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BIOL 120 Unit 1 Exam Study Guide

by: Julia Delaluz

BIOL 120 Unit 1 Exam Study Guide Biol 120-001

Marketplace > Towson University > Biological Sciences > Biol 120-001 > BIOL 120 Unit 1 Exam Study Guide
Julia Delaluz
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This study guide I have made covers everything we have learned so far that will be on the test! Happy studying :)
General Biology
Prof Partain
Study Guide
BIOL 120, Biology, Principles of biology, partain, Study Guide, Unit 1, Exam 1, review
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Delaluz on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 120-001 at Towson University taught by Prof Partain in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Towson University.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
BIOL 120 Principles of Biology (Dr. Partain) Unit 1 Exam Study Guide  BY: Julia Delaluz What Is Biology?  The Study Of Life ­ What Is Life? o Individuals:  1. Organized cells/molecules – taxonomy 2. Get/use energy 3. Genetics information, DNA/inheritance 4. Continuity­ same molecules­ unity of origin 5. Reproduce­ sexual/asexual 6. Homeostasis o Groups: 7. Diversity 8. Evolution How Scientists Figure Things Out 1. Observation: initially, scientists make an observation that leads them to… 2. Hypothesis: a testable and falsifiable question that you want to answer  3 .     Experiment: set of actions/observations designed to test a hypothesis  Manipulating the environment one variable at a time  Helps determine what specific variable is involved o Control: for unbiased results…  is the subject or group similar to experimental group, except  the control doesn’t get the experimental treatment  Other possibilities:  Eliminates as many alternative hypothesizes as possible  Random assignments, no systematic differences  Double­Blind Experiment 4. Collect Data: info collected by scientists during hypothesis testing  Statistics: summary of accumulative data o It will determine if it is ‘statistically significant’ which means it  represents the true difference o Sample size: the bigger it is, more likely you will see true effects 5. Determine Results: hypothesis is either supported or rejected (cannot be proved)  But, you can gather enough evidence to determine whether the hypothesis is  reasonably true  “Truth” in science: What we know and understand based on all available  information Correlation Studies  Placebo treatments are impractical or unethical in many cases, so use this  Generated by scientists who collected data on subjects’ psychological state levels   For human studies Scientific Theory  Scientific theory: if an idea has an abundance of evidence, it may be called this o Well­supported by observation and experiment from several different,  independent lines of research. Can explain how the natural world works. Nonscientific Theory  same as hypothesis­ an untested idea  The Germ Theory of Disease o 1800s­ scientists noted relationship between disease and specific micro­ organisms o since then, many experiments and observations all support the idea that  micro­organisms cause disease o Primary Sources: Publishing Scientific Results­ online, news articles, etc.  Unscientific Information  Anecdotal: based on actual experience, not exp. data, ex: media, public sites Water  Water is a polar molecule o Hydrogen bonding btw water molecules­ polarity­ drawn together  Polar:  has an  asymmetrical  distribution of electrical charge. These molecules (glucose) will dissolve readily in water  Non Polar: symmetrical distribution of electrical charge. These (lipids) will not dissolve in water  Hydrophobic: compounds that do NOT dissolve readily in water (oil)  Hydrophilic: DOES dissolve readily in water (salt) o Hydrogen bonds form, breaking the ionic bond  Amphathic: molecule having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions Physical Properties of Water 1. Is liquid at moderate temperatures  2. Cohere (stick to each other) creating surface tension 3. Adhere (cling to other substances, wetting them) 4. Universal Solvent: dissolves other substances 5. Can hold a lot of heat relative to it’s volume 6. Water expands when frozen, and is less dense than liquid, so it floats The PH Scale Most life functions here 0_______________________7________________________14       0­7 = Acidic                        