PsychologyUnit3Exam.pages Psy 202
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Monday February 8 2016 Psychology Unit 3 Chapters 12141516 Chapters1amp2 Humanism focuses on personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one s highest potential gt Humanists Maslow Rogers Behavioralism Psychology can be a true science if it examines observable behavior gt Behavioralist Watson Functionalism 19th century look at why theming works the way it does precursor of modern evolutionary psychology gt Darwin Structuralism 19th century breaking down experience into its elemental parts best way gt Introspection Evolutionary Psychology our brains adapted to help our ancestors Social Psychology understand aggression prejudice altruism Cognitive Psychology the study of mental processes including perception thought memory and reasoning Gestalt Psychology a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of parts Psychoanalytic theory approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental process in shaping feelings thoughts and behavior Social Psychology the study that causes and consequences of sociality Cultural Psychology the study of how cultures re ect and she the psychological processes of their members Biological Psychology amp Neuroscience ability to image brains allowed scientists to answer new questions Positive Psychology grew out of humanism scienti c approach to studying understanding and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning gt more emphasis on science Empirical method a set of rules and techniques for observation Empiricism the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation Watson showed how environmental stimuli could be associated w a response gt taught a little baby to fear a rat Skinner Rewards and punishment affected behavior gt free will is an illusion Monday February 8 2016 o Rogers person centered unconditional positive regard o Piaget children39s cognitive development gt kids have different ways to see the world External vs Internal Validity external validity is an attribute where variables have been de ned in a normalrealistic way where as internal validity is an attribute that allows it to establish casual relationships Thirdvariable correlation two variables are correlated only because each is casually related to the third variable o Placebo clinically and statistically signi cant psychologicalphysiological response to therapeutically inert substanceprocedure Chapter 14 Good Stress o Eustress sees situations as challenges not threats ex learning how to ski studying for tests marriage Bad Stress o Bad stress psychological stress depends on the transaction between the situation and the person but does not reside in either arises from how one appraises the event and adapts to it Lazarus 2 variables l the situation 2 how people respond o Stressors something that happens to us ex major life events change GAS General Adaption Syndrome Stress reactions reaction to event 1 alarm and mobilizationmeeting and resisting stressor 2 resistance coping 1 stress and resistance to stressor 3 exhaustion negative consequences of stress illness occur when coping is inadequate o only refers to Bad stress o Stress reduction strategies cognitive therapy thought stopping PT SD can be both on going ex domestic violence or one time ex house fire car crash o must have either direct exposure witnessing person indirectly close relativefriend exposed repeated indirect exposure to details Symptoms o Intustion nightmares ashbacks traumatic pay o Avoidance Inability to recall details avoiding reminders 0 Negative alterations in cognitionmood 2 Monday February 8 2016 o Alterations in arousal and reactivity increased startle response Complex Traumatic Stress 0 other events less simple chronic child abuse domestic violence prolonged captivity o Symptoms behavior avoiding reminders affect emotion regulation anger cognitive difficulty distorted time not thinking about reminder relationship problems trust altered systems of meaning Just God world is fundamentally safe Stress and Optimism o optimism assosciated w better mental and physical health ex more likely to maintain social relationships during times of stress o happiness can make people gullibleless likely to detect deception o can lead to big disappointment primed w positive negative or neutral emotions Fight or Flight o Tend and Befriend many people do opposite go to event and care for others o women more likely to respond w tend and befriend gt related to differences in cortisol and oxytocin Chapter 15 De ning Mental Disorders Any extreme variation in our thoughts feelings or behaviors is not a mental illness example mourning the loss of a loved one severe anxiety before a test a night of excessive alcohol consumption A mental disorder has to be pathological not a one time thing Mental Disorder A persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior thoughts or emotions that causes significant distress or impairment People with mental disorders have problems with perception memory learning emotion motivation thinking and social processes Still being questioned to this day Conceptualizing Mental Disorders Historically people sought a religious explanation for mental disorders punishment for sin bewitched placed under enchantment People have always feared the mentally unstable Medical Model Abnormal psychological experiences are conceptualized as illnesses that like physical illnesses have biological and environmental causes de ned symptoms and possible cures Monday February 8 2016 First step to determine nature of the problem is through diagnosis Through diagnosis clinicians look to asses signs observable indicators and symptoms behaviors thoughts emotions that suggest an illness Disorder refers to a common set of signs and symptoms Disease known pathological process affecting the body Diagnosis a determination as to whether a disorder or disease is present Mental Disorders are shown as mental problems to have people view them as someone in need of help not condemnation C lassifjing Disorders T he Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Psychologists and psychiatrists use the DSM to classify people First version of DSM was published in 1952 DSM a classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other similar problems Diagnostic criteria published in first two volumes was vague Diagnostic Criteria person had to at least been feeling sad for 2 weeks 5 of 9 symptoms were agreed upon Half of America report they have at least one of the disorders 80 of those who report have comorbidity Comorbidity the cooccurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual Causation of Disorders the basic medical model is not accurate because it tends to oversimplify there isn39t one cause and one cure to mental illness Biopsychological Perspective eXplains mental disorders as the result of interactions among biological psychological and social factors Biological factors genetic and epigenetic in uences and abnormalities in brain structure and function Psychological factors maladaptive learning and coping cognitive biases dysfunctional attitudes and interpersonal problems Social Factors poor socialization stressful life experiences and cultural and social inequities