RUSS 280 Study Guide for Exam I
RUSS 280 Study Guide for Exam I Russ 280
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
STUDY GUIDE FOR RUSS 280 EXAM I Varangians invited Riurik (862) to rule Riurik Dynasty Son named Igor married Olga Had a child named Sviatoslav at Riurik's death Relative, Oleg, governs for Igor until he is old enough Sviatoslav has a son named Vladimir Vladimir christianizes all of Russia in 988 In 882, Oleg captures Kiev for Igor under Sviatoslav's empire which then spreads Kiev becoes the dominant city -> Kievan Rus' Kiev Church: Cathedral of St. Sophia, built by Yaroslav the Wise in the 11th century Russia --> Christian 1054 Schism: Western, Catholic Church, and Eastern Orthodox Church split Russian Christianity comes from the Eastern Orthodox Church Greek monks, Cyril and Methodius, bring religion and the alphabet (cyrillic) to Russians Language called Church Slavonic merges with old Russian --> Russian Kiev-Caves Monastery (Kiev monks lived here) society took over and returned it to the Church founded in the 11th century Kievan-Rus' 900s-1200s Trade with Europe Prince Yaroslav the Wise's daughter, Anna, married the King Mongol/Tatar Invasion and Yoke 1237 invasion, 2 centuries of domination Invasion ceased at Russia (Moscow) Russia saved Europe European culture had been stopped, then restarted again Primary Chronicle Written by Monk Nestor Begun c. 1040 and lasted until 1118 Literature (history): Saint's Lives Tale of Olga's Revenge (945) Igor Tale Prince Ivor of Novgorod (different Igor) tries unsuccessfully to fight Polovtsians/Kumans in 1185 Author unknown Called a forgery by some --> huge debates/arguments over this Style may remind you of Homer's epic poem, "The Iliad" The Russian Orthodox Church --> Church Schism of 1054 Christian Orthodox = "right-believing" Russian Orthodox Church was the official church of Russian empire until 1917 After Soviet Union fell, there was no religion, but apparently it hadn't died Accepted all Christian creeds before 1054 Saints are important Create art for the glory of god Church services, you stand toe entire time Music is mainly human voice and occasionally hand bells Used Latin for all services in their own vernacular Russian Church follows Julian calendar (13 days after Gregorian) Icon = Image Goal of icon is human's communication with God Icons First icons in Russia came from Byzantium, Eastern Roman Empire, seat of Eastern Orthodox Church Several periods (famous) of Russian icon-painting Early Kievan Period, Icon Painting Strong Byzantine influence Very few remain Our Lady of Vladimir, c. 1120 Painted in Constantinople, taken to Russia, taken to Kremlin Angel of the Golden Hair, Novgorod, 12th century Novgorod Art 14th-16th century Byzantine and folk influences Theophanes the Greek -> most important artists, came to Russia from Constantinople Known for his frescos (14th century) 1378 Christ St. George and the Dragon Brighten colors, more complex drawing than in earlier Kievan styles Moscow School of Icon Painting Moscow becomes leading city in 15th century Greatest icon painting in 16th century Adrei Rublev Old Testament Trinity (15th century) Most famous icon Dionysius, late 15th century Icons and frescos The Last Judgement "Life of Alexis, Man of God" Many versions throughout Russia's medieval period Originally 5th century Syriac, then translated to Greek, then Latin, and then French Translated and adapted throughout many countries Self-sacrifice, renunciation of self, wealth, importance 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's character Play done of "Alexis, Man of God" presented to Czar Alexei Mickhailovich of Russia in 1674 Rise of Moscow 1100s-1380 Mongols dominate Princes of Moscow defeat them Moscow takes shape in 1100s: small city with big wall Kremlin = fortress Red Square is outside Kremlin, one side backs up to Kremlin wall Early Moscow Moscow first mentioned in Primary Chronicle Prince Yuri Dolgowky lays foundations for its walls Ivan Kalita (Moneybags) Money manager Keeps a lot of money for Russians and doesn't give all to the Mongols Ransom Russian prisoners, settles them in territory Convinces head of Russian Church to abandon Kiev for Moscow (1326)--> Moscow becomes spiritual center of Russia, the "Third Rome" (1453) 1453 --> Constantinople falls to Ottoman Turks Dimitrii Donskoy Wins battle between Russians and Mongols Marks end of Mongol Yoke Beginning of Muscovite state Ivan IV Ivan Grozni (the Terrible) 1533-1584 Crowned czar at age 16 and marries Anastasia Romanova (she dies) He abandons throne and is begged to return His conditions: secret police (oprichnina), tsar's right to punish as he wished 6 wives --> kills sons and heirs Time of Troubles (follows Ivan IV's death) 1598 --> Boris Godunov seizes the throne Ivan's youngest son, Dmitrii, his body was found and many thought Godunoc had killed him (1591) 1601 Grigorii Otrepev poses as Dmitrii 1605 "false Dmitrii" made czar 1606 murdered, chaos ensued Subject of Pushkin's play, "Boris Godunov" Beginning of Romanov Dynasty (1613-1913) Alexander Pushkin, Boris Godunov Pushkin 1799-1837 Greatest Russian poet, "father of Russian literature" Writes Boris Godunov, 1825, published 1831, performed 1866 Mussorgskyk's 1874 opera based on that play The Schism and Avvakum's Life Russian Church Schism Russian got its Orthodox Christian faith from the Greek Orthodox Church (Cyril and Methodius => Greek monks) Errors in translations from Greek to Slavonic Czar Alexei Mikhailovich established a commission to make corrections In 1652, Czar appoints Nikon the Patriarch Nikon makes reforms => returned to original Greek manuscript so he could start fresh and error-free Controversial reforms: Russians should cross themselves with 3 fingers instead of 2 Changing spelling of Jesus' name from Isus to Iisus The Raskol (Schism, split) Czar supported the