Study Guide for GEO-SCI 103 at UMass
Study Guide for GEO-SCI 103 at UMass
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Ekman Transport and WindDriven Circulation recall how the prevailing winds move p 120 121 the prevailing winds create a drag wind stress on the ocean surface moving the surface water The momentum gained at the surface is transferred deeper but energy is lost with increasing depth 0 what is Ekman transport The surface current is 45 degrees to the prevailing wind Adding all the vectors magnitude and direction of the Ekman Spiral yields a net current direction that is 90 degrees to the prevailing wind Called a composite current and it controls the motion of the surface ocean are near surface water masses in uenced by the Coriolis effect The Coriolis effect in uences all freely moving objects including the motion of uids such as air masses and water masses 0 what are the subtropical gyres Gyres large horizontal current system They transport warm waters poleward along the western edges of the ocean basins and cool waters equatorward along the eastern sides 0 what are geostrophic currents Flow around subtle hills and valleys on the ocean surface 0 western boundary currents e g Gulf Stream in the N Atlantic or the Kuroshio Current in the N Paci c vs eastern boundary currents eg Canary Current in the N Atlantic or the California Current in the N Paci c how are the western and eastern sides of ocean basins different What causes western intensi cation Western Boundary Currents Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic Brazil Current in the South Atlantic Kuroshio Current in the North Paci c East Australian Current in the South Paci c Agulhas Current in the Indian Ocean 0 These waters play an important role in transporting tropical heat to the cooler high latitudes 0 Western intensi cation the offset dome causes water owing on the western side of the dome to ow faster than the eastern side Upwelling 13613 7 0 What special conditions cause coastal upwelling Occurs when prevailing winds blow roughly parallel to the shore and Ekman transport pushes surface waters away from the coast 0 Where does divergence of surface water masses occur and why see p 132 133 change in the direction of the Coriolis effect at the equator causes divergence of the surface waters 0 Why does upwelling result in high biological productivity Divergence of water masses causes upwelling of deeper waters which causes deeper nutrientrich waters to come up and replace displaced surface waters 7 results in high biological productivity Downwelling amp Thermohaline Circulation 138139 130131 recall what the permanent thermocline and pycnocline are where they form and why 130 131 permanent thermocline is the interval of the water column where temperature decreases rapidly with increasing water depth Pycnocline is the interval through which seawater density increases rapidly with increasing water depth thermohaline circulation the formation and ow of density driven deep water currents is the densitydriven circulation of the ocean below the pycnocline both temperature and salinity are important in the production of bottom deep and intermediate water masses 0 when where and how do deep and bottom waters form ie what circumstances would cause a surface water mass to sink Water becomes more dense by cooling evaporation and seaice formation Downwelling is the sinking of dense waters parcels of water sink to their level of neutral Buoyancy below the solarwarmed surface waters producing intermediate deep and bottom water masses Bottom and deep waters form only in the Atlantic today 0 where do water masses gain their characteristics A water mass is an identi able body of water that can be recognized by physical and chemical properties 7 temperature salinity density dissolved gases dissolved nutrients how do oceanographers recognize water masses 0 are deep water masses in uenced by the Coriolis effect Deep water masses like nearsurface currents are in uenced by the Coriolis effect resulting in strong western boundary currents western boundary currents why do deep water currents ow fastest on the western sides of ocean basins As deep waters ow equatorward beneath the pycnocline they hug the lower continental slopes and rises on the western sides of the ocean basins Global Conveyor 140 141 what is the quotglobal conveyor Describes the complete circuit of global ocean circulation involving horizontal ow of surface and deep waters and the vertical ow of downwelling and upwellings why do nearsurface water masses move independently of bottom deep and intermediate water masses Near surface water masses move because of wind driven circulation waters below the pycnocline permanent thermocline move by density driven circulation They move separately because the pycnocline separates them downwellings and upwelling provide this process what are the 4 parts or 4 sides of the global conveyor 1 downwelling in the Atlantic 2 therrnohaline circulation below the pycnocline cold deep waters ow from the Atlantic into the Indian and the Paci c ocean basins 3 upwelling in places along the eastern edges ofthe ocean basins coastal upwelling and regions of surface water divergence at the equator and in subpolar waters especially in the Paci c 4 wind driven circulation within and above the pycnocline warm nearsurface waters ow from the Paci c into the Indian and then into the Atlantic ocean basins to replace the cold dense waters that sink in the northern North Atlantic and the southern South Atlantic Waves 142 143 how are waves formed wind waves swells are produced day to day by changes in the weather mostly by the energy put in by storms intemal waves move along the interface of subsurface waters of differing densities rouge waves are when a tall wave is produced from multiple wave crests and wave trains wave characteristics what is wave base and what is the surface mixed layer is the maximum depth at which a water wave39s passage causes significant water motion For water depths larger than the wave base bottom sediments are no longer stirred by the wave motion above deep water waves vs shallow water waves when does a wave no longer behave like a deep water wave shallow waters encounter friction with the sea oor slowing the waves down Wavelength20 greater then the depth L 20 deep water depth is greater then L2 wave velocity celerity is controlled by wave period T and wavelength L when a wave doesn t behave like a deep water wave is when the wave approaches the shore and grows in height and eventually topple over what is ocean swell little loss of energy more regular shape dispersion sorting of wave trains so if moves faster interface patterns waves from dif directions passing thru each other from swell generated in other storms are waves in uenced by the Coriolis effect Why or why not NO waves represent the transmission of energy not mass since waves don t involve mass transfer they are not affected what happens to a wave in shallow water waves break and incoming waves set up long shore currents parallel to the shore what is celerity and how is it measured is wave velocity C LT velocity is waver periodwavelength wave period is the time it takes 2 successive crests pass a fixed point what are tsunamis What kind of wave are they Why are they so destructive It is a series of waves wave train that is created when a large volume of a body of water is rapidly displaced Tsunamis have a small wave height offshore and a very long wavelength Grow in height as the approach the shore they are able to cross entire oceans without great loss of energy Tides 144 145 what are the tides and what causes them gravitational attraction of the moon and sun cause tides tides are alternating rise and fall in sea level with respect to the land produced by the gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun why do we observe the moon in different phases ie 1st quarter full moon 3rd quarter lunar day is 24hrs and 50 min takes 2953 days to make a revolution around the earth The moon rises 50 min later each night why are there 2 tidal bulges one bulge is drawn toward the moon and the second same size develops on the opposite side ofthe earth due to the centrifugal force of the rotating earthmoon system what are spring and neap tides neap tides occur every other week with the lSt and 3rd quarter moon and sun position minimal tidal range lower high tide and higher low tide Spring tides gravitational force of moon and sun are in the same direction resulting in higher high tides and lower low tides Maximum range 2 spring and neap tides a month equilibrium theory vs dynamical theory of tides equilibrium theory predicts two high tied and two low tides a day as the earth passes under the two tidal bulges in its daily rotation dynamical theory accounts fir the observed patterns of tidal movement semidiumal diurnal and mixed tides what is the tidal period semidiumal tide is a tidal period of 12hrs 25 min 7 east coast diurnal tide is when there is once one daily tidal cycle tidal period of 24hrs 50 min gulf of meXico mixed tides is either one or two tidal cycles a day most common west coast rotary standing waves amphidromic point and progressive tides in the ocean basins rotary standing waves is the pattern of tidal bulge movement and when a tidal bulge is confined to a particular region Progressive tide is when the tidal bulge moves down progressively the ocean basin 7 eX tides migrating
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