DiathesisStress Model Suggests that a person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains uneXpressed until triggered by stress A New Approach to Understanding Mental Disorders RDoC 4 Monday February 8 2016 DSM more like a dictionary than a bible RDoC a new initiative that aims to guide the classi cation and understanding of mental disorders by revealing he basic processes that give rise to them RDoC focusses on biological factors like genes and cells and how they relate to the brain and its function Dangers of Labeling Many people with psychiatric disorders do not seek treatment for fear of being labelled with negative stereotypes and stigmas Labels tend to stay with the person Anxiety Disorders Pathological anxiety is maladaptive takes ahold of people s lives stealing their peace of mind and undermining their ability to function normally Anxiety Disorder the class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature There is signi cant comorbidity with anxiety disorder and depression disorder Anxiety disorders recognized in DSM5 phobic disorders panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder Phobic Disorders many phobic disorders are grown out of childhood experiences Phobic Disorder marked persistent and excessive fear and avoidance of speci c objects activities or situations Speci c Phobia an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual s ability to function 5 categories animals natural environments situations blood inj ections injury other phobias 12 of people will develop a speci c phobia in their lifetime More women than men Social Phobia an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed Ex public speaking eating in public urinating in a public bathroom Mainly having to deal with reactions to unfamiliar people 12 of men and 14 of women have social phobia at one point in their lives Phobias are very common because they show uncertainty in situations Preparedness Theory people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears People fear angry facial expressions more than anything 30 of rst relatives of people with phobias inherit the phobia Monday February 8 2016 phobias can be conditioned John Watson and Little Albert Panic Disorder Panic Disorder the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror Symptoms shortness of breath heart palpitations sweating dizziness depersonalization derealization Agoraphobia a speci c phobia involving a fear of public places 22 of population has at least one panic attack 5 of people are likely to be diagnosed with panic disorder a fear of fear Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms restlessness fatigue concentration problems irritability muscle tension and sleep disturbance 6 of people in US suffer from GAD neurotransmitter imbalances can play a role from a Biological perspective environmental in uences play a role from psychological perspective low income Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 0CD repetitive intrusive thoughts obsessions and ritualistic behaviors compulsions designed to fend off those thoughts interfering significantly with an individual s functioning anXiety is created from the obsession 2 of US has OCD People with OCD respond very well with psychotherapy Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD chronic physiological arousal recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind War is the leading cause of PTSD 7 of US suffer from PTSD at one point in their lives Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Mood Disorders mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature and take two forms depression and bipolar disorders Monday February 8 2016 Depressive Disarders Major Depressive Disorder Unipolar Depression a severely depressed mood andor inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness lethargy and sleep and appetite disturbance Dysthymia the same cognitive and bodily problems as in depression are present but they are less severe and last longer persisting for at least 2 years Double Depression a moderately depressed mood that persists for at least 2 years and is punctuated by periods of major depression Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern 18 of people have criteria for depression 3345 or offspring tend to also suffer from depression depression arises from interactions between different parts of the brain Psycholagical F actors Helplessness Theory individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal stable and global People with depression develop a negative schema interpretations of information a tendency to interpret neutral information negatively attention trouble disengaging from negative information memory better recall of negative information Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder a condition characterized by cycles of abnormal persistent high mood mania and low mood depression Bialogical Factors has one of the highest hereditary rates 4070 identical 10 fraternal Psycholagical F actors Expressed Emotion a measure of how much hostility criticism and emotional over involvement are used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder Schizophrenia and Other Psychatic Disarders Schizophreniathe profound disruption of basic psychological processes a distorted perception of reality altered or blunted emotion and disturbances in thought motivation and behavior Schizophrenia is diagnosed when two or more symptoms emerge and persist for at least 6 months Positive Symptoms thoughts and behaviors not seen in those without the disorder 7 Monday February 8 2016 Hallucinations false perceptual experiences that have a compelling sense of being read despite the absence of external stimulation Delusions patently false beliefs often bizarre and grandiose that are maintained in spite of their irrationality Disorganized Speech a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently among unrelated topics Grossly Disorganized Behavior behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals often with speci c motor disturbances Catatonic Behavior marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and overactivity Negative Symptoms de cits or disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors Cognitive Symptoms de cits in cognitive abilities speci cally in executive functioning attention and working memory Dopamine Hypothesis the idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity Schizophrenics have enlarged ventricles loss of brain tissue mass Family environment affects schizophrenia Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder a condition beginning in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication de cits as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors interests or activities 6 in 10000 children have autism Sometimes the person can have enhanced skills AttentionDe cit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD a persistent pattern of severe problems with inattention andor hyperactivity or impulsiveness that cause signi cant impairments in functioning Child has to have symptoms for 6 months to be diagnosed Conduct Disorder Conduct Disorder a persistent pattern of deviant behavior involving aggression to people or animals destruction of property deceitfulness or theft