Exam 1 Notes Bundle/Study Guide
Exam 1 Notes Bundle/Study Guide Psychology 110
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Robertson on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Anastasia Kerr-German in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Introductory Psychology Psychology Is: Study of the mind, behavior and the brain o Finding out which explanation best fits the data of how minds/brains/behavior work Psychology is Science not opinion, it has Multiple levels of analysis Scientific method Rigor in those methods Combats naïve realism (belief that we see the world exactly as it is) (We can’t trust our own perceptions, we are biased Explain Theory Predict s s Observations Modifies Generates theory new theory Supports original theory Theories are supported by lots of research which have many hypothesis focusing on the same problem. Empiricism- premise that knowledge should be gathered through observation Metaphysical Claims- Understanding that not everything is testable, like God and the afterlife Psychology can be studied on many levels- Mind Brain Molecular Neurochemical Neurological/Physiological Mental Behavioral Social A hypothesis is a theory with a prediction of what may happen. Correlation isn’t Causation- because things are related doesn’t mean one causes the other Scientific Principles o Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence o Falsifiable- must be able to prove it wrong (doesn’t have to be wrong though) o Replicability- must be repeatable o It must rule out other hypothesis o Occam’s Razor- the simplest answer is usually the best Scientific Skepticism- Allows us to consider and evaluate all angles w/ an open mind, requiring evidence before accepting things as fact Scientific/critical thinking- form of thinking for overcoming bias Characteristics of Pseudoscience o Relies on anecdotes (stories of how it works for others) o Overuse of ad-hoc immunizing hypothesis- loophole that people use to protect a theory from being disproven “you have to believe for it to really work” o Forgets that behavior is multiply determined (produced by many factors not just one) o Doesn’t account for individual differences o Ignores reciprocal determinism- People in groups influence each other and the group influences the people o Forgets about effects of culture Individualism (values the individual: America) Collectivism (value the whole group: China) Emic Approach- Studies culture as if a native Etic Approach- Studies as if an outsider o Exaggerated claims o Lack of peer review 2 o Lack of self-correction (belief perseverance) o Psychobabble (random big words) o Talk of “proof” instead of “evidence” Dangers of Pseudoscience o Giving up the opportunity for real science (indirect harm), direct harm and inability to think scientifically in life situations Types of Bias o Confirmation Bias- trying to find evidence to support what we already think o Belief Perseverance- sticking to what we already believe even if there’s evidence saying that’s wrong Fallacies of Pseudoscience o Logical Fallacy- thinking that seems to make sense but has no actual foundation o Emotional Reasoning Fallacy- using our emotions as guides to evaluate (affect heuristic) o Bandwagon Fallacy- everybody else believes it claim o Not Me Fallacy- believing we couldn’t be biased because “we’re better” o Appeal to Ignorance Fallacy- saying it’s true because no one proved otherwise o Argument from Adverse Consequences Fallacy- confusing an idea with it’s real- world consequences o Either-or Fallacy- wording a question so it can only be answered one of two extreme ways o Argument from Antiquity Fallacy- the idea that you should believe it because the idea has been around a long time o Genetic Fallacy- Confusing correctness w/ it’s origins or genes o Appeal to Authority Fallacy- accepting a claim only because an important person says it’s true o Naturalistic Fallacy- infers moral judgement from scientific fact o Circular Reasoning Fallacy- Basing a claim on the same claim, reworded a little different o Hasty Generalization Fallacy- Drawing a conclusion when there isn’t enough evidence 3 Paranormal- describes phenomena that fall outside the boundaries of traditional science. When we lose control in our lives, we look for patterns and something greater than ourselves to blame. o Our brains are designed to make order out of disorder so we are drawn to Pseudoscience. We see what we want to see. Apophenia-perceiving meaningful connection among unrelated phenomena (seeing what we want to see) Pareidolia- Seeing meaningful images in meaningless visual stimuli Terror management theory- knowing our death is inescapable scares us so we adopt cultural world views to give meaning to our short lives o Mortality salience- the extent to which thoughts of death are foremost in our minds 4 Psychology’s Early History 150 APA members in 1900, 150,000 today. 