Study Guide for POLISCI 101 at UMass
Study Guide for POLISCI 101 at UMass
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Date Created: 02/06/15
American Politics Final Review 1 Politics a The struggle occurring win political actors who strategically use the resources at their disposal in order to achieve wealth status or power b The struggle over who gets what when and how i Con ict ii Competition iii Compromise iv Cooperation c Struggle over i Wealth 1 Material manifestation of money and is connected w to the various ways in it is produced Jobs capital land etc ii Status 1 Position of an individual or group in society iii Power 1 Ability of an actor to make another actor do what they would otherwise not do 2 Government a Institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled Individuals create enforce laws and occupy offices c Monopoly on the legitimate use of violence i Weak vs strong government ii Can imprison us curtail certain behaviors take lives of citizens take property restrict movement iii Afghanistan weak iv US strong 3 Public Goods a A good or service that is provided by the government because it either is not supplied by the market or is not supplied in sufficient quantities b Nondivisible c Nonexcludable d Clean air clean water reworks natl defense 4 Free Rider Problem a Those who enjoy the benefits of collective goods but did not participate in acquiring them b Benefitscosts c Group projects taxes 5 Popular Sovereignty a A principle of democracy in which political authority rests ultimately in the hands of the people b The idea of placing power in the hands of the people c Popular sovereignty and political equality make politicians accountable to the people 6 Equality of Opportunity a A widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential b Each person should be given a fair chance to go as far as his or her talents will allow 7 Equality of Results a Form of social justice seeking to eliminate inequalities in material condition between individuals in a society i Equalizing income by giving more money to poorer individuals at the expense of wealthier individuals ii Hard to achieve equality of results considering that people have different talents and skills iii Communism and socialism equality of outcomes 8 Democracy a A government in which the opportunity to participate in governmental decisions is widely shared b Necessary and sufficient conditions i Popular sovereignty ii Political equality iii Liberty c Types i Direct democracy ii Representative democracy 9 Articles of Confederation a America s first written constitution served as the basis for America s national government until 1789 b Congress was given the power to declare war and make peace to make treaties and alliances to coin or borrow money and to regulate trade with the native Americans Need 23 majority Disputes needed to be solved by congress no president No national army relied on states to provide Not sufficient enough to hold a nation together very impractical More power to states then federal government Pl3979 10 Connecticut Compromise a The Great Compromise b Agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population 11 35th Compromise a Agreement reached at the constitutional convention of 1787 that stipulated that for the purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats every slave would be counted as threefifths of a person 12 Federalism a System of government where power is divided between central or national or federal government and regional or state government by constitution such that national and state government are granted sovereign power i Not one type of federalism ii Increasing power of national government iii Increasing power of states b Requirements i Constitution ii Elected officials iii Raise revenue iv Independent authority c Dual Federalism 17891937 i National governmentassisting government protecting government from threat economy ii State governmentconcentrated on state local iii Consequences 1 Slaveryrespect for state rights allowed slavery to continue a Led to civil war 2 Jim Crow iv Growing national power v Cases 1 McCulloch V Maryland 1819 a State attempted to impede operation of a branch of the second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in MD b Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause i Federal government tot pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution s list of express powers provide those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers of congress under the Constitution c court determined that congress had the power to charter the bank i supreme court held that the constitution was a social contract made with the people of the united states at the Constitutional Convention ii federal government is supreme iii congress must act under explicit implied powers of the constitution iv Maryland may not taX the bank without violating the constitution 2 Gibbons V Ogden 1824 a The power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to congress by the commerce clause of the United States Constitution d Cooperative Federalism 19371975 i great depression and new deal ii federal govemtment can use its money to persuade states to achieve national goals iii more involved in education local estate conomies iv inability of states to deal with economic downturn v Cases 1 Wickard v Filme 1942 a Agricultural adjustment act b Restrictions placed on amount of what that could be grown c Dramatically increased the power of the federal government to regulate economic activity Vi Categorical Grants 1 More money provided