BIOL 120 Unit 1 Exam Study Guide
BIOL 120 Unit 1 Exam Study Guide Biol 120-001
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Delaluz on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 120-001 at Towson University taught by Prof Partain in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
BIOL 120 Principles of Biology (Dr. Partain) Unit 1 Exam Study Guide BY: Julia Delaluz What Is Biology? The Study Of Life What Is Life? o Individuals: 1. Organized cells/molecules – taxonomy 2. Get/use energy 3. Genetics information, DNA/inheritance 4. Continuity same molecules unity of origin 5. Reproduce sexual/asexual 6. Homeostasis o Groups: 7. Diversity 8. Evolution How Scientists Figure Things Out 1. Observation: initially, scientists make an observation that leads them to… 2. Hypothesis: a testable and falsifiable question that you want to answer 3 . Experiment: set of actions/observations designed to test a hypothesis Manipulating the environment one variable at a time Helps determine what specific variable is involved o Control: for unbiased results… is the subject or group similar to experimental group, except the control doesn’t get the experimental treatment Other possibilities: Eliminates as many alternative hypothesizes as possible Random assignments, no systematic differences DoubleBlind Experiment 4. Collect Data: info collected by scientists during hypothesis testing Statistics: summary of accumulative data o It will determine if it is ‘statistically significant’ which means it represents the true difference o Sample size: the bigger it is, more likely you will see true effects 5. Determine Results: hypothesis is either supported or rejected (cannot be proved) But, you can gather enough evidence to determine whether the hypothesis is reasonably true “Truth” in science: What we know and understand based on all available information Correlation Studies Placebo treatments are impractical or unethical in many cases, so use this Generated by scientists who collected data on subjects’ psychological state levels For human studies Scientific Theory Scientific theory: if an idea has an abundance of evidence, it may be called this o Wellsupported by observation and experiment from several different, independent lines of research. Can explain how the natural world works. Nonscientific Theory same as hypothesis an untested idea The Germ Theory of Disease o 1800s scientists noted relationship between disease and specific micro organisms o since then, many experiments and observations all support the idea that microorganisms cause disease o Primary Sources: Publishing Scientific Results online, news articles, etc. Unscientific Information Anecdotal: based on actual experience, not exp. data, ex: media, public sites Water Water is a polar molecule o Hydrogen bonding btw water molecules polarity drawn together Polar: has an asymmetrical distribution of electrical charge. These molecules (glucose) will dissolve readily in water Non Polar: symmetrical distribution of electrical charge. These (lipids) will not dissolve in water Hydrophobic: compounds that do NOT dissolve readily in water (oil) Hydrophilic: DOES dissolve readily in water (salt) o Hydrogen bonds form, breaking the ionic bond Amphathic: molecule having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions Physical Properties of Water 1. Is liquid at moderate temperatures 2. Cohere (stick to each other) creating surface tension 3. Adhere (cling to other substances, wetting them) 4. Universal Solvent: dissolves other substances 5. Can hold a lot of heat relative to it’s volume 6. Water expands when frozen, and is less dense than liquid, so it floats The PH Scale Most life functions here 0_______________________7________________________14 07 = Acidic 714 = Basic (Alkaline) Measures the amount of hydrogen in solution Hydrogen = acid Hydroxide = base Organic and Inorganic Organic: contains carbon, living or has lived previously Organic Chemistry: o Carbon is basis for organic molecules (life) Can form 4 strong bonds with other atoms MACROMOLECULES 4 groups Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, & Nucleic Acids 1. CARBOHYDRATES Sugars and starches Made from monosaccharides (glucose), disaccharides (sucrose) Complex Carbohydrates: o Monomer glucose (used for quick energy) o Polymers (Polysaccharides): Glycogen: energy storage, stored in liver, muscle, fungi Starch: energy storage, stored in plants Also function as structure o Structural Polysaccharides: Cellulose: in plant cell walls Chitin: exoskeletons of insects, lobsters, fungi Peptidoglycan: bacteria cell walls (this may be extra credit) Complex vs. Simple Carbs: o Starches (complex) nutritionally complex vs. refined carbs o Sugars (simple) natural vs. refined o The more refined the carb, the faster glucose is released into the blood, causing peaks and drops in blood sugar/less stable energy 2. PROTEINS Functions: o Form structural parts of cells & larger structures o Control cell processes o Messenger o Antibodies o Speeds up enzymes o Act as receptors on cell surfaces o Does NOT provide much energy! Proteins make o Amino acids (20 total) MONOMER, combine to make… o Polypeptide: POLYMER long chains of amino acids Shape of protein molecule determines its function. Form=Function ENZYMES & METABOLISM Metabolism: all chemical reactions that happen in cells in your body Enzymes: regulate metabolic reactions; break down food, & liberate energy stored in chemical bonds. o Work for one specific purpose, ex: lactase breaks down lactose 3. LIPIDS Fats and Oils, all insoluble, 3 types: A. Triglycerides: In vegetable oil & animal fats Body converts calories not used into these, stored in fat cells B. Steroids Unlike others, no fatty acid tails! In animals, fungi, plants Cholesterol: used to build cells & some hormones C. Phospholipids Saturated (fatty acids bound to as many H atoms as possible) Vs. Unsaturated (has carbon to carbon double bonds) 4. NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA: stores hereditary info, POLYMER o Double stranded o Phosphatesugar backbone RNA: helps DNA process info, POLYMER o Single stranded o made from nucleotides (MONOMER) CELLS The basic unit of life Cell Theory: o 1. All known living things are made up of cells o 2. Cell is a structural & functional unit of all living things o 3. All cells come from preexisting cells by division PARTS OF A CELL o Plasma Membrane protection & communication, all have it o Nucleus – protects DNA, all but bacteria have it o DNA – holds hereditary info, all have it o Mitochondria –holds and releases energy, ATP, all but bacteria have it o Chloroplasts – site of photosynthesis, plants and some bacteria have it o Ribosomes – protein production, all have it o Lysosomes – cell cleaners, digesters; animals & some plants have it o Cytoskeletal Elements – structure & movement, made of protein, all o Cell Wall – structure, all but animals have it Animal vs. Plant Cells Plants have chloroplasts and cell walls, animals do NOT *Passive Transport: NO ATP required o Solvent moves with concentration gradient Simple diffusion (osmosis) Facilitated diffusion requires ATP *Active Transport: ATP required o Solvent moves against concentration gradient Exocytosis – exit, requires ATP Endocytosis – entering, requires ATP *Metabolism All the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy. Needs… o 1. Water: acts as solvent o 2. Enzymes: controls all reactions o 3. Calories: provides fuel for reactions *Digestion The breakdown of food products into smaller and simpler compounds. Needs… o 1. Macronutrients o 2. Micronutrients o 3. Enzymes *Respiration Series of metabolic reactions where glucose is broke down and energy is released for use by the cell and life processes, more than just breathing o 1. Oxygen: keeps respiration moving, without oxygen, respiration stops, no energy is generated. Death within minutes! o 2. Glucose: most common requirement o 3. Enzymes *Enzymes Require: o Specific temperature – if temp is too high, enzyme breaks down o Vitamins: necessary in order to function
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