PSY 438: Sport and Exercise Psychology Exam 1 Guide
PSY 438: Sport and Exercise Psychology Exam 1 Guide 438
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Benny Ye on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 438 at University at Buffalo taught by Joyce Lacy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Sport Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Two types of Sport Psychologist Clinical Educational counseling, clinical, abnormal, physical education training, knowledge of personality, kinesiology, sports medicine Early period Sport Psychology: 1893 for 20 years Period 2: 1921- 1938 Period 3: 1939-1965 research programs, academic discipline period 4: 1966-1977 became a separate field, consultant work with athletes, period 5: 1978-2000 exercise psychology, using standards and working licenses were made for the field Scientific Method uses systematic, control, empirical, & critical filter of knowledge Theory is a set of related facts that try to describe, explain and predict phenomenon Study Experiment ` not manipulating variables manipulating variables (IV,DV) Ethical standards include competence, scientific responsibility, respect for human rights & dignity, social responsibility psycho physiological social psychological cognitive behavioral underlying physiological complex interaction of the how one's recurring processes of brain to social environment and the thoughts may lead to explain behavior makeup of the individual certain behaviors All theories try to explain behavior psycho trait situational interactional phenomenological dynamics several stable trait behavior favored similar to unconscious that make up determined approach by interactional but forces e.g. one's by Sp. Psy. includes person's mainly the id personality environment combination of own self- and - too many behavior and understanding is superego adjectives trait relevant - ego is that describe - time conscious trait consuming Difficult to test Perfection paradox - setting one's standard and holding oneself to those standards - perceive others to hold high standards for the individual - holding others to high standards Maladaptive Adaptive very debilitating when standard not met, better learning and coping mechanisms, exercise burnout, adaptive goal orientation To measure personality, one must take into account traits and the state, as well as using intra-relational measures because there is no universal personality suited to sport excellence contain measurement errors always ensure confidentiality No single definitive personality profile but certain personalities of athletes tend to gather in specific sports Morgan's Mental Health Model which includes 6 emotional states Tension, depression, anger, confusion, vigor, fatigue, Type A personality Type B personality competitive nature, impatient, they may focus less on winning or losing than their verbally aggressive Type A counterparts, and more on enjoying the game exercise and self esteem regardless of winning or losing. positive correlation cognitive strategies such as internal imagery, positive self talk A model of motivation competitive scenario motive type alone on team approval oriented worse performance better performance rejection threatened better performance worse performance What is motivation? Combination of one's direction and one's intensity in their efforts function of individual traits, tendencies, function of the environment/situation, function of both factors Guideline 1 always look at the trait & the situation context of athletes fundamental attribute error: we do it all the time when we see negative behavior of others - usually easier to change the situation than the personality of a person Guideline 2 most people have many motives, sometimes the motives conflict - the self-determination theory: competence, autonomy, & social connectedness - the motives are flexible and can be identified by observing informally - motives different across cultures, time, guideline 3 change the environment - provide recreational & competitive - adjust individuals within the group, give them a supporting role or active role, sense of belonging guideline 4 influence motivation by action - one's action can indirectly influence others (pretend to be okay so that they are not discouraged) guideline 5 change undesirable motives - internal vs. external - Behavior modification means to reward desirable & punish other not good ones Realistic view of motivation - physical injuries or psychological factors must be considered Achievement motivation and competitiveness: person's strive for task success, persistence, pride in what we do - competition brings in the social comparison & evaluation of others Theories of achieving motivation 1. Need achievement theory (interactional theory) personal, situational, result, emotion, achievement o personality traits o % of success depends on ones skill and the skill level of competitors o incentive value of success is greater when task is more difficult o ability to cope with failure positive, losing is research opportunity o high achievers focus more on emotions such as pride vs those whom focus on shame o the interaction of the other 4 elements 2. attribution theory: stability, locus of causality, locus of control internal(increased stable(increased expectation) within control(more pride/shame) vs. vs. unstable(decreased motivated) vs. out of external(decreased expectation) control(less