to state and local government on condition that funds be used on programs created by federal government 2 New Deal e Regulated Federalism 1960 i Imposes legislation on states without given them proper means to do it ii Take away or threats to take away money iii Legal drinking age and highway money iv Unfunded Mandates 1 Regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government 2 States are forced to achieve federal goals but provides no money to do so 13 Full Faith and Credit Clause a States within the United States have to respect the public acts records and judicial proceedings of other states 14 Devolution a States gaining power relative to federal government b Changes in congress i 1994 republican controlled senate and house ii states rights iii federal government has overstepped its boundaries on states iv states given control of some federal policies welfare c block grants igive states money in order to achieve goal d revenue sharing e Supreme Court Cases i US v Lopez 1994 1 Gun free school zone Act 2 Guns a federal crime in school area ii US v Morrison 1 Violence against women act 2 Gave them the ability to try their attacker in federal court 15 Civil Liberties a Similar to a contract outlined in constitution restricts and directs how the government interacts with its citizens b Refer to protections from improper government intervention tyrannical governments c 2 types of civil liberties i Substantive l restraints on what government can or can t do 2 lst amendment Bill of rights ii Procedural l restraints on how government should act with citizens 2 61h amendment iBill of rights 16 Clear and Present Danger Doctrine a Test to determine whether speech is protected or unprotected b Based on its capacity to present a clear and present danger to society 17 Fighting Words Doctrine a Speech that directly incites damaging conduct 18 Fundamental Freedoms Doctrine a Strict scrutiny i Burden of proof on government to show law is constitutional ii Law must achieve compelling government interest iii Least restrictive means to achieve interests b Texas V Johnson 1989 i Invalidated prohibitions on desecrating the American ag in force in 48 ofthe 50 states ii Flag burning was protected speech under the lSt amendment to the United states c Dambrot V Central Michigan i Free speech 19 Establishment Clause a First Amendment clause that says Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion This law means that a wall of separation exists between church and state b Separation of church and state 20 Lemon Test a A rule articulated in Lemon V Kurtzman that government action toward religion is permissible if it is secular in purpose neither promotes nor inhibits the practice of religion and does not lead to excessive entanglemen with religion b Secular purpose nonreligious Can not advance or inhibit one religion or religions in general d Can not entangle public of cials with religious activities 0 21 Free Exercise Clause a The First Amendment clause that protects a citizen s right to believe and practice whatever religion he or she chooses Protects the right to be a nonbeliever c West Virginia State Board of Education v Bamette 1943 i Permits schools to expel students for refusing to salute the ag d Neutrality Test i Employment Division v Smith 1990 ii General law or neutral law 22 Privacy a Freedom from government intervention in some private aspect of our lives that does not harm other individuals b Birth Control i Griswold v Connecticut 1965 ii Privacy 151 3rd 411 and 91h amendments c Abortion i Roe v Wade 1973 ii State involvement in 2quotd and 3rd trimesters d Homosexual relations i Bowers v Harwick 1984 ii Lawrence v Texas 2003 e Right to privacy not in constitution but it has been read into the constitution If interpreted correctly 23 Civil Rights Final pillar in our political system Obligations to vs protections from Groups V individuals 13thh and 15Lh amendment 14Lh amendment i Equal protection ii Equal treatment 1 Restricts states from treating people differently regarding race and ethnicity iii Due process iv Dual citizenships rap96x 24 Plessy v Ferguson 1896 a Upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations under the doctrine separate but equa b Separate but equal remained standard doctrine in Us law until its repudiation in the 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown V Board of Education 25 Brown v Board of Education 1954 a Education is a political right b Racial segregation deprives children c Declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional 26 Affirmative Action a Range of policies particularly in employment and education which take into account gender and race in their policies Rectify effects Undo current discrimination Increase diversity and produce leaders Legal i Civil Rights Act title VII 7 no employment and education shall discriminate ii 14Lh Amendment iii Courts f Reverse Discrimination 99957 27 Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964 a Outlawed unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public 28 Public Opinion a Summary of balanced or affective beliefs about an obj ect i Considerations what you think about the object ii How do you feel about it b Distribution of individual preferences within a population on matters relevant to government and politics c Opinions differ on different dimensions i Negative or positive ii Intensity love hate iii Information iv Saliencecentrality v Stability d Action Pregnancy i Intense informed salientcentral stable opinion ii More likely to act politically on their opinion iii