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UCR / History / HIST 10 / What antonius declares when he dies?

What antonius declares when he dies?

What antonius declares when he dies?

Description

School: University of California Riverside
Department: History
Course: World History: Prehistory to 1501
Professor: Steve chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: history and UCR
Cost: 25
Name: HIST10 WK 5 lecture notes
Description: The Fall of the Republic 1st Triumvirate 60BC Ca. Pompey Magnus M.Licinnius Crassus C.Juilius Caesar 59 Gaul 58-50 Julia 54 Parthia/Carrhae 53 Civil War #2 49-45 Pharsalus 48 Ptolemy XIII Cleopatra Caesarion M.Junius Brutus C.Cassius Conginus Ides 3/15/44 M.Antonius C.Octavius Philippi 42 Actium 31 Republic 509-31BC Empire 31BC
Uploaded: 02/08/2016
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The Fall of the Republic


What antonius declares when he dies?



Tuesday,  February 2, 2016 1:45 PM

1st Triumvirate  

60BC

Ca. Pompey Magnus

M.Licinnius Crassus

C.Juilius Caesar

59

Gaul

58-50

Julia  

54

Parthia/Carrhae  

53

Civil War #2  

49-45

Pharsalus  

48

Ptolemy XIII

Cleopatra

Caesarion

M.Junius Brutus

C.Cassius Conginus

Ides  

3/15/44

M.Antonius

C.Octavius

Philippi  

42

Actium  

31


Who is known as rome's first emperor?



If you want to learn more check out Suppose that a cow is considered sick if her temperature is in the top 5% of all temperature readings. find the temperature value that corresponds to a cow is sick.
Don't forget about the age old question of What does high­-context culture mean?

Republic

509-31BC

Empire 31BC If you want to learn more check out Who published the pamphlet to the christian nobility?

60BC

• Political alliance  called the 1st Triumvirate was formed

○ Consisted of 3 Roman senators:

60BC

• Political alliance  called the 1st Triumvirate was formed

○ Consisted of 3 Roman senators:

▪ Gnaeus Pompey Magnus

□ Rome's most successful general

▪ Marcus Licinius Crassus

□ Rome's wealthiest man

▪ Caius Julius Caesar

• Typical of Roman politics; no republicans/democrats


Who is ptolemy's sister?



• Senators helped each other out

• Pompey and Crassus help Julius Caesar get elected in 59BC ○ They believed Caesar could get things done

▪ Caesar would prove this by passing favorable laws to his allies We also discuss several other topics like What are the elements of abnormality?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is it called when a character shares their thoughts and feelings with the audience?

▪ We also discuss several other topics like What are the major periods of the media?

Once he had helped Crassus and Pompey, he needed to worry  about his future

Caesar passes a law that makes him governor of 2 Roman  provinces: Southern France & Northern Italy

• All Roman governors wanted their own province

• They could do anything to that province

○ Usually extort as much money as possible

• They were given an army to keep the locals under control ○ This army could be used to conquer new territory

58BC

• Caesar leaves for his provinces and almost immediately invades Gaul • Spends 8yrs campaigning in Gaul

• Conquers all of Gaul by 50BC

• Gallic War

• As a result of these conquests,

○ Caesar was now incredibly rich

○ He had developed into a great general

○ He was now Rome's most popular general

○ By 50BC, Caesar has a large, well-trained, experienced army ▪ The soldiers are super loyal

During this decade, these 3 men continue to work together; by the end of the  decade, the alliance  begins to fall apart

The first cause happened in 54 when Julia (Caesar's daughter and only child)  dies in childbirth

○ Julia was married to Pompey

▪ Most marriages in the upper classes were often arrangements ▪ When alliance  broke  up, usually the marriage broke up as well ▪ But this was different because the two actually fell in love

 

53BC •

              dies in childbirth

○ Julia was married to Pompey

▪ Most marriages in the upper classes were often arrangements ▪ When alliance  broke  up, usually the marriage broke up as well ▪ But this was different because the two actually fell in love ▪ But then she dies in childbirth; so does the baby

▪ This removes a very important link bt Caesar and Pompey

Crassus becomes jealous of the military success achieved by both Caesar and  Pompey

• He wants his shot at military glory

• He leads an invasion of the empire of Parthia 53BC

Defeated in Battle of Carrhae and is captured and killed; head was chopped off  and used as a prop in a play

2 guys left: Caesar and Pompey

• Pompey grows increasingly jealous of Caesar's rising fame

• Pompey had been Rome's most famous general, now it is Caesar 49BC

• Pompey joins with the senate in an attempt to bring Caesar down • Pompey issues Caesar to give up his provinces and his army; give up his power • Unwilling to accept defeat

• Rather than give in, Caesar starts a civil war to protect his power ○ Because of Marius, the soldiers are more loyal to Caesar than the senate ○ This is Rome's second civil war

The senate is shocked that Caesar started a civil war; they thought he would  give in because Caesar only had one army, the senate and Pompey had 4 (in  greece, turkey, north africa, spain; however no army in italy)

When Caesar attacks, he takes them by surprise and causes them to flee to  Greece where their army is at

• Caesar doesn't go down without a fight

48BC

• Caesar takes his army to Greece  to confront Pompey and the senate • The Battle of Pharsalus is fought  

○ Caesar defeats Pompey and the senate

Pompey is forced to flee; he goes to Egypt instead of one of his other  

armies

▪ (Independent) Egypt is the last surviving Hellenistic kingdom ▪ The king of Egypt at this time was Ptolemy XIII

