POLS 1020 STUDY GUIDE
Shimko, chapter 1
∙ Absolutist monarchism:
The political order prevailing in almost all of Europe before the French Revolution, in which kings and queens claimed divine sources for their absolute rule and power unrestricted by laws or constitutions.
∙ Modern state system:
The international state system characterized by a relatively small number of relatively large independent or sovereign political units. (Although the modern state system is the result of several complex economic, religious, and military changes, a convenient date for its foundation is 1648, when the Thirty Years War ended with the Peace of Westphalia.)
∙ Thirty Years War:
The name given to a series of bloody and devastating wars fought largely on German lands between 1618 and 1648.
Don't forget about the age old question of Courts typically will not consider adequacy of consideration. why? value?
∙ Peace of Westphalia:
The agreement that officially ended the Thirty Years War; significant in that it marked the origins of modern principles of sovereignty.
∙ Holy Roman Empire:
The large political entity that brought some political unity to medieval Europe under the authority of the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor.
∙ Commercial revolution: We also discuss several other topics like What are the two types of metabolic pathways involving energy?
The revival of trade and commerce as Europe began to emerge from the stagnation that characterized much of the period after the fall of Rome in 476 CE. This was one of the forces for the creation of larger and more centralized political units, one of the essential features of the modern state system.
∙ Gunpowder revolution:
The dramatic military, social, and political changes accompanying the introduction and development of gunpowder weapons in Europe, beginning in the fourteenth century, made previous means of defense less reliable and placed a premium on land and larger political units. ∙ Protestant reformation: We also discuss several other topics like What are the three groups of population?
Martin Luther’s challenge to the Catholic Church in 1517 marked the emergence of a non Catholic version of Christianity. The growing conflict between Protestants and Catholics was one of the major contributing forces to the Thirty Years War. If you want to learn more check out What are the primary bond types?
In international relations, the right of individual states to determine for themselves the policies that they will follow.
∙ Divine right of kings:
The political principle underlying absolutist monarchism in which God, not the people over whom leaders ruled, granted the legitimacy of rulers.
∙ French Revolution:
The popular revolt against the French monarchy in 1789 that resulted in the establishment of the French Republic. Along with the American Revolution, it marked the emergence of modern nationalism.
∙ Popular sovereignty:
The principle that governments must derive their legitimacy from the people over whom they rule. Embodied in the French and American revolutions, this doctrine challenged the principle of the divine right of kings.
∙ Levee en masse:
The mobilization (conscription) of all able-bodied French males to defend the French Republic from attempts by European monarchs restore the French monarchy.
∙ Napoleonic Wars:
The French wars of European conquest following Napoleon’s rise to power. Demonstrated the potential impact of modern nationalism through total national mobilization for war and widespread conscription.
∙ Concert of Europe:
The informal system in which the monarchs of Europe tried to restore international order after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. The victors agreed to settle their differences through diplomacy, not war, and no maintain a balance of power. We also discuss several other topics like What is the deutsch word of to play the guitar?
∙ Modern nationalism:
A political creed with three critical aspects: a sense of connection and loyalty between people and their rulers or governments, the belief that governments must derive their legitimacy from the people over whom they rule, and a commitment to national or ethnic self-determination. ∙ National self-determination:
The principle that each national or ethnic group has the right to determine its own destiny and rule itself.
∙ Multinational states:
A single state or government ruling over people of many distinct ethnic identities. ∙ Multistate nations:
A single ethnic group divided into several different, independent political units or states. ∙ Total war:
A war in which participants mobilize all available resources, human and material, for the purpose of waging war.
∙ Treaty of Versailles: We also discuss several other topics like What is logarithmic integrals?
Codified the terms on which WWI was concluded. (The treaty stated that Germany bore full responsibility for the war)
∙ League of Nations:
An international organization created in the aftermath of WWI; tried to ensure that there would be a collective, international response to any future threats to peace.
A policy in which nations deal with international conflicts by giving in to the demands of their opponents.
∙ Munich Agreement:
Often cited as the most egregious example of appeasement, this was an agreement in which France and England allowed Germany to take over the Sudetenland.
The U.S. policy of resisting the expansion of Soviet/communist influence during the Cold War. ∙ Marshall Plan:
The program of economic assistance to rebuild the nations of Western Europe in the aftermath of WW II.
∙ Truman Doctrine:
Announced by President Harry Truman in 1947, this policy committed the U.S. to assist foreign governments threatened by communist forces.
∙ Cold War:
The conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union that spanned from the late 1940s until the late 1980s (the fall of the Berlin Wall) or early 1990s (the collapse of the Soviet Union) ∙ Domino theory:
The belief (and fear) that the spread of communism to one country almost automatically threatened its expansion to neighboring countries.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Cold War alliance, including the United States, Canada, and many Western European nations, against the Soviet Union and its allies. ∙ Decolonization:
The achievement of political independence by European colonies, especially in Asia and Africa, in the two decades following WW II.
A policy and period of relaxed tensions between the U.S. and Soviet Union during the 1970s. ∙ Mikhail Gorbachev:
The leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until its dissolution in 1991.
Mikhail Gorbachev’s reforms during the second half of the 1980s, aimed at reforming the Soviet economic system.
Mikhail Gorbachev’s political reforms in the Soviet Union during the second half of the 1980s, allowing for greater freedom of expression and dissent.
∙ Long peace:
The “peace” or absence of war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ∙ Bipolarity:
The existence of two major powers in international politics; usually refers to the structure of the Cold War.