1879 Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological lab in Leipzig, Germany o He studied how the brain processed color, sound and mathematical equations o He used introspection- where trained observers reflect and report on their own mental experiences and processes 5 Major Perspectives of Psychology o Structuralism- uses introspection to find structure in experiences Failed because of imageless thought- mental processes that happen so fast that the process is unnoticeable or indescribable (Ex: 1 + 1 = 2) o Functionalism- understanding why psychological characteristics and behavior are there. Involves Darwinism (natural selection). (Ex: Anxiety makes survival more likely since you are always aware of your surroundings.) o Behavioralism- refers to any behavior that can be observed. o Psychoanalysis- Focuses on impulses, thoughts and memories. Fruedian slips- subconscious behavior. o Cognitivism- focuses on how thinking affects behavior. How we interpret stimuli. Cognitive Neuro Science- relationship between brain functioning and thinking (PET scans and such) Fields of Psychology o Clinical Psychologist- assesses and diagnoses mental disorders. Conducts research and works in colleges and mental health centers. o Counseling Psychologist- works with people who are experiencing temporary life problems (Ex: substance abuse, grief, etc.). o School Psychologist- works with teachers, parents and children to fix behavioral, emotional and learning problems. o Developmental Psychologist- studies how and why people change over time. Researches emotional, psychological, and cognitive processes primarily in children and the elderly. o Experimental Psychologist- uses research methods to study humans in a lab 5 o Biological Psychologist- examines the physiological bases of behavior in animals and humans o Forensic Psychologist- works in prisons and jails to help with rehabilitation. Can also offer eyewitness testimony in court. o Industrial – Organizational Psychologist- works in businesses or companies to help hire employees and evaluate behavior and performance of existing employees. Nature – Nurture Debate- Do we behave the way we do because of our genetic makeup or our environment? o Twin studies point to our genes as the primary cause of intelligence, interests, personality and mental illness. o Evolutionary Psychology (Sociobiology)- Natural selection applied to mental traits (certain mental traits make an organism more fit to survive) This is hard to falsify because mental traits don’t have a fossil record. Free Will – Determinism Debate- Is our behavior freely selected or outside of our control? o Insanity defense? This claims that mental illness interferes with free will. o Free will is an illusion? Maybe we aren’t consciously aware of subtle environmental factors that influence our decisions? Ex: automatic writing- words written completely subconsciously. Basic Research- examines how the mind works Applied Research- examines how we can use basic research to solve problems 6 7 8 9 10 Book Notes p 51 - 60 Hypothesis- again a theory that makes a prediction Naturalistic Observation- observing people’s behavior in a real-life setting while trying to avoid affecting their behavior. o External Validity- how well scientific findings can be applied to the real-world. (Naturalistic designs have high external validity.) o Internal Validity- ability to draw cause-and-effect conclusions. Naturalistic designs have low internal validity because: They run into problems if people figure out they’re being watched. We don’t control the variables in the environment so it’s hard to be 100% sure what causes what. Case Study- Where researchers watch one person or a small group for a long period of time. Good for providing existence proofs. o Existence Proofs- Examples of unusual psychological phenomena. Ex: You could do a case study on recovered memories and gain existence proof. o Case studies are good for generating a hypothesis about the cause of a psychological phenomenon but they can’t be used in systematic tests because of the lack of control in the variables. Reliability- “consistency of measurement” o Test-Retest Reliability- Where the same test has similar results repeatedly. o Interrator Reliability- The extent of how much different interviewers or observers agree on the characteristics they have measured. Ex: If one doctor thinks most patients have reactive attachment disorder and the other doctor thinks they have multiple personalities, then their interrator reliability would be low. Validity- How greatly something assesses the subject. o Ex: polygraph is a reliable test (same approximate scores over time) but it isn’t valid since some think it just detects emotions and not lies. o Tests have to be reliable to be valid but not valid to be reliable. Surveys- Similar to a self-report, but used to measure opinions and attitudes. 