CHEM 220: Organic Chemistry Exam 1 Study Guide
CHEM 220: Organic Chemistry Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM 220
Kalamazoo Valley Community College
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cal Somers on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 220 at Kalamazoo Valley Community College taught by Mark Lovdhal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Kalamazoo Valley Community College.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
CHEM 220: Organic Chemistry Exam 1 Study Guide Be able to draw Lewis structures of molecules and know how to use them in resonance structures o Know the rules of resonance structures and how to draw them correctly (moving electrons only, using curved arrows, forming bonds but not changing the chemical structure) Be able to take a chemical formula (like C H )6a14 draw all isomers of it. Know what increases and decreases boiling points just by looking at a molecule and how to distinguish which molecule from a group has the highest boiling points o Longer alkane chains increase boiling point/melting point o More branches decreases b.p/m.p The more difficult it is for molecules to scrunch together, the lower b.p/m.p a molecule will have. o Hydrogen bonding increases b.p/m.p o Dipole-dipole interactions increase b.p/m.p Know how to calculate formal charge of an atom o FC=(# valence e )-[(# lone pair e )+½(# e participating in bonds) Know how to calculate Degrees of Unsaturation (2 ways) o DU=[(max amount of hydrogens)-(actual amount of hydrogens)]/2 o DU=½(2C+2+N-H-X) where X is a halide Be able to Identify Primary, secondary, or tertiary carbons o Primary (1 )- One carbon attached o Secondary (2 )- Two carbons attached o o Tertiary (3 )- Three carbons attached Know the difference between axial and equatorial positions and which one is more stable (larger substituents are more stable in equatorial positions) o Axial: pointing up or down from ring o Equatorial: pointing away from ring Be familiar with the types of functional groups and be able to identify each one in a whole molecule Be able to identify the most acidic molecule based on a structural drawing or pKa/Ka o Electronegativity: More electronegative atoms increase acidity, electronegativity increases to the right and upwards on the periodic table o Induction: The closer an electronegative atom is to the acidic end, the more acidic it will be o Resonance: The more resonance a molecule has the more stable and less acidic it will be. o Hybridization: The more s-character a molecule has, the more acidic it will be. (more single bonds, more acidic) o Lower pKaMore acidic o Greater KaMore acidic Look at IR Specs and ranges for different functional groups and be able to determine what functional groups make up a molecule and what the most likely structure is given chemical formula and IR peak ranges o Identifying a molecule based on IR spec graph Know how to name a molecule: (given the structure) o General IUPAC rules o Branch naming o Naming priorities Carboxylic acids>Aldehydes/Ketones>Amines>Alcohols>Halide s>alkynes/alkenes/alkanes o Functional group name changes -ol, -al, -ene, -ane, -amine, -oic acid, etc. o Cis/Trans Know how to draw a structure based on the name (reverse of above) Identifying bond angle and hybridizations of certain atoms in a molecule o Sp 109.5 o 2 o o Sp 120 o Sp180 o
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