▪ Ptolemy knew Egypt was weak against Rome

▪ He did not want an excuse for them to come and attack Egypt He heard what happened at Pharsalus and correctly guessed that Caesar  

is taking over the Roman Empire

○ Once Pompey lands in Egypt, he is assassinated by Ptolemy's agents

▪ Ptolemy knew Egypt was weak against Rome

▪ He did not want an excuse for them to come and attack Egypt He heard what happened at Pharsalus and correctly guessed that Caesar  

is taking over the Roman Empire

○ Once Pompey lands in Egypt, he is assassinated by Ptolemy's agents

Caesar arrives in Egypt and Ptolemy gives Caesar the head of Pompey  

thinking it would make him happy because his enemy was dead

○ He is not happy; he claimed he wanted to spare Pompey ○ Caesar is now so mad, he kicks Ptolemy off the throne of Egypt ○ Ptolemy disappears a short time later

With Ptolemy out, Caesar puts Ptolemy's sister, the famous Cleopatra, on  

the throne of Egypt  

▪ At the age of 19, she becomes queen of Egypt

• Before Caesar returns to the civil war, he starts seeing Cleopatra; bf/gf

45BC  

Eventually she gives birth to a baby boy names PtolemyCaesarion (Caesar's only child and only son; future king of Egypt)

• Caesar wins the civil war  

• He returns to Rome

• Makes himself dictator for 10yrs

• Claimed he would fix the republic and then he would step down FEB 44BC

• Makes himself dictator for life

• Becomes clear  that Caesar has no intention of giving up  absolute power

Rumors around Rome say that Caesar had intentions of making himself  "Rex"/King of Rome, divorce his Roman wife, marry Cleopatra and make her his  queen, and then leave the whole world to their son

Not surprisingly, the senators did not want to see this happen; because if Rome  becomes a monarchy, the Republic will not be restored,  

A conspiracy is formed to kill Caesar, led by Marcus Junius Brutus and

Caius Cassius Conginus

○ They led a conspiracy to kill Caesar even though they were good friends ○ They decided in order for the Republic to live, Caesar had to die 44BC

• The Ides of March

○ The senate was to meet in the theatre of Pompei just outside the city ○ Caesar enters the senate meeting alone w no bodyguards

When he enters the senate, he is confronted by Brutus, Cassius and the  

others

○ They pull out knives and stab Caesar to death

After Caesar was killed, they all run to the form, still holding the knives covered  in Caesar's blood and tell everyone that they have restored libertas (liberty) •

At that moment, they realize  they might've made a mistake; most of these  eole don't want the senate back in chare the were ha under Caesar's  

others

○ They pull out knives and stab Caesar to death

After Caesar was killed, they all run to the form, still holding the knives covered  in Caesar's blood and tell everyone that they have restored libertas (liberty) •

At that moment, they realize  they might've made a mistake; most of these  people don't want the senate back in charge; they were happy under Caesar's  rule

Instead of the expected celebrations, the people greet the news with cold  silence.

• Brutus, Cassius and the others eventually leave Rome and go out to the East The assassins having fled, the door was open for two of Rom's most famous  characters: (Become very powerful very quickly)

• Marcus Antonius (Marc Antoni)  

○ Caesar's second in command

When Caesar was killed, Caesars most important supporters (soldiers)  

transfer their loyalty to him

• Caius Octavius (Augustus)

○ Was only 18yrs old when Caesar was killed

Had no political/military experience  but he was Caesar's closest male  

Roman relative;  Caesar's great nephew

▪ When Caesar's will was read, most of his wealth went to Octavius

Octavius was officially adopted as Caesar's son and nothing is left  for Cleopatra or her son

42BC

▪ Becomes powerful very quickly despite his youth

Eventually Antonius and Octavius join together and seize control of the  Western half of the empire including Rome meanwhile Brutus, Cassius and the  others had seized control of the Eastern side.

• Battle of Philippi

Antonius and Octavius defeat the armies of Brutus, Crassus, and the other  assassins

○ Brutus and Crassus commit suicide

• Antonius and Octavius split the empire amongst themselves ○ Antonius takes East

○ Octavius takes West

• Octavius gets power-hungry and wants to take Antonius's half ○ He wants to find a reason for war and Antonius provides many

After Philippi, Antonius heads to the East to rule his provinces and  becomes reacquainted w Cleopatra and falls madly in love with  her; so in love, Antonius divorces his Roman wife and marries  Cleopatra

Not acceptable behavior in Roman times to divorce and go  marry a foreign woman

What makes it even worse, Antonius's ex-wife is Octavia  

becomes reacquainted w Cleopatra and falls madly in love with  her; so in love, Antonius divorces his Roman wife and marries  Cleopatra

Not acceptable behavior in Roman times to divorce and go  marry a foreign woman

What makes it even worse, Antonius's ex-wife is Octavia  (Octavius's sister)

▪ Cleopatra gives birth to twins: boy+ girl

Antonius declares that when he dies, all his land would go to his  children and Cleopatra

Unacceptable to give Roman property to be controlled by a  foreign woman

Octavius starts a campaign against Cleopatra, calling her a  monster/witch; and she had cast a spell over Antonius (how else  would a Roman give away Roman property to foreign)

31BC

Battle of Actium

He gets the crowd so fired up, he declares war on Cleopatra  and Egypt bc he doesn’t want to make it look like a civil war  bt Romans; he knows Antonius will step in and that is what  he wants

▪ The navy of Octavius destroys the navy of Antonius and Cleopatra ▪ They flee to Egypt

▪ Antonius commits suicide

▪ Cleopatra tries to make moves on Octavius; doesn’t work ▪ Cleopatra commits suicide

As a result of Actium, Egypt became part of the Roman empire and  he now rules all of Rome

• Marks official end of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire ○ Difference: empire was a monarchy (rule by one man) • Octavius (Augustus) is known as Rome's first emperor

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