7­14 = Basic (Alkaline)  Measures the amount of hydrogen in solution  Hydrogen = acid  Hydroxide = base Organic and Inorganic  Organic: contains carbon, living or has lived previously  Organic Chemistry: o Carbon is basis for organic molecules (life)  Can form 4 strong bonds with other atoms MACROMOLECULES  4 groups­ Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, & Nucleic Acids 1. CARBOHYDRATES  Sugars and starches  Made from monosaccharides (glucose), disaccharides (sucrose)  Complex Carbohydrates: o Monomer  glucose (used for quick energy) o Polymers (Polysaccharides):  Glycogen: energy storage, stored in liver, muscle, fungi  Starch: energy storage, stored in plants  Also function as structure­ o Structural Polysaccharides:  Cellulose: in plant cell walls  Chitin: exoskeletons of insects, lobsters, fungi  Peptidoglycan: bacteria cell walls (this may be extra credit)  Complex vs. Simple Carbs: o Starches (complex) nutritionally complex vs. refined carbs o Sugars (simple) natural vs. refined o The more refined the carb, the faster glucose is released into the blood,  causing peaks and drops in blood sugar/less stable energy 2. PROTEINS    Functions:  o Form structural parts of cells & larger structures o Control cell processes o Messenger o Antibodies o Speeds up enzymes o Act as receptors on cell surfaces o Does NOT provide much energy!  Proteins make  o Amino acids (20 total) MONOMER, combine to make… o Polypeptide: POLYMER­ long chains of amino acids  Shape of protein molecule determines its function. Form=Function ENZYMES & METABOLISM  Metabolism: all chemical reactions that happen in cells in your body  Enzymes: regulate metabolic reactions; break down food, & liberate energy stored in chemical bonds.  o Work for one specific purpose, ex: lactase breaks down lactose 3. LIPIDS  Fats and Oils, all insoluble, 3 types: A. Triglycerides:  In vegetable oil & animal fats  Body converts calories not used into these, stored in fat cells B. Steroids  Unlike others, no fatty acid tails!  In animals, fungi, plants  Cholesterol: used to build cells & some hormones  C. Phospholipids  Saturated (fatty acids bound to as many H atoms as possible)  Vs. Unsaturated (has carbon to carbon double bonds) 4. NUCLEIC ACIDS  DNA: stores hereditary info, POLYMER o Double stranded o Phosphate­sugar backbone  RNA: helps DNA process info, POLYMER o Single stranded o made from nucleotides (MONOMER) CELLS  The basic unit of life  Cell Theory:  o 1. All known living things are made up of cells o 2. Cell is a structural & functional unit of all living things o 3. All cells come from pre­existing cells by division  PARTS OF A CELL o Plasma Membrane ­ protection & communication, all have it o Nucleus – protects DNA, all but bacteria have it o DNA – holds hereditary info, all have it o Mitochondria –holds and releases energy, ATP, all but bacteria have it o Chloroplasts – site of photosynthesis, plants and some bacteria have it o Ribosomes – protein production, all have it o Lysosomes – cell cleaners, digesters; animals & some plants have it o Cytoskeletal Elements – structure & movement, made of protein, all o Cell Wall – structure, all but animals have it Animal vs. Plant Cells  Plants have chloroplasts and cell walls, animals do NOT  *Passive Transport: NO ATP required o Solvent moves with concentration gradient  Simple diffusion (osmosis)   Facilitated diffusion­ requires ATP  *Active Transport:  ATP required o Solvent moves against concentration gradient  Exocytosis – exit, requires ATP  Endocytosis – entering, requires ATP *Metabolism  All the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy.  Needs… o 1. Water: acts as solvent o 2. Enzymes: controls all reactions o 3. Calories: provides fuel for reactions *Digestion The breakdown of food products into smaller and simpler compounds. Needs… o 1. Macronutrients o 2. Micronutrients o 3. Enzymes *Respiration Series of metabolic reactions where glucose is broke down and energy is released  for use by the cell and life processes, more than just breathing o 1. Oxygen: keeps respiration moving, without oxygen, respiration stops,  no energy is generated. Death within minutes! o 2. Glucose: most common requirement o 3. Enzymes *Enzymes  Require:  o Specific temperature – if temp is too high, enzyme breaks down o Vitamins: necessary in order to function


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