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UNL / Biology / MBIO 213 / What is the meaning of rapid depolarization?

What is the meaning of rapid depolarization?

What is the meaning of rapid depolarization?

Description

School: University of Nebraska Lincoln
Department: Biology
Course: Human Physiology
Professor: Tony zera
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Physiology, A and P, and Biology
Cost: 25
Name: Chapter 7 reading, Monday's lecture
Description: Hi! Here are my reading notes for chapter 7. I didn't get a study guide typed up but these will definitely suffice for study material. Thanks!
Uploaded: 02/08/2016
10 Pages 119 Views 5 Unlocks
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"}ul.lst-kix_po420juioag-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_po420juioag-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-7 0}ul.lst-kix_po420juioag-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_po420juioag-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_po420juioag-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_po420juioag-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_po420juioag-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_46c20fb22bhh-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_46c20fb22bhh-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-6 0}ul.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_46c20fb22bhh-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qux5pf26esr7-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9fc5p0s498q3-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_9fc5p0s498q3-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_v3h151ix0dkj-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-3 0}.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-5}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-1}.lst-kix_riguzcvy71w8-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_6j6wps9ct34p-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_v3h151ix0dkj-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6j6wps9ct34p-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-4 0}.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_pkpkiq6xxlfl-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mwg7qair2fjt-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_pkpkiq6xxlfl-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6j6wps9ct34p-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-6}.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-0}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-8}.lst-kix_mwg7qair2fjt-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-0,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_k3a2mdiq10gy-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_qofjetm1r3hq-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c2kx9ijx6je5-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w4z8cf935no6-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w4z8cf935no6-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_w4z8cf935no6-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c2kx9ijx6je5-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_w4z8cf935no6-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w4z8cf935no6-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w4z8cf935no6-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qofjetm1r3hq-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_w4z8cf935no6-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w4z8cf935no6-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w4z8cf935no6-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-2 0}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-1,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-2,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-3,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-4}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-5,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-8}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-4,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-6,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-6 0}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-8,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-7,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-0}.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-1}ul.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u03lcpwvxr36-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_u03lcpwvxr36-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_u03lcpwvxr36-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-4}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-1 0}.lst-kix_u03lcpwvxr36-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_u03lcpwvxr36-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_u03lcpwvxr36-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-7 0}ul.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u03lcpwvxr36-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_u03lcpwvxr36-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_u03lcpwvxr36-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-4}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-0}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-8}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-4 0}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-6 0}ul.lst-kix_7inl07bosdtf-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_7inl07bosdtf-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7inl07bosdtf-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7inl07bosdtf-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7inl07bosdtf-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_7inl07bosdtf-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7inl07bosdtf-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7inl07bosdtf-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_riguzcvy71w8-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_7inl07bosdtf-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_riguzcvy71w8-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_mwg7qair2fjt-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rl7yubh1fd3t-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_mwg7qair2fjt-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_mwg7qair2fjt-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_mwg7qair2fjt-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_c2kx9ijx6je5-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-4 0}.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_c2kx9ijx6je5-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_mwg7qair2fjt-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_k3a2mdiq10gy-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_k3a2mdiq10gy-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_k3a2mdiq10gy-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c2kx9ijx6je5-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k3a2mdiq10gy-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_c2kx9ijx6je5-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7nofzi2pwdjt-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2oh5963lpzsa-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_c2kx9ijx6je5-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_wboync72x3u7-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wboync72x3u7-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wboync72x3u7-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_3gj8tdlx3s0f-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hijp04w3gcrc-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hijp04w3gcrc-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-5}.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-2,lower-roman) ") "}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wboync72x3u7-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k3a2mdiq10gy-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5u2e8ka41g4t-7}.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-3,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-3}.lst-kix_wboync72x3u7-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xcoz6yvtsnbp-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_fwdvrwwrhid5-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hlqc2pi5q8r3-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-2 0}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-0,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_po420juioag-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_po420juioag-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_po420juioag-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-1 0}.lst-kix_pkxf12pg0wpc-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_riguzcvy71w8-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_d5xm02x4y7ex-8,lower-roman) ". 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CHAPTER 6 We also discuss several other topics like In what year columbus died?

MEMBRANE POTENTIAL (MP)

  • Inside cell = negative
  • Outside cell = positive
  • Charge difference = potential difference

We also discuss several other topics like What are the two reasons why rome was so successful?

Key Concepts: We also discuss several other topics like Who is known as rome's first emperor?

  • Na+ /K+ pumps move Na+ and K+ against their conclusive gradients. They are responsible for setting up the charge difference.

  • Potential difference also made possible by  impermeability of membrane to ions

  • Negative ions (anions) are fixed within cell- can’t get out , positive ions can’t get in

  • K+ accumulates within cell because its attracted to anions inside

  • Potential difference is measured in voltage

We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of the normal distribution?

Ion Equilibrium - Nernst equation takes into account.

  1. Steepness of conclusive gradient
  2. Membrane permeability

  • If membrane potential reached a certain valve, movement of this ion would cease (aka equilibrium)
  • Concentrations on both sides of membrane to ions, would be stable

   If you want to learn more check out What does high­-context culture mean?

    Don't forget about the age old question of Who issued a papal edict condemning luther?