or serious rule violations Personality Disorders Personality Disorders enduring patterns of thinking feeling or relating to others or controlling impulses that deviate from cultural expectations and cause distress or impaired functioning Monday February 8 2016 Antisocial Personality Disorder APD a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood SelfHarm Behaviors It is in our innate sense to stay alive Suicidal Behavior Suicide intentional selfin icted death Suicide Attempt potentially harmful behavior With some intention of dying NonSuicidal SelfInjury NSSI direct deliberate destruction of body tissue in the absence of any intent to die Chapter 16 Treatment 464 of people in the US suffer from some type of mental disorder at some point in their lifetime 262 suffer at least one symptom during a given year 18 of people With a mental disorder receive treatment Why Many People Fail to Seek Treatment 1 People may not realize they have a mental disorder that could be effectively treated 2 There may be barriers to treatment such as belies and circumstances that keep people from getting help 3 Structural barriers prevent people from physically getting to treatment Approaches to Treatment two types biological and psychological sometimes combined Psychological Treatments Psychotherapy an interaction between a socially sanctioned clinician and someone suffering from a psychological problem With the goal of providing support or relief from the problem Eclectic Psychotherapy a form of psychotherapy that involves draWing on techniques from different forms of therapy depending on the client and the problem Psychodynamic Therapy Monday February 8 2016 Has roots in Freud s psychoanalytically oriented theory of personality Psychodynamic Psychotherapies explore childhood events and encourage individuals to use this understanding to develop insight into their psychological problems people are born with aggressive and sexual urges that are repressed during childhood Psychoanalysts encourage their clients to open up about these con icts to understand the consciousness Free Association client reports whatever comes to their mind without censorship or ltering Dream Analysis psychoanalysis may treat dreams as metaphors that symbolize unconscious con icts or wishes and that contain disguised clues that the therapist can help the client understand Interpretation This is the process by which the therapist deciphers the meaning underlying what the client says or does Analysis of Resistance therapist may suggest an interpretation that the client nds unacceptable Resistance a reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material Transference when the analyst begins to assume a major signi cance in the client s life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies Interpersonal Psychotherapy IPT A form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships Humanistic ana Existential Therapies PersonCentered Therapy assumes that all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist PCT was developed by Carl Rogers each person is capable of determining their own goals for therapy therapists are to show empathy towards the client Gestalt Therapy has the goal of helping the client become aware of his or her thoughts behaviors eXperiences and feelings and to own or take responsibility for them founded by Frederick Perls therapists are warm and gentle to their client asking how the client feels when they open up about their past or present Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies Behavior therapy started from lab ndings from behavioral psychologists focusses on behaviors that can be observed not unconscious mindset 1O Monday February 8 2016 Behavior Therapy disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors Token Economy giving clients tokens for desired behaviors which they can later trade for rewards Exposure Therapy confronting an emotionarousing stimulus directly and repeatedly ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response primarily focusses on changing a persons behavior Cognitive Therapy helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self others or the world Emphasize interpretation of even Cognitive Restructuring teaching clients to question the automatic beliefs assumptions and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs Mindfulness Meditation teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment to be aware of his or her thoughts feelings and sensations and to detect symptoms before they become a problem Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT problem focused blend of behavioral and cognitive therapy usually is used to treat depression and anxiety Group Treatments Couples Therapy married cohabitation or dating couple is seen together in therapy to work on problems usually arising within the relationship Group Therapy a technique in which multiple participants who often do not know one another on the outset work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere SelfHelp Groups discussion groups that focus on a particular disorder in life or a dif cult life experience Medical and Biological Treatments medicine is the most common treatment for diseases Antipsychotic Medications 11 Antipsychotic drugs treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders Asylum psychiatric hospital Psychopharmacology the study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms atypical drugs new class of antipsychotic drugs typical drugs old class Monday February 8 2016 Tardive dyskinesia a condition of involuntary movements of the face mouth and extremities from going of meds AntiAnxiety Medications AA Medications drugs that help reduce a person s experience of fear or anxiety drugs known as benzodiazepines Valium Xanax AntiDepressants and Mood Stabilizers Antidepressants a class of drugs that help lift people s moods SSRIs the common drugs to treat depressions Prozac Celexa Paxil Block reuptake of serotonin in the brain Mood Stabilizers treat bipolar disorder suppress swings of mood Herbal and Natural Products nonman made supplements that may or may not help Combining Medication and Psychotherapy combining both forms of treatment is more effective than one alone Biological Treatments Beyond Medication Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT shock therapy a treatment that involves inducing a brief seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS a treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person s scalp which alters neuronal activity in the brain Phototherapy a therapy that involves repeated exposure to light helps seasonal depression Psychosurgery the surgical destruction of specific brain areas Treatment Illusions Natural Improvement the tendency to return to their mean or average level Placebo an inert substance or procedure that has been applied with the expectation that a healing response will be produced Reconstructive Memory you might think you have improved but really you39re misremembering Iatrogenic Illness a disorder or symptom that occurs as a result of a medical or psychotherapeutic treatment itself A therapist may think the client has a disorder in which the client really does not have 12
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