reforms BUT, a group of priests and Avvakum did not support them Priests accused Nikon of heresy Results in the raskol or split of 1653 when Avvakum and his co-believers ("Old Believers") refuse to accept reforms Raskol => Raskolnikov Doestoevsky's character Raskolnikov in the 1866 novel Crime and Punishment => he has a divided, or split, soul Old Believers Thought Nikon was the Antichrist and rejected the official church Thousands of Old Believers were burned alive in later 17 century Avvakum burned at the stake in 1682 Avvakum The aristocratic Morozava took him under his wing and she had protected him Soon enough, she was caught then tortured and was starved to death Avvakum lived 1621-1682 Becomes priest at age 23 from Nizhnyi Novgorod, Russia Becomes archpriest, serving in the Kazan Cathedral of the Kremlin, in Moscow Avvakum in Moscow when Nikon begins his reforms Avvakum's Exile Opposes Nikon's orders to reform Imprisoned in Moscow Banished for 11 years to Tobolsk and Dauria in Siberia with wife, Natasya Markovna, and their children Final Years and the Autobiography 1658: Nikon removed as Partiarch 1664: Avvakum returns to Moscow, czar wants to reconcile Still don't agree on reforms Avvakum exiled again, then imprisoned Excommunicated 1666-1667 Spends last 15 years of his life imprisoned in Pustozersk, writes autobiography Death of Avvakum: Burned at the Stake, 1682 Myasoedov, "The Burning of the Archpriest Avvakum," 1897 Avvakum's Autobiography For nearly 200 years, the manuscript of Avvakum's Life circulated privately in Old Believer's communities Became more widely known in 1861 => N.S. Tikhonravov (Russian historian) published the first ever printed edition Feature of the text: Pride in simple, colloquial Russian Uses Church Slavonic Lively, vivid style First modern work in Russian literature Traditional saint's life format; however, he wrote it himself Peter the Great (ruled 1682-1725) Created New capital city, St. Petersburg Rejects Moscow and closed off Medieval Russia Turns Russia into an empire Transformed army, navy, judicial system, and local government Created academies and forced people to attend them Reshaped his country He travelled around Europe and learned how to build ships Foundations of St. Petersburg (1703) Remains Russian capital and home of the czars until 1917 revolution Built on swamps in an inaccessible place, many died Wanted a port Modelled after Western Europe Window to the West "Venice of the North" Built on canals Brings in Western Architects (based on classical models such as Rome) Gardens filled with important ancient statues Big marble/columned buildings Moscow vs. St. Petersburg Circular, medieval, Lines, new European/Western, Old, eastern, sprawling planned (had numbered streets) Catherine II (the Great) (rules 1762-1796) German princes deposes husband, Peter III (weak, had enemies, creepy) Intelligent, strong-willed, practical, energetic, determined Masters Russian and writes plays Russia expands during her role Enlightenment Rules in Touch with Europe Enlightenment (age of reason) associated with Catherine in Russia Influence of French culture: Voltaire, Diderot (left, meeting Catherine) Catherine correspond with many of leading Enlightenment intellectuals of Europe Russia again fully a part of Europe - as it was under early Kievan princes - th happens throughout 17 century, frenetically hastened by Peter, flourishes under Catherine Reason, scientific inquiry => founding of academics, universities, academies for women Faith in human reason Catherine puts up a status, "Bronze Horseman" 1782 "To Peter I from Catherine II" (in Latin) Status of poised Peter on granite while riding a horse Created by Falconet Pushkin (1789) th Russian Literature in 18 Century As century begins, literature church-oriented; churches control printing press, no audience for serious secular literature Literature => Europeanized (imitating Europe and using them as a model) Turn away from Russia's own literacy models: European models rather than Old Russian literature, primary chronicles and saints' lives Direct influence at first => Poland, then France and Germany Verse, then drama, the prose genres developing, memoirs, histories 1730s and 1740s --> Russians draw on models from European literature of late 16 and early 17 centuries th By end of 18 century they have pretty much caught up with Western Europe and producing similar sort of literature Gavrila Derzhavian: Neo-Classicism in Russian Culture Writes Horatian Ode; modelled after Latin poet Horace Felicity 1782 --> example th Changes of the 18 Century Makes Pushkin Possible Pushkin 1799-1837 Greatest Russian poet, "father of Roman literature" Noble family, and nanny important Rebel --> internal exile (czar didn't like what he was writing) --> meant he missed 1825 Czar Nicholas I summons him to meeting and allows him to come back under one condition => he be Pushkin's personal censor 1831 => Pushkin marries Natalia 1833 => finishes tale of St. Petersburg (Bronze Horseman) Rumor that Pushkin's wife was having an affair and Pushkin believed the rumor and challenged the man to a duel in 1837. He dies two days later due to internal injuries Decembrist Rebellion (Rebellion against czar) Czar Nicholas I was his censor Pushkin dies in a duel (1837) Decembrist wives => many idolized them because they followed their husbands into exile What happens in poem? => "I'm going to build St. Petersburg," "I love you" The flood (city build on river with waterways and then there is a big storm) Giffgain => wants to marry the beautiful Perasha After the flood, Giffgain tries to find her, but finds her hut destroyed (she died in the flood) Giffgain then goes to the Bronze Horseman and yells at him blaming Perasha's death on him. The statue then comes alive and tramples and kills Giffgain.
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