Determines range of opinions in system 29 Reception Acceptance Model a Reception i Exposure ii Attention iii Comprehension b Acceptance i Sources ii Strength of preexisting attitudes New information causes changes in opinion Paying attention are you able to understand new information Does new info come from trusted sources of info Does public accept new info rm 99 30 Agenda Setting a The massnews media have a large in uence on audiences by their choice of what stories to consider newsworthy and how much prominence and space to give them b Salience transfer ability of the mass media to transfer issues of importance from their mass media agendas to public agendas c Ability of media to in uence the public into viewing what the most important issues of the day what media selects as most important d Don t hear about global warming not considered important for the day 7 therefore the public doesn t know about it e Ethiopian Famine i 19841986 so much attention given to it because of Tom Brocov because he made it the top story on the news 31 Framing a Ability of media to select certain issue and understanding of it that they know the US public will approve of b Spy Plane c Focus on different interpretations elicits different responses from public 32 Priming a What stories are news worthy focus on particular stories one similar to the way we evaluate candidates b George HW Bush i After Gulf War had lightest approval rating ii Growing unemployment rates iii Public was basing the next election on the bad economy therefore in uencing what Public thought was important and their decisions on candidates 33 Solidary Bene ts a Selective benefits of group membership that emphasize friendship networking and consciousness raising 34 Purposive Bene ts a Selective benefits of group membership that emphasize the purpose and accomplishments of the group 35 Political Ef cacy a The ability to in uence government and politics 36 Parties in Government PIG a The ability of party leaders to direct both the everyday workings of congress and the behavior of rank and file members in electoral offices to follow and implement party policies and directions b Functions i Coordinate activities ii Set agenda iii Discipline members c Decline i Rise of mavericks ii Increasing power iii Increased polarization 37 Parties as Organizations PAO a Ability of party to recruit nominate and elect candidates to political office thru mobilization of voters b Functions i Recruit nominate elect mobilize voters c Decline i Past mobilization of voters 1 Pendelton Act 1883 2 Hatch Act 1939 ii Nominating candidates 1 Rise of primaries and super delgates 2 Self selection of candidates iii Elections of candidates and in politics 1 Hard money 2 Soft money a Growths b Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act 2002 3 Consequences 38 Party in the Electorate PIE a Extent of loyalty to a particular party within the electorate b The extent or power of partisan loyalty in the electorate c 35 Democrats 23 Republicans 36 independents d Declinerise of independents i Alienation ii Increasing education iii Media iv Loaning e Increase party polarization i Vote choice ii Polarization iii Social welfare issues iv Racial cultural issues V Blue states V Red states 39 Special Interest Group a Designated and bounded group which they seek to benefit b Seek to provide concentrated benefit to group and disperse costs we all pay costs of benefit c Farm subsidies i Increase amount farmers can sell their products based on supply and demand ii Consumers pay more for milk eggs etc 40 Public Interest Group a Diverse and unbounded b Represent all of us c Create collectiveuniversal benefits and concentrated costs d Green peace i Provide a clean environment 1 Economic industry 41 Political Action Committees PACs a Private group that raises and distributes funds ofr use in election campaigns b Raising and distributing money to candidates and to parties c Can not give more than 500 per candidate per election d Can only give 15000 to parties in a year 42 Pocket Veto a Automatically triggered even if president doesn t sign the bill to be vetoed b Last ten days ofa session in essence a veto 43 Line Item Veto a Allows president to veto speci c parts of a bill but now can only veto the whole bill 44 Executive Orders a Directives to government employees that carry the weight of law even though they are not approved by congress Must provide constitutional basis for these orders Congress can overturn executive orders if it counters congressional policy Emancipation proclamation Truman s integration of the military 99957 45 Signing Statements a A written pronouncement issued by the President when signing a bill into law Legal interpretation for bureaucracy to follow Not binding do change law but in uence how bureaucracy interprets d Types i Constitutional 1 Law is unconstitutional and provides a guide on how it should be interpreted 2 Belief that the law is somehow unconstitutional ii Political 1 De ne speci c vague terms in a law in order to guide implementation of a law e Bush and Signing Statements i Constitutional ii McCain Detainee Amendment 1 Torture of detainees under American Control a Prohibits cruel treatment of detainees inside and out of the US iii History in US 1 over 20 years there were 345 signing statements 2 Bush had 161 statements in 8 years 3 Challenged over 1200 provisions of law 09quot a Affirmative action b Immigration c Whistle blower 46 Honeymoon Effect a Legitimacy and election b Congressmedia 47 Rally Around the Flag Effect a Reception acceptance model 48 Go Through