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Ch. 5-8 study guide

by: InNicolewetrust

Ch. 5-8 study guide 1000


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These notes cover chapter 5-8, for our second exam.
Introduction to Anthropology
Joanne Phipps
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by InNicolewetrust on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Joanne Phipps in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 440 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Anthropology Exam 2 Study Guide     Chapter 5  1. According to Kottak, the concept of phenotypic adaptation is defined as:  ­ When adaptive change occur during an individual’s lifetime  2. A phenotype is:  ­ The observable expression of a genotype   3. Which of the following is a TRUE statement about the theory of Deep Time?  ­ The Earth was created by natural processes  4.  The many species of finches on the Galapagos Islands that came from one species of  South American finch are an example of:  ­ Adaptive radiation  5. Gregor Mendel's experiments with pea plants supported which of the following  statements?  ­ Traits are not blended together in the next generation, but function as pairs  6. The combination of Darwin's theory of natural selection with Mendel's work on inheritable  traits is known as:  ­ The Modern Synthesis/ Synthetic Theory of Evolution  7. If an individual's genetic traits are symbolized as "AA", then we would describe that  person as:  ­ Homozygous for that trait  8.  According to Jean Baptiste Lamarck, if giraffes stretched their necks and legs to  become longer, their offspring would:  ­ Be born with longer necks and legs  9. The concept of gene flow is defined as:  ­ The movement of traits between populations of a species by migrating individuals  10. Which of the following statements about mutations is not true?  ­ They decrease genetic variation    Chapter 6:  1. The name for the primate group that is composed of lorises, lemurs and tarsiers is:  ­ Prosimians   2. Which of these examples can be described as an anatomical analogy?  ­ Wings on insects and birds  3. Heterodont dentition refers to:  ­ A variety of types of teeth   4. According to the chapter on race and ethnicity, which term was considered synonymous  with ethnic group, but now has come to mean a state (centrally organized political unit)?  ­ Nation  5. According to the chapter on ethnicity and race, if a child has one black parent and one  white parent, in the US it would traditionally be identified only as black.  This is an  example of:  ­ Hypodescent   6. Many societies use race as a means of classifying diverse groups of people, but race  definitions and characteristics are often based on what that particular society believes is  important.  Therefore, there is no one definition of race, and so we describe race as a:  ­ Social construct  7. The caste system of India is considered a “closed system” because:  ­ You are both born into a caste and required to marry someone of the same caste  8. According to Bergmann's Rule, a species that evolves in a hot tropical environment will  likely have what type of body shape?  ­ Relatively short and stocky  9. Which of the following is NOT a common trait shared by all primates?  ­ Tails  10.  When one ethnic group overpowers another in terms of size and influence, it is called:  ­ Assimilation    Chapter 7:  1. Humans’ ability to independently control their fingers allows for what type of manual  grip?  ­ Precision grip  2. What part of the primate brain is enlarged in humans?  ­ Cerebral cortex  3. The most common form of social contact among primates is grooming.  Which of the  following is not a benefit of this behavior?  ­ It forces individuals in the group to stay in their respective places in the hierarchy  4. The fossil primate ​Aegyptopithecus  ​ is considered to be an early Catarrhine primarily  because of its:  ­ Monkey­ like skull  5. The fossil hominin ​Sahelanthropus tchadensis  ​ expressed a blend of apelike and human  traits; which of the following is not one of them?  ­ The placement of its foramen magnum at the back of the skull like a chimp  6. Many early hominins showed variation in body height and weight between males and  females, with the most common trend being that males were taller and heavier when  compared to females of the same species.  This phenomenon is also expressed in many  modern primate species.  This is an example of:  ­ Sexual dimorphism  7. What is the key feature that identifies a fossil primate as being a hominin?  ­ Walking bipedally  8. The fossil primate ​Carpolestes  ​ was the first to evolve which primate characteristic?  ­ Opposable digits  9. What feature of the spines in A ​ ustralopithecus afarensis​ and modern humans helps to  transmit weight from the upper torso to the pelvis and the legs, thus making it easier to  maintain balance with less stress on the body?  ­ The lumbar curve  10. The fossil primate ​Proconsul  ​ is considered an ancestor of modern apes because:  ­ It lacked a tail    Chapter 8:  1. According to the “fossil clock” created by Wolpoff and described in the chapter on Early  Hominins, at approximately what time did the earliest mammals appear?  ­ 10:45pm  2. The robust anatomical features of ​A. boisei  ​ evolved to help the species cope with which  of the following?  ­ A diet based on tough and fibrous vegetation  3. Which of our hominin ancestors was the first to migrate out of Africa?  ­ H. erectus  4. Which technological innovation allowed H ​ . erectus ​ to migrate into more temperate  regions in the Old World by providing a source of warmth and a way to soften tough  foods such as plant material?  ­ Fire  5. According to your textbook, which of the following hominins are thought to be the first to  make and use stone tools for butchering animals for meat and marrow?  ­ Australopithecus garhi   6. The reduction in the size of the teeth, lower jaw and chewing muscles in ​H. erectus​ is  likely a result of:  ­ The increase in meat in their diet  7. Which hominin is often compared to ​H. habilis  ​ because it existed in the same region,  shares similar features, and died out at about the same time as H ​ . habili​   ­ H. rudolfensis   8. According to the National Geographic article “The Other Humans: Neanderthals  Revealed”, the average Neanderthal needed about 5,000 calories a day to stay alive.  This high calorie requirement is believed to be the reason that Neanderthal women and  children:  ­ Joined in the hunt with adult males  9. The stone tool technology that is associated with H ​ omo habilis  ​ (Handy Man) is known  as:  ­ Oldowan  10. According to the chapter reading, we know more about our evolutionary past in Europe  than other parts of the Old World because:  ­ Archaeology and fossil hunting have been occurring in Europe longer than in Asia  and Africa    Additional Questions    1. Which of the following is not a distinguishing characteristic of an ethnic group?  ­ Skin color        2.  Which of the following is not a given reason why our ancestors became bipedal  ­ To grow bigger brains 


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