11 Random Selection- Where everyone in the population has an equal chance of being picked for a study. o Ex: I asked 200 students to assess their professor’s ability to write a good test. Only 100 students responded and 90% were people who failed their most recent tests. Because of this, my results will likely be skewed against the professor; saying that she doesn’t write good tests. Self-Report Measures- Questionnaires to assess personality traits. o Advantages: Easy to administer. Person doing it has access to their own emotions. o Disadvantages: Assumption that person has enough insight on their personality to answer correctly. Depressed people might portray themselves as worse than they actually are. Assumes that people are honest. Response Sets- where someone distorts their answers to be socially desirable. (Like job surveys.) o Positive impression management- portraying ourselves as better than we actually are o Malingering- portraying ourselves as psychologically disturbed in order to attain a goal. (Disability, Medication, Insanity Plea…etc.) Halo Effect- Where one positive rating turns all the other ratings to positive. o Ex: Physically attractive people are often thought of as better at everything by people who find them attractive but that doesn’t mean they really are. Variable- Anything that can we different between different people. Correlational Designs- Looks at how greatly two things are related. o “Correlated” is also called “associated,” “related,” or “linked” in many reports. o Can be positive, zero or negative. Positive- As one variable rises, so does the other. If one falls, so does the other. Negative- Variables act the opposite of each other. 12 Zero- They don’t react to each other at all. o Correlation Coefficient- +1.0 is perfect positive, -1.0 is perfect negative. There can be numbers in between the two which are difficult to calculate. Absolute Value- The size of the number without the plus or minus sign. Determines how strong the correlation is. o Scatterplots show positive, negative or zero correlation. The slope of the line shows the strength of correlation and the dots show the correlated cases and the outliers (or unusual cases/exceptions) very easily. Positive correlation scatterplot shows most dots following a line up and to the right. Negative correlation scatterplot shows most dots following a line down and to the right. Zero correlation scatterplot just looks like a blob of dots with no real pattern o Illusory Correlation- seeing a pattern between variables when there is none. Ex: Lunacy Effect- It is and has been so strongly believed that the moon causes us to behave wildly that the word “lunatic” and this lunacy effect were named after the Roman goddess of the moon Luna. This is despite data stating otherwise. Ex: People think shaving causes hair to grow back thicker when no scientific evidence suggests this other than our own perception. Illusory correlation can also be wrapped up in superstition. Like knocking on wood to prevent bad things from happening. Ex: There are usually 4 probable answers to simple questions. A) Pen + Good Grade B) No Pen +Good Grade C) Pen + Bad Grade D) No Pen + Bad Grade Answer A is always the most interesting to us. We get confirmation bias and call on availability heuristics. Plus A is more memorable than a nonevent (thing that doesn’t happen). Basically, we would really prefer to think we have a lucky pen than notice how it’s not. This is why we must keep careful track of nonevents too. (Basically any time you didn’t get that good grade with the pen or forgot the pen at home and still did good or bad.) Correlation vs. Causation- 13 o Correlation is great for determining if things are related. This can help us make predictions. o Correlation does not often warrant causation. Only sometimes results in a casual relationship. Ex: Increased murder rates (variable A) and increased ice cream sales (Variable B) may be related but that doesn’t mean the ice cream caused people to murder each other. More likely, increased temperatures (variable C) affected both the sale of ice cream and the murder rates. Class Notes 1/25/16 Why we need good research methods: o Because of extraordinary claims. o Ethics. o To avoid things like lobotomies and facilitated communication. o To do good science and not make assumptions that just because we “see it” it must be true. Consumer vs. Producer of Research o Consumer- someone who receives benefit/non-benefit of a study o Producer- scientists/anyone who does a study Representative Heuristic- If it looks like one, it is one. o Despite relevant base rate info. o This is a powerful cognitive distortion. Availability Heuristic- the more examples we remember, the more likely it’s true. (jumping on the bandwagon) o Ex: Ebola Scare- Memorable cases of ebola because it was all over the media but a lot more people died of cancer, obesity, or tobacco. AGAIN Correlation doesn’t equal causation. o Ex: 100% of air- breathing people die. This doesn’t mean air is killing you. Confound- anything acting on your experiment that could cause your results but wasn’t the I.V. (Independent Variable) or D.V. (Dependent Variable) IT WAS MENTIONED THAT THIS WOULD BE ON A QUIZ: 14 Cognitive Biases- Systematic errors in thinking. Hindsight Bias- Thinking we “knew it all along” or “knew this would happen.” Overconfidence- Overestimating our ability to make correct predictions. Good Experiment Follows this Table: P 60-66 Population Experimental Design: What is an experiment made of? o Random assignment- When participants are Random randomly sorted into two groups. This is not Samples the same as random selection. Random selection is how we pick participants. Assignment is how we group them. o Manipulation of the independent variable (I.V.)