Congress a Persuasion i Has to persuade members of his cabinet that what he wants is what they want b National constituency c Vantage points Powers Prestige Popularity Patronage i Things that are associated with only the president ii Uses these to persuade to support the pres iii can use these in ways other public officials can t 49 Going Public a Takes policy and agenda directly to the American people b Promotes himself and his policies by taking his case directly to the American people i He creates a lot of support for his policy 1 Public opinion shifts towards his advantage ii Public puts pressure on members of congress to support the president 50 G0 Around Congress a In uences how laws and policies are i Interpretation ii Implementation 51 G0 Under Congress a Intelligence agencies b Iran contra i Involved selling of weapons by US by National Security Council 1 Oliver North 2 Sold weapons to Iran 3 Gives money to contras rebels in Nicaragua ii Used to hopefully motivate Iran to release hostages c Illegal wiretapping 52 Open Rules a More time for oor debates provide germane amendments that can be added 53 Closed Rules a Limited time and limited amendments that can be added 54 Filibuster a Senators given unlimited time to talk and can use this power inde nitely b Longest libuster 7 Strum Thurman Spoke for 24 hours and 18 minutes i Civil Rights Amendment 55 Advertising a Key to reelection 56 Credit Claiming a Big dig i Porkbarrel project ii Cost tax payers 146 billion iii Tip O Neil tunnel b Member of congress attempting to convince people that he is the sole reason and solely responsible for something good that comes out of Washington 57 Position Taking a Take a strong position on an issue that their constituent has an interest in b Demonstrate that you are working in favor of their constituents and working hard for them i Dick Cheney and Wyoming 1 Votes against head start 2 Against MLK Jr Day 3 Because these were popular in Wyoming 4 Demonstrate he is ghting for them 58 Pork Barrel Projects a Pass porkbarrel legislation for reelection b Appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed but that are created so that local representatives can win re election in their home districts 59 Paradox of Public Opinion a High levels of reelection of members b Public opinion towards congress is extremely low c 71 of Americans disapproved of the job that congress is doing d 69 approved of the job performance of their congress member rep 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 Gerrymandering a Salamander like districting b Appointment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political group MajorityMinority Districts a A gerrymandered voting district that improves the chances of minority candidates by making selected minority groups the majority within the district Term Limits a Legally prescribed limits on the number of terms an elected official can serve Principal Agent Problem a Treats the difficulties that arise under conditions of incomplete and asymmetric information when a principal hires an agent b Problem two may not have the same interests while the principal is hiring the agent to pursue the interests of the former Red Tape a Excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision making Original Jurisdiction a The authority to initially consider a case b Distinguished from appellate jurisdiction i the authority to hear appeals from a lower court s decision Power of the Sword Judicial Review a The power of the courts to review and if necessary declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional b The supreme court asserted this power in Marbury v Madison c Marbury V Madison 1803 i First time Supreme Court declared something unconstitutional and established the concept of judicial review ii Helped define the checks and balances of government Federalist 78 a Essential to our democratic system b Frees judges from political pressures c Judicial decisions are more pure because they are not pressured by president people or congress d Court less dangerous of all institutions president and congress i Can not initiate action ii Lack powers of pursue or sword I No power over budget unlike congress 2 No power over enforcement over any policies iii Legitimacy and courts 1 Legitimate 2 Right to make ruling 3 Ruling is fair and correct 69 Judicial Restraint a Judicial philosophy whose adherents refuse to go beyond the clear words of the Constitution in interpreting its meaning Deferment c Stare decisis i Standing by that by which is decided ii Respect judicial policies d Why restraint i Lack expertise ii Bad for democracy iii Legitimacy e Activism i Not always deferential ii Overturn precedent iii Why 1 Insulated court 2 Help disadvantage groups 70 Judicial Activism a Judicial philosophy that posits that the Court should go beyond the words of the Constitution or a statute to consider the broader societal implications of its decisions 71 Plain Meaning a Any law is constitutional as long as it is in line with the words of the constitution b Problems i Vague ii New issues 72 Original Intent a New issues b Democratic intent 73 Living Constitution a Constitution is a living evolving document b Adapts to contemporary circumstances c Takes in account the moral lessons the US has learned throughout its history Interpretation of constitutionality of laws e Problems i Subjective 74 Statutory Interpretation a Interpretation and applying legislation b Either plain and straightforward or ambiguous or vague 75 Stealth Candidates a
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