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BSU / History / HIST 150 / Who is martin luther?

Who is martin luther?

Who is martin luther?


School: Ball State University
Department: History
Course: The West in the World
Professor: Malone
Term: Spring 2016
Cost: 25
Name: History 150: Exam 2 Material
Description: The Reformation-1
Uploaded: 02/09/2016
3 Pages 108 Views 1 Unlocks

2/8/16: The Reformation

Who is martin luther?

The Reformation.

***test questions***

∙ October 31, 1517.

o Martin Luther unwittingly started the Reformation with his Ninety­Five Theses.  Stimulate a debate within the university.

 Response to Johann Tetzel.

∙ #27: It is mere human talk to preach that the soul flies out [of

purgatory] immediately the money clinks in the collection­box.

∙ #28: It is certainly possible that when the money clinks in the

collection­box  greed   and   avarice   can   increase;   but   the

intercession of the Church depends on the will of God alone.

∙ #81: This wanton preaching of pardons makes it difficult even for

Who published the pamphlet to the christian nobility?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the elements of abnormality?

learned men to redeem respect due to the Pope from slanders or

at least the shrewd questioning of the laity.

∙ #94:  Christians  should be exhorted to  seek earnestly  to follow

Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hells.

∙ #95:   And  let  them  thus  be  more   confident  of  entering  heaven

through many tribulations rather than through a false assurance of


∙ Indulgences.

o A piece of paper that granted remission of part or all of the time an individual might have to spend in purgatory due to sin.

o Johann Tetzel’s sale of indulgences.

 Sales used by the Pope for the construction of a new basilica in Rome.  “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from the Purgatory springs.”

Who issued a papal edict condemning luther?

o The Council of Trent.

 1545­1563

 Prohibited the sale of indulgences.

∙ 1520.

o Luther published a pamphlet, To The Christian Nobility. Don't forget about the age old question of What is it called when a character shares their thoughts and feelings with the audience?

 Could purchase for themselves or dead relative.

 Moving in a more radical direction.

 Directly addressed to German Princes.

∙ Cast off their allegiance to the Pope and help establish a reformed If you want to learn more check out How is human behavior influenced?

church in German states.

∙ 1520.

o Pope Leo X issued a papal edict condemning Luther.

 Recant theoretical ideas.

 Burnt the paper edict.

∙ Luther was excommunicated.

∙ 1521.

2/8/16: The Reformation

o Charles V (the Holy Roman Emperor) summoned Luther to a meeting. o Luther refused to recant his heretical ideas.

 Frederick of Saxony saved Luther when he “kidnapped” and hid him for a year.

∙ Spreading the message:

o The development of printing.

 New technologies in communication.

 Crucial in spreading religious thinking and Luther’s words.

o Johann Gutenberg’s invention of moveable type for printing (c. 1450). o Printing press.

 Shift from parchment to paper.

 The cost of books will drop by 1/5th percent.

∙ By 1500 there were more than 1,000 printing shops in Europe.

o Woodcuts by Lucas Cranach.

 Medium for this time period for those who could not read.

 Follower of Luther.

∙ A new faith (the first Protestant faith).

o Lutheranism. Don't forget about the age old question of On the accompanying diagram of a pendulum, at what position is the potential energy maximum?

 Roman’s 1:17

∙ “The just shall live by faith.”

 Final authority by religious matters.

 German translation for the Bible.

 No biblical implication in indulgences.

 Salvation.

∙ Achieved through faith alone.

 Final authority on religious matters.

∙ The Bible.

 Everyone should read the Bible.

 Beliefs and practices that had no basis in the Bible were eliminated.

o Catholicism:

 Salvation.

∙ Achieved through faith and good works.

 Final authority on religious matters.

∙ The Bible and decisions made by the Popes and Church Councils.

 Only the clergy can read and interpret the Bible correctly.

∙ Implications of the Reformation.

o Establishment   of   other   Protestant   groups;   end   of   religious   unity   and   papal supremacy.

o Religious warfare.

 Examples in German states from 1546­1555.

o Religious persecution and massacres.

 August 24, 1572.

 The St. Bartholomeus’s Day massacre.Don't forget about the age old question of Where does primary neuron come from?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the driving forces in mantle convection?

2/8/16: The Reformation

 Massacre of Huguenots (French Calvinists) in Paris and the provinces.

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