     If membrane freely permeable to ion, mp would be this #

Resting potential

  • Cell not producing impulses -70mV  for neurons

Role of Na+/ K+ pumps 

  • 3Na + out , 2K + in
  • Electrogenic: produces charge differences and maintains relatively constant resting membrane potential (RMP) and ICF ion cons.

CHAPTER 7

Neurons and Supporting Cells

  • CNS and PNS
  • Neuron: basic structural/ functional unit
  • Functions: Respond to physical and chemical stimuli by conducting electrochemical impulses
  • Enable perception stimuli and reaction to it
  • Cannot divide

Parts of Neuron

  • Cell body: nutritional center -food molecules -Nissl bodies - synthesise membrane proteins.
  • Neuron cell bodies, clustered in groups in CNS (nuclei)
  • Neuron cell bodies, clustered in groups in PNS (ganglia)
  • Dendrites: Thin tree branches
  • Axon: Conducting wire impulse travels away where it begins
  • Initial segment

Nerves Impulse Path

  • Dendrites- cell body- stonal hillock
  • Initial segment- nodes of Ranvier - atom terminal
  • Organelles are sent into axon by axonal transport (fast and slow)  can occur going toward cell body or away from it

Toward: retrograde

Away: Anterograde

Classification of Neurons and Nerves

  • Sensory = afferent - towards CNS
  • Motor = efferent = out of CNS
  • Interneurons - entirely in CNS, connection

2 types of Neurons

  • Somatic: Both reflex and voluntary ( conscious)

               Control (skeletal muscles)

  • Autonomic : Subconscious , involuntary (cardiac and smooth muscle, glands)

     

2 Types of Autonomic Motor

  • Sympathetic: emergency
  • Parasympathetic: norma;, relaxation

Types of Neurons (Classified by # of processes coming off the cell)

Neuroglial Cells: support  and protect neurons

Schwann Cells (PNS): wrap around atom to form myelin sheath

Satellite Cells (PNS) ; support cell bodies in PNS

Oligodendrocytes (CNS): 

Microglia (CNS)

Astrocytes (CNS)

Ependymal Cells (CNS)

  • Microglia came from bone marrow (hematopoeza) and kill pathogen, removing debris.; like the white blood cells of CNS
  • Myelin Sheath: insulating covering

                        Small diameter axons usually unmyelin

                         Larger = myelinated

  • Schwann cells wisp themselves around axon, space between schwann cells (gaps in myelin sheath) called nodes of Ranvier (NOR)
  • If NOR didn’t exist, the whole axon would be myelinated - no impulse
  • In CNS, oligodendrocytes do the same thing
  • Schwann cells play the important role in repairing an axon in PNS (no schwann cells in CNS; no repair; eat debris)
  • Protects growing axon
  • If neuron is dead, this can’t happen

Electrical Activity in Axon

  • Voltage gated Na+  and K channels (only in excitable cells)
  • Changes in membrane charge seen by oscilloscope
  • Resting membrane potential (rmp)
  • Neurons = -70 mV
  • Membrane potential changes when membrane is altered to become more permeable (i.e channels open) in response to stimulus
  • Ion diffuses down electrochemical gradient

Know Terms:

Depolarizing: spike or rise in charge

Repolarizing: Bringing back to normal

Hyperpolarizing: going below normal

  • Relative refractory period happens

Action Potential (AP)

  • Positive feedback= move + move rapid  =depolarization

  Step 1) Na+ channels open- slow depolarizing open- move channels- move -move= explosive  

               depolarization

               K+ channels delayed; -k+ diffuses out of cell, restoring to -70 mV and going below

              (hyperpolarizing)

Na+/ k+ pump restores gradients  

AP’s are all or none, ,same strength of impulse no matter what stimuli strength is. What changes is the frequency. Strong stimulus = High frequency

Refractory Periods

  • A new AP can’t produced until the last one finishes (everything set back up again)
  • Set up time: Refractory period

Absolute: no AP possible. Na+ ion channel inactivates            

                 Ball and chains

                 Lasts for certain time

Relative: Refractory period

                Some Na+ reactivated  K+ channels still open (hyperpolarization)  

                Stronger that normal stimuli needed  to produce another AP

                             

               

Maximizing Rate of AP propagation

  1. Increasing diameter of axon maximizes rate of conductance down axon in two ways
  1. Cytoplasmic : resistance decrease as volume increases (more room for ions to move
  2. Increased surface area has move channels (more membrane)

                        Trade -off wide axons are fast conductors due to lower internal resistance.

                   2) Myelination: increases conduction speed in similar diameter neurons -seems

                       Paradoxical because counts intuitive 

                                    a)  Myelin: Insulator; no ion flux possible, No AP

                                    b)  Nodes of Ranvier gaps myelin sheath where ion flux can occur, high

                                         Gated Na+ channels

                                    c) Allows saltatory conduction AP’s generated at adjacent nodes --fewer

                                        APs but faster conduction down axon

                                     (+) change moves faster in cytoplasm than through membrane; distance

                                         b/t  nodes limited by diffusion distance of Na+

                                    d) Saltatory conduction differs from the standard mechanism of AP

                                        Production discussed above- but only in the hip-hopping nature of AP

                                        Production

                   

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