Study guide Microbiology test 1
Study guide Microbiology test 1 Biol 2041
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Important Things To Know ● Chapter 1 ○ Van leeuwenhoek ■ First person to describe microorganisms. ■ Made first microscope that magnified the image 25X its normal size ■ Coined term “animalcules” ○ Microbiology Timeline ● Chapter 2 ○ Relative bond strengths ■ Covalent ● 125418 kilojoule/mole ■ Ionic ● 1020 kilojoule/mole ■ Hydrogen ● 210 kilojoule/mole ■ 1 kilojoule is equal to .24 KiloCalories ○ pH ■ Acids are greater than 7 ■ Bases are less than 7 ■ Neutral pH have a 7.0 pH ● Typically is a salt ■ pH= log[H] Biogenesis Spontaneous Generation 1668 F. Redi flys touch meat, maggots 1745 John Needham's heated solution appear from eggs therefore it's not set out and organisms appear spontaneous 1765 Lazzaro Spallanzani repeated argues that you removed vital force that Needham’s experiment in a closed makes life possible O2 (which is container no organisms appear discovered by lavorisies) 1861 Louis Pasteur combines Spallanzani and Needham's experiment with the S shaped flask (fig 1.3) noticed law to no growth ○ Every time sugar is formed a water is subsequently formed through dehydration synthesis ○ Bond formed between glucose molecules is an ether linkages ○ Phospholipid bonding ■ CHOP ○ Protein ■ CCN ■ Displays stereochemistry in the form of chirality ■ Peptide bonds form through dehydration synthesis ■ Primary proteins ● Polypeptide stand ■ Secondary proteins ● Comes about from hydrogen bond ○ Coils form alpha helix ○ Beta pleated sheets ■ Tertiary ● 3D structure folded around itself causing a directionality ■ Quaternary ● Two or more polypeptides in their folded states ○ Nucleic acids ■ If the ribose is missing a OH group it results in Deoxyribose in DNA ■ Makes up DNA and RNA ○ Nucleotide ■ Phosphate bonded to a sugar which is bonded to a base ○ Bonding rules ■ Apples on Trees ● Adenine bonds to Thymine ■ Gas in Cars ● Guanine bonds to Cytosine ● Chapter 3 ○ Name Energy Type Use Direct light White light Bright field Stain Specimens Microscopy Reflective White light Dark field Place an opaque disk so that light microscopy there is a dark background allowing more detail to be seen Direct and White light Phase Enhances the contrast. Has a Reflective contrast diffraction plate and annular diaphragm Fluorescence Uv light Fluorescence Cells stained with dyes know as fluorochromes Confocal Laser light UV More detail inside. 3D image. Takes small pictures at various planes that reform later in the computer. Electron Electrons Transmission Transmission allows you to see microscopy , tunneling, inside. and scanning Scanning allows you to see the outside of the organism. ○ Be familiar with smear and staining procedure ● Chapter 4 ○ Comparison of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Thing Prokaryotes Eukaryotes DNA surrounded by NO YES membrane Membrane bound NO YES organelles Histones associated NO YES with DNA Cell wall with YES NO peptidoglycan Mitosis NO YES Size .22 um 10100 um ○ Gram negative cells ■ Are like a sandwich ○ Gram positive cells ■ Are like a chunk of meat on a piece of bread Definitions ● Chapter 1 ○ Pathogenic ■ Disease producing ○ Bacteria ■ Contains peptidoglycan ○ Protozoa ■ Unicellular organisms ○ Cilia ○ Flagella ○ Pseudopod ■ False feet ○ Algae ■ Photosynthetic Eukaryotes ○ Fungi ■ Cell walls made of chitin ■ distinct nucleus containing DNA surrounded by nuclear membrane ○ Archaea ■ Prokaryotic cells with a cell wall ■ Lacks peptidoglycan ■ Primitive bacteria ○ Methanogens ■ Produces methane during respiration ○ Extreme Halophiles ■ Live in extreme salty environments ○ Extreme Thermophiles ■ Lives in hot sulfurous water ● Chapter 2 ○ Protons ■ Positive charged particles found in the nucleus ○ Neutrons ■ Neutral particles found in the nucleus ○ Electrons ■ Negative charges outside the nucleus ○ Electron shells ■ Contains all electrons ○ Nucleus ■ Found in center of atom containing protons and neutrons ○ Covalent bonds ■ Form between two atoms and uses two electrons ○ Neutral atom ■ Number of protons and electrons are equal ○ Ions ■ Atoms that have gained or lost electrons ○ Ionic bonds ■ Atoms of opposite charge bonding together causing the atoms to gain or lose charge ○ Compounds ■ Made up of molecules that are different ○ Molecular Weight ■ Sum of all atomic weights in the molecular formula ○ Metagenomics ■ Complete genome of the microbiology of an area (soil or people) ○ Inorganic ■ Contains no carbon. ■ Formed by ionic bonding ○ Organic ■ Carbon and hydrogen containing molecules formed by covalent bonds ○ Carbon skeletons ■ Chain of carbon molecules ○ Homeostasis ■ A process at which an organism maintains itself ○ Carbohydrates ■ Disaccharide with two linked sugars is know as sucrose ■ Polysaccharide are two linked sugars ■ Oligosaccharide are more than two linked sugars ○ Saturated fats ■ All carbons are single bonded to hydrogen ○ Unsaturated fats ■ Have one or more double bonded carbons ○ Alpha 14 linkage ■ An ether linkage between the first carbon on the First ring and the 4th carbon on the second carbon ring going along the bottom ○ Beta 14 linkage ■ An ether