Study Guide for COMM 222 at UMass(2)
Study Guide for COMM 222 at UMass(2)
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Sources of economic support for media systems commercials license fees general tax revenues always the answer Types of financial arrangements in different systems and countries 0 Permissive govt plays little role in censoring TV content 0 Paternalisticgovt encourages programs to serve different groups of people in society uplifting shows that benefit the public 0 Authoritariantight govt control of media commercialform of advertising in which goods are promoted through the tv license fees pay money for every tv you own tax revenues subscriptions Economic structure of media system Structuralvisual what camera is doing length of time camera stays on screen Codes visual language closeups zooms fades all convey meaning Global distribution of programming 0 US public interest convenience or necessity 0 UK to inform educate and entertain o USSR politically clear purposeful prompt informative vivid amp comprehensible Cultural imperialism spreading knowledge Legal requirements of broadcast license holders must have a license cant be refused Implications of the public interestquot standard every decision is based on the public interest 0 FCC treats it as a compromise balance bw competing interests 0 System runs on private profit but serves public interest 0 Private profit wins when there39s a conflict bw public and private 0 Best way to serve public have a lot of competition 0 CONVENIENCE OR NECESSITY guiding gov39t standard EVOLUTION OF REGULATION FROM 1927 RADIO ACT gt 1934 COMM ACT gt 1996 TELECOM ACT Radio act of 1927 congress creates FRCallocates frequencies and ends chaos govt keeps control but no ownership govt standard public interest convenience or necessity 1934 Telecomm Act addsjurisdiction over interstate and foreign wire communication telephone creates FCC to replace FRC Wagner Hanield Bill voids all exisTing licenses allocaTes 25 of channels To non profiT uses such as educaTion religion labor eTc 1934 bill passed gt NOTHING educaTional on Tv 1996 Telecomm AcT I FCC rules and regulaTions Tv freeze Didn39T give ouT any new licenses or sTaTions for 4 years so ThaT They would avoid problems They had wiTh radio only 12 channels SixTh reporT and order FCC assigned channels geographically added 70 channels live TV Ampex creaTes video Tape prime Time colorsTereo sound I FCC commissioners I Self reguIaTion FCC chair Richard Wiley family viewing congress says They have To do a reporT on how FCC will reduce violence and obsceniTies on TV no inappropriaTe programs before 9PM CBS made family viewing hour from 89PM formal policy of TV neTworks I Public service obligaTions ascerTainmenT ciTizen group deTermines local problems in communiTy amp produces programs To Take care of iT noT much emphasis puT on equal employmenT opporTuniTies I Violence Indecency hildren39s educaTional reguiremenTs no inappropriaTe programs before 9 warnings on air and in lisTings CBS made family viewing hour I NeTwork sTandards and pracTices m FCC ThoughT ThaT broadcasT neTwork had monopoly of prime Time gtResulT 78 PM was Taken away from neTworks and filled w enTerTainmenT I FCC enforcemenTs and fines EnforcemenT bureau enforces Telecomm acT AdjudicaTion seTTles dispuTes If license holder isn39T doing a good job Their license can be Taken away I Parsimony principle program maTeriaIs should be used sparingly repeaTed as much as possible shared as widely as possible I Programming assumpTions I STraTegies Terms I SyndicaTion recording and selling To oThers FirsT run firsT Time a show is on The air 0 Off neTwork a rerun of a program InTernaTional syndicaTion same language counTries share programs wiTh each oTher Mexico and UK syndicaTe give programs To local TVs in The US NeTwork affiliaTe relaTions o AffiliaTe is a group ThaT broadcasTs someThing eiTher radio or TV 0 NeTwork is way To share info beTween Two sysTems 9 an affiliaTe carries The broadcasTs of a neTwork buT is NOT owned by Them IndependenT sTaTion sTaTus broadcasT someThing on