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Study Guide/ Notes For the 1st Exam Updated

by: Shantaea Jones Allen

Study Guide/ Notes For the 1st Exam Updated BIOL 156 - C01

Marketplace > Clarion University of Pennsylvania > Biology > BIOL 156 - C01 > Study Guide Notes For the 1st Exam Updated
Shantaea Jones Allen

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Update notes from the 1st two weeks of class
Principal of Biology II
Professor Steven Harris
Study Guide
biology exam
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shantaea Jones Allen on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 156 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Steven Harris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Principal of Biology II in Biology at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Biology II Notes Charles Darwin is the 1  to identify the process of evolution (Origins of Species) in 1859.   Charles Darwin was able understand evolution because he spent his adult life obsessed with  observing nature.  Adaptation: the way organisms are ideally shaped to enhance their survival and reproduction in  specific environments  Morphological or physiological  organism are mosaics Fitness: the relative ability to survive and create offspring   More fit = more surviving offspring  Less fit = fewer surviving offspring Natural selection: when organism adapt to their environment tend to survive and produce  offspring Drive evolutionary change:   Variation of Phenotypes ­ Different members of a population have all kinds of individual  variations  Variation are heritable   Population can have more offspring then resources­“struggle for existence”  Favorable traits will be more successfully during reproduction Different Modes of Selection  Artificial selection: selection by humans for particular trait in breeding programs,  systematically selecting which individual mate and increase frequency of desired  phenotype.  Disruptive/Diversifying Selection: change in population genetic in which extreme values  for a trait are favored over intermediate values  Stabilizing selection: genetic diversity decreases and population mean stabilizes in  particular trait value. Selects against extreme phenotypes and chooses the majority.  Directional Selection: an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes causing  alleles frequency to shift overtime in the direction of the phenotype  Sexual Selection: struggle between individuals of the same sex to possess the opposite  sex o Mating isn’t random Speciation 1 Biology II Notes The human species, Homo Sapiens, are the single remaining members of genus Homo.  Humans are specific type of organism that’s different from other from all other organism  out there. Species: a group of organism that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Reproductive isolation: Groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural population are  reproductively isolated from other such group, two population of the same species can no longer  mate together successfully. Post­zygotic: parent can form sex cells together, but offspring can’t produce their own offspring.  Pre­zygotic: the isolation happened between groups of the same species before and egg is  fertilized.  Allopatric speciation: one species diverges into two new species because geographic isolation Species can also diverge without being geographic separated by being reproductive  isolated, which is called Sympatric speciation.  Parapatric: hybrids between two species become reproductively isolation (rare) Evolution: change in heritable characteristics in a population of species across generation  Genetic change  Population is a group of individuals (same species) occupying an area  Population level  When a species evolves   It’s not progressive o There is no goal nor steady improvement or advancement  It is sematic   Change is slow & gradual  Punctuated equilibrium Population Genetic  Population:  a group of individuals of a species that can interbreed  Allele frequency: how often certain alleles certain turn up within a population  Mutation: when egg and sperm are formed through meiosis a mistake occurs during  copying process of DNA  Gene Flow: when individuals with different genes find their into a population and spread  their alleles all over the place  Genetic Drift: change in allele frequencies due to the chance isolation of a small group  from a large population Hardy­Weinberg Law: calculated change in the frequencies of allies in a population successive  generation 2 Biology II Notes The hardy­Weinberg model requires that the population is in equilibrium, thus  four condition must be met: 1. No individual join or leave the population (no genetic drift or gene flow) 2. Mating between different genotypes are random and equally likely (no  sexual selection) 3. One allele for a trait does not improve survival more than another allele  (no natural selection) 4. There are no genetic mutations Hardy­Weinberg Equation:  p +2 pq+q =12 2  p  is the percentage of the homogenous dominate individuals (AA):   √ p =p=¿  dominate allele frequency in population  2 pq  is the percentage of heterozygous individuals (Aa):  q 2  is the homogenous recessive individuals (aa):  √q =q=¿   recessive allele frequency in population Taxonomy: the class of science of living things Organism are arranged in Taxa – Groups of organism Binomial Nomenclature: a unique two part name for every species Naming species is important it’s an universal and stops confusion, Taxonomic System is used to classify all the organism on the Earth as known as the Phylogenetic Tree (evolutionary tree) A diagram or “tree” showing the inferred evolutionary relationship between  various biological species or other entities­phylogeny­based of similarities and  differences physically and genetically. 3 Biology II Notes Leanuis class organism based on body structure Evolution is what makes life possible. It allows organism to adapt to the environment as it  changes. It is responsible for enormous diversity and complexity of life. Evolution shows how  organism are difference from another and how they are the same. Types of Evolution Microevolution: the increase or decrease in the frequency of a gene population within a  population o Genetic change with a population; on a small scale; easy to demonstrate and test Macroevolution: – change in species in the composition of time o May result in new species o May result in the extinction of a species o Harder to demonstrate and  o Controversy and debates about the theory of evolution Convergence evolution: Common trait/adaption to different/unrelated organism Co­evolution: joint evolution of two or more species in close interaction o reciprocal interactions o species can be mutually exclusive; equilibrium, demise o directional result  o Directional selection 4 Biology II Notes Evidence of Evolution  Different types and forms of natural selection  Dealing with populations  Variation as a bell shape  Different proportions of population selected  DNA – language of DNA bonding  Fossils  Often incomplete records  Comparative anatomy  Homologues structures   Analogues structures Jean Baptiste Lamarckian views  Organisms change due to inner divine  Organism created separately  Inheritance of acquired characters Darwinian view was that organisms change due to external forces Malthus  Essay on the principle of population in 1798  Population increase geographically; food supplies arithmetically  Limiting factors  More organism are born than survived  Change occurs when natural selection favors adaptations Adaptations  Advantageous trait  Advantageous under environmental conditions (specially)  Advantage at different life stages (over time)  Enhance reproductive success  Alfred Wallace  Naturalist, explorer Watson and Crick  Discovered of DNA Why Sex?  Most animal have intercourse 5 Biology II Notes  Asexual is difficult in higher organism  Genetic recombination  Increased variation  Mask deleterious mutations  Viruses Viral Replication st Lytic and Lysogenic are two different types of method that viruses replicate. A virus 1  attaches  its self to the outer cell wall and release enzymes that weaken the cell wall. Depending on  weather not DNA or RNA virus, it injects double stranded DNA or single RNA into the cell  wall. The viral DNA or RNA enters the cell as prophage. Thus, becoming a part of the genetic  material­progeny particles are produced. Every time chromosome replicates during cell division,  prophage replicates as well, the cell doesn’t get destroyed but cell’s characteristic changes. The  viral genetic material remains in the cell permanently. Unless, prophage is stressed or mutated.  Or exposed UV radiation. The viral lysogenic cycle can change into the viral lytic cycle. In  which case, there will be symptoms of a new viral infection. Differences between Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles In the Lytic Cycle: 6 Biology II Notes  Viral DNA destroys Cell DNA, takes over cell functions and destroys the cell.  The Virus replicates and produces progeny phages.  There are symptoms of viral infection.  Virtulant viral infection takes place. In the Lysogenic Cycle:  Viral DNA merges with Cell DNA and does not destroy the cell.  The Virus does not produce progeny.  There are no symptoms of viral infection.  Temperate viral replication takes place. 7


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