linkage between the first carbon on the First ring and the 4th carbon on the second carbon ring going along the top ○ Hydrophobic ■ Does NOT like water ○ Hydrophilic ■ Likes water ○ Purines ■ Has two rings ● Adenine ● Guanine ○ Pyrimidines ■ Cytosine ■ Thymine or Uracil ● Chapter 3 ○ Simple stains ■ Have one stain added to it ○ Differential ■ Used to distinguish groups of microorganisms ○ Resolution ■ The ability of lenses to distinguish fine detail and structure ○ Gram stain ■ Differentiation between gram positive and gram negative ○ Crystal violet ■ Gram positive purple dye ○ Mordant ■ Forces the dye into cells ○ Safranin ■ Counterstain ○ Acidfast stain ■ Stains positive anything with mycolic acid in the cell walls ○ Negative staining ■ Good for seeing capsulized cells ○ Endosperm staining ■ Makes endospores clearer in both Aerobicacilluand Anaerobic Clostridium ○ Aerobic ■ Must have oxygen ○ Anaerobic ■ No oxygen required ○ Flagella staining ■ Allows the Flagella to be more pronounced ● Chapter 4 ○ Structure unique to bacteria Structure Function Extra information Capsule Makes it sticky. Resists antibiotics and makes it difficult to proceed with phagocytosis Flagella Allows propulsion Made of protein called Flagellum. Arrangements can be different around cell. Axial Rotation cause Also known as endoflagella filament cell to move in a twisting motion Fimbraw Attachment for Also known as Pili DNA transfer Smaller than flagella between cells Cell wall Protect the cell Made of peptidoglycan Made up of Nacetylglucosamine (NAG) and Nacetylmuramic acid (NAM) Linked by D type chirality Ether linkage Beta 14 attached to NAM ○ Bacterial Taxis ■ Movement ● Run ○ When flagella rotate in a clockwise motion ● Tumble ○ When flagella stop rotating ○ Gram negative ■ Above the double layer plasma membrane the peptidoglycan rest with (1020%) with a outer membrane above that. Sticking out of this is LPS ○ Gram positive ■ Right above the double layer plasma membrane is peptidoglycan (6090%) with polysaccharide teichoic acids sticking out Possible Test Questions ● Chapter 1 ○ What are three types of Achaea? ■ Methanogens ■ Extreme Halophiles ■ Extreme Thermophiles ● Chapter 2 ○ What are three classifications of organisms? ■ Archaea ■ Bacteria ■ Eukaryotes ○ What are the distinguishing features of the three major classifications ■ Archaea ● Primitive bacteria ● Lacks Peptidoglycan ■ Bacteria ● Contains peptidoglycan ■ Eukaryotes ● Plants ● Animals ● Protist ● Fungi ○ What shell do covalent bonds occur? ■ Covalent bonding occurs in the outermost shells of the atom also known as the valence shells. ○ What is the difference between and inorganic molecule and an organic molecule? ■ The presence of carbon ■ Bonding types ○ What are the four major macromolecules? ■ Proteins ■ Lipids ■ Nucleic Acids ■ Lipids ○ What determines the chemical properties of an organic compound? ■ Functional groups ○ What are some examples of functional groups? Where can they be found? ■ Hydroxyl ● Lipids and Carbohydrates ■ Amino ● Proteins ■ Ester ● Plasma membranes of Bacteria and Eukaryotes ■ Ether ● Archaea plasma membranes ■ Sulfhydryl ● Energy metabolism and protein structure ■ Carboxyl ● Organic acids ■ Phosphate ● ATP and DNA ○ How are macromolecules formed? ■ Dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions ○ What is found in all cells that are classified as “living”? ■ Proteins ■ Lipids ■ Nucleic Acids ■ Lipids ○ What is the difference between Alpha 14 linkages and Beta 14 linkages ■ Alpha linkages bond at the bottom of the carbon ■ Beta linkages bond at the top of the carbon ○ What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? ■ Saturated fats are solid at room temperature, and are only single bonded carbons ■ Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature, and have one or more double bonded carbon ○ What happens to unsaturated fats at the double bond? ■ The carbons that are double bonded bend in the glyceride chain. ○ Which part is hydrophobic and which part is hydrophilic in a phospholipid? ■ The polar head is hydrophilic ■ The nonpolar tail is hydrophobic ○ What is the difference in mobility between saturated and unsaturated membranes? ■ Saturated membranes are immobile ■ Unsaturated membranes are mobile ● The more unsaturated the membrane the more fluid it is ○ What is the function of proteins? ■ Structure ■ Transport ■ Membranes ■ Metabolic enzymes ○ How do proteins keep their shape? ■ Disulfide bonds to make sulfide bridges ■ Ionic bonding ■ Hydrophobic interactions ■ Hydrogen bonds ○ What nucleotides bond together? ■ Apples on Trees ● Adenine bonds to Thymine ■ Gas in Cars ● Guanine bonds to Cytosine ● Chapter 3 ○ How do you get the magnification of a microscope? ■ Objective lens X Ocular lens ● Chapter 4 ○ What bacteria is known as “True bacteria”? ■ Eubacteria ○ What is the differentiation in Morphology that prokaryotes can have? ■ Coccus ■ Rod ■ Spirillum ■ Spirochete ■ Budding and Appendaged bacteria ■ Filamentous ○ How are flagella different in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes? ■ In Prokaryotes they rotate clockwise ■ In Eukaryotes they undulate
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