Their own quotindiesquot Program clearance DeficiT financing Financial inTeresT Si syndicaTion rules FACTORS THAT DONOT AFFECT PROGRAMMING 0 Audience viewing paTTerns o STrucTure SeparaTion convergence of producTion and disTribuTion differences across counTries are diminishing bc of Technological geographical convergence BroadcasTinTerneT convergence The colliding of The inTerneT and broadcasTing meThods Audience fragmenTaTion division of audiences due To The wide specTrum of media ouTleTs Audience flow how many people are waTching a cerTain sTaTion aT a cerTain Time BroadcasTing one poinT To many poinTs NarrowcasTing spreading of info To a narrow audience noT The public ImplicaTions of new Tech for TargeT markeTing Ki adverTising ScaTTer markeTs ads lefTover noT invaluable Though UpfronT markeTs in spring 6070 ads for The following fall Reciprocal influences of Tech amp insTiTuTional policies Technologies don39T develop on Their own Their consTrained by insTiTuTions insTiTuTions deTermine when how Tech is used Tech creaTes and changes insTiTuTions insTiTuTions shape and consTrain Tech 0 Relationships bw FCC amp Congress comm IndusTries amp Tech ExecuTive m appoinTs commissioners no more Than 3 from one parTy judicial courT decides if decisions should be appealed legislaTive rule making license renewal is only parT where FCC can demonsTraTe some power License renewed every 3 years if licensee serves public inTeresT convenience or necessiTy aT renewal Time parTy of inTeresT can challenge licensee wiTh peTiTion To deny parTy wiTh license usually wins public has no say only compeTing broadcasTer can file someThing I RaTings used To decide faTe of program DeTermines how much sTaTions charge for adverTising Onlyprogram performance ThaT neTwork cares abouT RNTVHH I shares based on households using Tv HUT NHUT I FORMULA S I Audience measuremenT o DMAS designaTed markeT area Where majoriTy of radioTv viewing occurs 0 MeTers provide info abouT whaT sTaTion Tv is on for how long when whaT shows 0 Diaries people geT paid To keep Track of whenwhere They waTch Tv or lisTen To The radio EffecTs of diaries noT accuraTe 0 People meTers push buTTons cards elecTronic IDs signals when for how long people are waTching TV for 0 PPM porTable people meTer Replaces diaries Whenever you are near a radio iT will send in a signal To keep Track of whaT sTaTion you are lisTening To I BroadcasT and cable raTings o Tonnage how many people are waTching 0 Demographics who They are Agesex o ShifTs in cable regulaTions 0 Cable and saTelliTes o ShifTs To fiber and digiTal o Niche services MSOs and verTical inTegraTion Technical aspecTs of radioTv broadcasTing recepTion ResoluTion VBI blacker Than black name of signal when ampliTude on screen is higher Than black OOOOOOOOOOO CaThodes Wave frequencies as frequency increases wavelengTh geTs shorTer Long wavelengTh low frequency shorT wave high frequency Always Travel aT The same speed Channel bandwidThs sizes carrier freq sideband channel ModulaTion process of puTTing inTelligence on a carrier wave 0 1ampliTudal AM Freq is consTanT amp is modulaTed o 2frequency FM AmpliTude is consTanT freq is modulaTed o 3pulse code modulaTion requires less power I Less inTerference PropagaTion way waves are generaTed o 1 skywaves can Travel long disTances I ShorT waveHFbounce back all The Time I AMbounce back only aT nighT 2 direcT wavesbounce sTraighT off anTennae Don39T require much energy To generaTe Follows line of sighT of horizon 3ground waveswaves Travel along curve of earTh Used for AM radio Travels along ground Carrier waves no informaTion inTelligence SpecTrum demands and behaviors DevelopmenT in DTV HDTV DAB DAT DigiTal compression Telephone cable convergence New delivery sysTems ImplicaTions for programming CurrenT evenTs Commercial raTings InTerneT disTribuTion 7070 rule FCC can regulaTe cable when cable available To 70 HH when 70 of Those subscribe A la carTe cable pricing unbundling programs WriTers sTrike is a sTrike for The wriTers To geT more money or benefiTs
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