motivated) pride/shame) 3. achievement goal theory: Achievement goals: outcome oriented perceived ability: high or low perception of ability Approach goal: harder to maintain motivated by beating others, TYPE A I want to beat others task(mastery) oriented I want to be the best I can be relative to previous performances Avoidance goal: strong work ethic development I do not want to lose to others control of one’s abilities I do not want to less than my best Social goal oriented seeking approval, being liked by others, enjoy participating achievement behavior task choice performance resilience EFFORT 4. competence motivation theory: Entity view: seeing the big picture, ability is fixed little change Incremental view: seeing the next task as a step to success, ability is flexible and dynamic 1. Competence and sense of worth is a motivating factor 2. competence and sense of control indirectly influences motivation 3. competence differs among individuals plus across (social, physical, and academic) Stages of Developing Achievement motivation 1. autonomous competence: Children (<4) self-testing 2. social comparison: teenager self-comparison 3. integration: young adult to later adulthood self & social comparison Professional practice: Recognizing both internal and external factors for achieving behavior what is the goal? what are the attributes? what kind of situation? what stage of development? Learned helplessness Implications of professional practice: Emphasize task goals because of its adaptability Focus on approach goals monitor the criticism or feedback monitor and change bad attributes Arousal & Stress & Anxiety arousal is both physiological and psychological - not exactly inherently pleasant or unpleasant - works on a continuum (coma to manic episode) anxiety(cognitive and somatic) is a negative emotional state e.g. sense of worry and has physical side effects (stomach hurts, heart beat rapidly) State Trait anxiety as an ever changing perception of stimuli as threatening or not mood state 3 components: cognitive, somatic, and concentration 2 components: cognitive and are all affected somatic How to measure? psychological signs: sense of worry, sense of fear, sense of anger physical signs: cardiogram, sweating, clammy hands self-report measures: measures overall anxiousness - one for cognitive and one for somatic stress: an imbalance between demands and how to react to the demands are not balanced and the failure of such leads to consequences, consists of 4 interrelated stages 1. Stage 1: Identify the stress o stress is physical or psychological 2. Stage 2: Perception of demand o whether the stimuli is viewed as threatening or not 3. Stage 3: stress response o cognitive or physical response 4. Stage 4: behavioral consequence o improved or deteriorated performance Situational sources of stress stems from that event's importance or the uncertainty of the event both have a positive correlation, as in the more important or more uncertain the bigger the stress response personal sources: trait anxiety is personal low self esteem -> low confidence Reduce stress by increasing self esteem Social Physique anxiety: stressful because it says something about one's personality disposition more susceptible for women Theories of anxiety or arousal on performance 1)Drive Theory anxiety or state arousal goes up as performance goes up - just not true 2)Inverted U hypothesis (Dome) contains three levels: under arousal, optimal arousal, over arousal - is middle point always optimal 3)Individualized zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) Athletes have optimal, but individual zones of performance. Zones are within a bandwidth, not just a point - does not explain why zones are good or bad 4)Multidimensional cognitive arousal : negative correlation (cognitive stress & performance) somatic arousal inverted U correlation ( performance divided into 3 zones) - cognitive stress is always bad 5)Catastrophe low cognitive anxiety: Inverted U correlation High cognitive anxiety: the threshold after the optimal level is a catastrophe When catastrophe happens, sometime is needed to regain concentration 6)Reversal theory depends on the person's perception of anxiety Pleasant(excited) or unpleasant(anxiety) the continuum of going from pleasant to unpleasant can shift quickly 7)Anxiety direction & intensity (velocity is a vector) Intensity: how much Direction: interpretation of whether thoughts facilitates or debilitate - seeing thoughts as facilitating, developing a emotional state of persistence Arousal is multi-faceted - physical activation - interpretation of arousal it is always a mix of both are these mixes are task specific and individual specific Optimal cognitive arousal or optimal physiological arousal have separate optimal levels so therefore the combination of both is what is more important, not just one of them Why arousal affects one's performance? when aroused, blood pumps faster, muscle can tense up, heart rate goes up, Psyching up can cause over arousing and loss of concentration (distracted ) Change the attentional field of one's perception too board too narrow moderate, optimal Practice Implications: Using imagery and warm up to get arousal - athletes are usually positive minded - they focus on what they can control - resilience in face of adversity Coaching strategies may need to be individualized Recognize the physiological signs of anxiety
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