SOC 3422 Midterm Review Guide
SOC 3422 Midterm Review Guide SOC 3111
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Notetaker on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 3111 at University of Utah taught by Michael Timberlake in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Sociology at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Social Movements - Midterm Review th Exam Thursday February 11 , 2016 Core elements of social movements Collective action Collective identities and beliefs Orientation toward change Some degree of organization Some degree of temporal continuity What is the difference between “troubles” and “issues,” and why does this difference matter for social movements? Troubles o Belong to individuals Issues o Belong to society Identify the steps and sequencing of the value-added approach Emergence o Widespread dissatisfaction or a small vanguard (group of leaders who try to do the mobilizing) Coalescence o The movement begins to define itself and develop strategy o Develop policies; recruit additional members; work on gaining media attention Institutionalization o If they last longer they build up to organizational structures o They rely less on charisma of individual leaders and more on expertise of bureaucratic leaders o Effectiveness often lessens at this stage But there is conflict in the literature about this. Structure is necessary to maintain the organization but too much lessens the focus on social change o Tend to decline at this stage for a number of reasons Success Mainstream acceptance and new advantages o Think small; employ disruptive tactics; formal structures to combat fractionalization; presence of radical competitors; and active during crisis periods – forces response from powerful individuals and groups Failure cooptation Cooptation: if leaders start to cozy up with the leaders of the institutions that they are protesting or with the government officials, or CEO’s Social Movements Midterm Review ©Danielle Searle 1 Social Movements - Midterm Review th Exam Thursday February 11 , 2016 Repression Most people fear repression Identify key differences among major collective action theories Convergence theory o People who have convergent interest come together and act collectively o Example: Rioting breaking out after a sports match Emergent norm theory o Sometimes leaders or keynoters (trendsetters) emerge These people don’t always lead the movement, but they start it and may influence others to do what they have done also Contagion theory o People tend to do the same things as those around them and they like to be a part of something bigger than they are so they do what everyone else is doing. Similar to peer pressure o Crowds have a hypnotic effect on people. When people are part of a group they become somewhat invisible or anonymous and they aren’t pointed out by others. People are sheep and they follow the group o Example: Protest events: One individual starts chanting and then the group also chants Identify types of social movements based on their scope and scale of change Alternative o Scope of change: subgroups o Scale of change: limited Redemptive o Scope of change: subgroups o Scale of change: radical Reformative o Scope of change: society o Scale of change: limited Revolutionary o Scope of change: society o Scale of change: radical On average, who—or rather, which type of person—is most likely to participate in collective action? Those who have the least to loose are often most likely to be active in a social movement According to research, when are social movements most likely to be successful? When they focus on one core issue or many different issues? o One issue When they employ disruptive or conventional tactics? o Conventional Why they create formal structures or remain decentralized? o Formal structures When they are active during settled periods or times of crisis? Social Movements Midterm Review ©Danielle Searle 2 Social Movements - Midterm Review th Exam Thursday February 11 , 2016 o Times of crisis – because those in power are forced to respond How do social movement analysts define “success,” particularly in terms of acceptance and new advantages? Full response o New advantages and mainstream acceptance Collapse o No new advantages or mainstream acceptance Pre-emption o New advantages but no mainstream acceptance Co-optation o No new advantages but mainstream acceptance What is the political process model, and what are its key elements? How are these elements related to one another, either in complementary or contradictory ways? The resources that people need to sustain a social movement very rarely come from within the social movement. Often movements have to rely on outside sources of resources What are political opportunity structures, and why do they matter for social movements? The degree to which the institutionalized political system is open or closed Social Movements Midterm Review ©Danielle Searle 3 Social Movements - Midterm Review th Exam Thursday February 11 , 2016 o Durable state structures o What type of regime do you have? This determines how susceptible the state is to social movements State’s capacity and propensity for repression o Does the state control the means to repress you and your movement? Are they willing to deploy those means? Stability or instability of elite alignments o Are elites centralized or fragmented? If they are fragmented they are competing with each other to get control and may find support in social movements in order to gain the power and control what they want Presence or absence of elites o Does the movement have friends in high places? Concrete or cross-sectional o Openness of closure of the political system o Stat’s capacity and propensity for repression Variable or dynamic o Stability or instability of elite arrangements o Presence or absence of elite allies Understand the different dimensions of political opportunity structures, as discussed by Kitschelt, and be able to identify their impact on social movements. Social Movements Midterm Review ©Danielle Searle 4 Social Movements - Midterm Review th Exam Thursday February 11 , 2016 Inputs (how open or closed?) Outputs (how strong or weak?) Social Movements Midterm Review ©Danielle Searle 5 Social Movements - Midterm Review th Exam Thursday February 11 , 2016 What arte collective action frames, and what role to they play in social movements? “Cognitive liberation” o Injustice frame Diagnostic Prognostic o Efficacy frame Motivational Be able to identify and define different kinds of frame alignment. Bridging Amplification Extension Transformation What are social movement organizations, industries, and sectors? Social movement organizations function within an industry and industries within a sector o Within a social movement are many organizations operating at once These organizations working on the same movement at the same time create an industry All organizations working at a given time create a sector even if they are not working on the same social movement Industries compete with each other for organization funding and those organizations are doing close to the same thing Who are the “major players” in social movements, according to the resource mobilization perspective, and what are their primary roles? Adherents Social Movements Midterm Review ©Danielle Searle 6 Social Movements - Midterm Review th Exam Thursday February 11 , 2016 o People who believe in the movement’s goals o Conscience Adherents People who are part of a movement but do not stand to benefit directly from it Constituents o People who provide resources for the movement o They do not need to be the same people as the adherents o Conscience Constituents People who provide resources to a movement but do not stand to benefit directly from it Beneficiaries o People who stand to benefit from the social movement Bystanders o People who are neutral with respect to the movement Opponents o People who disagree with the movement’s goals Understand the role—both positive and negative—that conscience constituents play in social movement organizations. Conscience constituents provide resources to a movement but do not benefit directly from it They can be beneficial because most social movements are constantly looking for the resources necessary in order to make a difference in the social world. However, because they do not stand to benefit from the movement itself, it could be very easy for those individuals to remove their resources at any time without really feeling any terrible negative consequences. Social Movements Midterm Review ©Danielle Searle 7
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