Study Guide for Chapter Two
Study Guide for Chapter Two 30156
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Susanna Lebas on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 30156 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Helen Piontkivska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see ELEMENTS OF GENETICS in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Study Guide Chapter Two Chapter 2 Word Bank Somatic cell Homozygous Heterogamous Pollen Grain Spermatogonial Gametes Heterozygous Isogamous Embryo Sac Primary Spermatocyte Karyotype Locus Spermatogenesis Endosperm Oogonia Alleles Binary Fission Oogenesis Chromosomes Haploid Crossing Over Gametophyte Nucleoid Primary Oocytes Plant species tend to alternate between haploid and diploid generations known as __________________ and _________________. Bacterial cells divide into two daughter cells by a process known as_____________________. Any cell of the body that is not a gamete or a precursor to a gamete, such as blood cells, is known as_________________. Male gametophyte with a particularly thick cell wall is called ___________________. An organelle which is bounded by two membranes that create the nuclear envelope in Eukaryotic cells is the ___________________. Structures in living cells that contain genetic material are ____________________. Physical location of a gene is called _________________. ________________ are egg and sperm cells within the human body. ___________________ means two homologs carry the same allele unlike like ______________ where the homologs carry different alleles. ___________________cells contain a single set of chromosomes and are produced from a cell that was originally diploid. ___________________is a seven cell structure that is a mature female gametophyte. Physical exchanges of chromosome pieces that also exchange genetic information are called_________________. Gametes are produced through a specific process called____________________. This structured representation of chromosomes reveals how man y chromosomes are in in actively dividing cell. ______________________. Versions of a given gene are called______________. Most eukaryotic species are _____________meaning each type of chromosomes is in a pair. Prokaryotes have a specific region in the cytoplasm that carries a single type of circular chromosome called a__________________. In plant reproduction, the cell divides mitotically to produce________________ which acts as food-storing tissues. Morphologically similar gametes are known as ______________, while two morphologically different gametes are called______________. The production of sperm is called _________________. Testes contain ______________________cells that eventually divide by mitosis into two cells. One cell will remain a spermatogonial cell while the other becomes ___________________ which will then progress through meiosis and meiosis II to produced four haploid cells called_________________________. The production of eggs in a female animal is called ____________________. This occurs in a special part of the ovary known as the ____________________ which initiates meiosis to produce _______________. Match the stages of mitosis to the correct descriptions below. *They’re not in the coProphaseder. A. This stage in mitosis has three phases; the G1 phase where a cell prepares to divide, the S phase where chromosomes are replicated, and finally the G2 phase where the cell collects materials necessary for nuclear and cell division. B. In this stage the centrosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and create two spindle poles. One for each new future daughter cell. Metaphase C. Chromosomes eventually reach their respective poles and decondense also the nuclear membrane reforms to produce two separate nuclei. D. The connection that is responsible for holding the chromatids together brakes resulting in Interphase E. Pairs of sister chromatids begin to align themselves along the metaphase plate. F. This stage involves two nuclei segregating into separate daughter cells. Mitosis is hastily followed by this stage where myosin hydrolyzes ATP shortens the plasma membrane causing a process known as cleavage furrow that moves inward eventually pinching the separating cell into two. Cytokinesis G. The nuclear membrane begins to dissociate in this stage while simultaneously the chromatids condense into more compact structures. The mitotic spindle also begins to form Meiosis I and II are similar to that of mitosis except for Prophase 1 and the number of cells produced. Prometaphase Four haploid cells are produce through Meiosis and in Prophase 1 crossing over occurs. This is critical for the proper segregation of chromosomes. After that meiosis preforms pretty much the exact way as meiosis. Below is an example of Prophase 1. Telophase Anaphase
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