2: (2-4 questions) 
 Transcription: making RNAfrom a DNAtemplate – know the terms and process (role of promoter, direction of strand synthesis, how synthesis is stopped, etc.) 
 The genetic code – know how to read codons and translate a sequence (like done in class); rememberAUG is start (methionine); know importance of reading frame, stop codons; know how many codons there are (64) and how many amino acids (20) and stops (3) they code for, and why this leads to degeneracy or redundancy; know about the concept of “wobble” for tRNA-mRNAbinding for part of the redundancy; terms for mRNAregions (coding, leader, etc.) 
 Group 3: (2-3 questions) 
 Translation: using information in mRNAto direct protein synthesis – know terms, how tRNAs are activated and used, process details of initiation, elongation (including translocation), and termination 
 Group 4: (1-2 questions) 
 Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in transcription and translation – know the processing done to eukaryotic mRNA(5’cap, poly-Atail, intron removal by RNAsplicing); know the meanings of terms such as intron, exon, and spliceosome Group 5: (2-3 questions) Page 3 of 8 Modern definition of genes – know it (transcribed nucleotide sequence that yield an RNAor protein final product); know that mRNAs are not final products, so that there are not “genes for mRNAs” even though there are genes for tRNAs, etc. Mutations are changes in the DNAsequence – know the types of point mutations based on genetic results (missense, silent, nonsense); for frameshift mutations know their cause (small-scale insertions or deletions) and their result (messed- up reading frame) Gene Regulation – constitutive genes, activators, enhancers, repressors, and transcription factors – know these terms and how they relate to gene regulation; know what regulation allows (differences in gene expression depending on cell type and environmental conditions) Genetics Unit Chapter 14: Patterns of Inheritance (Genetics) (15-23 questions) 
 FORALL OF THIS CHAPTER: “Genetics problems” referred to below typically include predicting genotypic and/or phenotypic ratios for offspring and/or inferring genotypes for parents; most questions for this chapter will be “genetics problems”. 
 A. Introduction to Genetics – Groups 1 and 2: The material in (Introduction to Genetics I.) in the notes is background material and definitions needed to understand and answer questions in other topic groups. Group 1: (6-9 questions) rules and terminology for examination of genetic inheritance 
 Mendel’s law of segregation; rules of probability; monohybrid crosses and test crosses; applying the law of segregation in genetics problems with one trait examined – questions based on following through a genetics problem (like we did in class); know how to set up and use a Punnett square following the laws of probability (it is worthwhile to become familiar with all 6 possible crosses/Punnett square outcomes); Page 4 of 8 know what a test cross is and how to do and interpret a test cross. 
 expanding the rules and terminology to follow two (or more) genes in a cross 
 Mendel’s law of independent assortment; dihybrid crosses; applying the law of independent assortment in 
 genetics problems with two traits examined – know how to calculate phenotype ratios with crosses involving two different traits (work out the crosses for each trait separately and multiply them together), and how to infer genotypes for parents from such crosses. 
 genetic linkage – know how to recognize genetic linkage and what it means (nearby genes on the same chromosome); calculate map distance between genes given data from a cross 
 Group 2: (6-9 questions) 
 Beyond simple genetics... – know the meaning of terms such as incomplete dominance, etc., and be able to 
 choose which term or terms apply to a given situation; know how human ABO and Rh+ or Rh- blood type is determined/work genetics problems for human blood type; know how to recognize when one or more of incomplete dominance/codominance, multiple alleles, pleiotrophy, gene interactions, epistasis, or polygenic inheritance are involved; know how to work genetics problems where incomplete dominance/codominance, multiple alleles, gene interactions, or epistasis is involved 
 Sex determination and sex chromosomes – know the meaning of terms in this section of the notes and human sex determination in those terms; know the hallmarks of X-linked traits in humans, and some examples (hemophilia, colorblindness); know how to work genetics problems that involve X-linked genes; know what dosage compensation is, ways that it is accomplished, and some consequences like Barr bodies and calico cats 
 Page of 8 B.Applied Genetics – Group 3: (3-5 questions) 
 Using genetics in breeding – know the terms and know what advantages outbreeding can have / disadvantages of inbreeding. Methods of studying human inheritance – know how to interpret a pedigree chart; know how a human karyotype is displayed and be able to interpret a karyotype for sex determination; know about the human genome (now sequenced; about 3 billion basepairs; about 25,000 genes) and use of the genome information for making it easy to study the genetic basis of disease, including identifying genes, analyzing sequence variation, and providing the means for more and more detailed genetic testing for individuals. 
 Examples of human genetic inheritance – know the examples used and how they are inherited (dominant, recessive, etc. – may extend to these X-linked traits covered: hemophilia and colorblindness); know about heterozygote advantages for sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis; know about gene therapy – what we hope will one day be possible and what went wrong with cystic fibrosis gene therapy trials. 
 Chapter 15: ChromosomalAbnormalities (3-5 questions) 
 Abnormalities in chromosomal number – know terms as always (especially nondisjunction); the typical result in humans for chromosome number aberrations and the exceptions (Down syndrome, sex chromosome aneuploidies); be able to recognize these human aneuploidies on a karyotype display 
 Abnormalities in chromosomal structure – know terms, understand how translocations (such as the cause of translocation Downs) can lead to duplications and deletions, how an inversion can lead to duplications and deletions, and what a duplication or deletion means on the genetic level; Page of 8 know what fragile site are and what they are associated with (fragile X syndrome, cancer) 
 Evolution Unit 
 Chapter 22: Evolution Into the Jungle: Chapters 1-3 (7-13 questions) 
 Historical perspective and Darwin’s voyage – general facts like ship name, visits to SouthAmerica and Galapagos Islands; influences that helped lead to the theory of evolution by means of natural selection (such as Lyell’s Principles of Geology, Malthus’Essay on the Principle of Population); wait on publication; roles of Wallace and Bates; names and publications years of Darwin’s two books that are covered in the notes/ slides 
 Darwin’s theory that evolution occurs by natural selection – know the four general observations that the model is based on, and meanings of the two major branches (microevolution and macroevolution) 
 Evidence supporting the theory of evolution – know the general lines of evidence and associated terms (the fossil record, comparative anatomy, distribution of plants and animals, similar patterns of development, and molecular comparisons); know the ways that fossils are dated; how radiometric dating works (including the examples covered); know how molecular comparisons are used to make phylogenetic trees and as molecular clocks, how to interpret phylogenetic trees, and what all of this has to do with divergence 
 The modern synthesis of evolutionary theory combines Darwin’s concept of natural selection with genetics – know what the synthetic theory of evolution combines, know about the key role of mutations and the nature Page 7 of 8 of mutations as mostly have no impact, sometimes being harmful, and even more rarely being beneficial 
 The central role of evolution in modern biology – no direct questions 
 Page 8 of 8


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