Biology Study Guide Chapter 1
Biology Study Guide Chapter 1 BIO 101N
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mackenzie Taylor on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 101N at Central Michigan University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Biology 101N Study Guide - Biology is the scientific study of life. All living things share a set of characteristics. Nonliving things never display any characteristics simultaneously. - All living things consist of cells. Some living organisms have just one cell, others can have trillions of cells. Levels of Biological Organization: (Listed largest to smallest) - Biosphere: consists of all life on Earth and every environment that supports life, from the oceans to the atmosphere. - Ecosystem: includes all living organisms in one particular area (examples: tundra, savannah, grasslands) and nonliving components such as soil, air and sunlight. - Community: consists of all the interacting organisms occupying an ecosystem (examples: plants, animals, and microscopic organisms) - Population: group of interacting individuals of one species (example: a herd of elephants) - Organism: individual living being Life can be studied on a hierarchy of levels from the large to the small. Biologists study life on all scales. (Listed largest to smallest) - Organ system: a group of organs that work together to perform a certain task that is vital to a body system in order for the body to function. - Organ: consists of multiple tissues that work together to perform a specific task (example: the heart pumps blood through the circulatory system) - Tissue: integrated group of similar cells that cooperate to perform a certain function (cardiac epithelial tissue allows blood to flow freely through the surface) - Cell: fundamental unit of life; nothing smaller than a cell is capable of having all of life’s properties - Organelle: component of the cell that performs a specific function (an epithelial cell’s nucleus houses DNA) - Molecule: group of atoms bonded together - Atom: fundamental unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element capable of displaying properties of that particular element - Discovery science: provides data that can be used to describe the natural world - Hypothesis: proposed explanation for an observation - Theory: much broader than a hypothesis; has not been shown false and it already explains many observations - Theories are supported by observations and further by experimentation and research - Controlled experiment: test that is run multiple times with one variable changing and all other variables held constant Two Kinds of Cells Prokaryotic cell: no nucleus, no membrane enclosed organelle, no DNA contained within an cellular structure, unicellular - first appeared 3.5 billion years ago (example: bacteria and archaea) Eukaryotic cell: has a nucleus, DNA is housed in a membrane enclosed nucleus, evolved prokaryotic cells 2.1 billion years ago (example: plants, animals, fungi and protists) Genes: units of hereditary information made from the same molecule Four building blocks of DNA: A, T, C and G The Domains of Life - Domain: the unit in which life on Earth is classified - Kingdoms: smaller groups subdivided from a domain Example: The domain Eukarya is subdivided into the kingdoms of plant, fungi and animal - all of the eukaryotes that don't fit into those three kingdoms Evolution - Evolution is the core theme of biology. From molecules to ecosystems, those things can be studied through evolution. - The evolutionary view of life was formalized in 1859, when Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species. One of Darwin’s ideas was called natural selection: Individuals with traits that make them well suited to complete for available resources will have more offspring. Adaptation is the accumulation of favorable traits in a population over time. - Darwin noted that for millennia humans had been substituting our desires for the effects of the natural environment, thereby enforcing unequal reproductive success on species with which we interact, thereby enforcing unequal reproductive success on species with which we interact - this is called artificial selection (in a nutshell, selective breeding) - Exponential growth: every species has the capacity to increase its numbers rapidly - Resources: the environment has an essentially fixed amount of resources - Competition: the overproduction of organisms relative to available environmental resources leads to competition among individuals for those limited resources Organisms Interact With Their Ecosystems By - The flow of energy and the recycling of nutrients - Every ecosystem is powered by a continuous flow of energy - Producers: photosynthetic organisms - plants - Consumers eat the producers - Chemical recycling occurs continually in an ecosystem
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