- the variable that is changed Random o If it isn't an Assignment experiment, you can't infer cause and effect. o Differences Experimental between people are made Control Group Group (I.V.) instead of just observed and (Palcebo) measured. Experimental group- Receives the Measure Effects change of the (D.V.) independent variable. Control group- Doesn't change. Dependent variable (D.V.)- Depends on the I.V., shows how well the I.V. did or didn't work. Operational Definition- A definition that can be applied to the real world. Multiple occupational definitions can be accepted at once. Confounding variable- Difference between groups that was not caused by the I.V. 15 o Experiment must not have any confounds to have good internal validity. Pitfalls in Experimental Design: Placebo Effect- A measurable, true improvement that comes from just expecting improvement. Injected placebos have more affect than swallowed placebos. Patients can become addicted to placebos. Patients usually receive better effects from placebos that they think are expensive. Some experts think that 80% of antidepressant effects are due to the placebo effect. Attention- Placebo Control Condition- Where a counselor provides attention but no actual therapy. o Blind- Patients must not know whether they are being administered a placebo or not. Otherwise, their expectation will change and this will affect the results of the experiment. Nocebo Effect- Harm that comes from just expecting harm. o Ex: Voodoo dolls, fake electric shock. Experimenter-Expectancy Effect (Rosenthal)- This is when researcher believes so strongly in their hypothesis that their results can be unintentionally skewed to support it. o Double-Blind- Where both the patients and the researcher do not know who is in the experimental or control group. Demand Characteristics- Cues (right or wrong) that participants pick up on about what the researcher wants to see. o To combat this, experimenters may disguise the focus of the experiment or put in filler questions/tasks. Ethics: You shouldn’t take your participant in a brain-damage study and hit them over the head with a frying pan (obvious). But it might be hard to decide if you should study violence in dogs with brain damage by scaring the dogs to evoke violence. Tuskeegee- Men with syphilis were studied but not informed of their condition. Effective treatment was withheld from them throughout and after the study. The men infected their wives. Most men died and some babies were born with syphilis. Institutional Review Board- Reviews research to ensure good use of ethics. 16 o Informed Consent- Researchers have to inform participants of what they’re getting in to in the experiment before they participate. o Some deception is approved by IRB’s for the sake of an experiment as long as no one is harmed. For this to be allowed the benefit of the study must outweigh the cost and the experiment has to be as such that it cannot be completed without deception. o A confedrate may be used (someone who pretends to play the part of a participant in a study but actually works with the researchers) o IRB may require a debriefing after the experiment is over. Invasive research- Controversial research that relies on the harming of animals. 17 P 70-77 Statistics- Math used to analyze data. Descriptive Statistics- Describe data o Central Tendency- Central result/cluster of scores. Mean- Average. Usually the best statistic to evaluate data. Median- Middle. Mode- Most common. Bell-shaped curve is normal o Skews usually happen when there is one odd outlier (score that is way outside of other scores) Negative skew- elongated tail to the left. Positive skew- elongated tail to the right. o Variability- How closely bunched scores are. Range is easiest for determining this. Range is the difference between the highest and lowest scores. Standard Deviation- Takes into consideration how far each point is from the mean (average) to determine variability. More accurate but also more time-consuming. Inferential Statistics- Inferences (conclusions) drawn to apply statistics to the real world/full population. o Statistical Significance- When a finding occurs less than 5 in 100 times. Judges the probability that something happened by chance. The larger the sample is, the better chance a finding will be statistically significant. o Practical Significance- Importance in the real world. Findings could qualify as statistically significant but have no real-world application. o Be careful when looking at statistics! Sometimes they deceive and outright lie! Ex: Truncated Line Graphs- Graphs that don’t start at 0. This causes data to appear different than it really is. Peer Review- Identifies flaws in a study’s conclusions and research methods. Consider the source, is it reliable? 18 Look out for excessive sharpening and leveling. o Sharpening- Exaggeration. o Leveling- Minimalizing less central details. Pseudosymmetry- Making things look like they are controversial when they are not. 19
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