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Child Dev Study Guide Exam 3

by: Chelsea Wallen

Child Dev Study Guide Exam 3 PSY 311

Marketplace > Marshall University > Psychlogy > PSY 311 > Child Dev Study Guide Exam 3
Chelsea Wallen
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About this Document

This is a study guide for Child Development (PSY 311) for the final exam.
Child development
Keelon Hinton
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chelsea Wallen on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 311 at Marshall University taught by Keelon Hinton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Child development in Psychlogy at Marshall University.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Child Development Final Exam Ch 1 Nomothetic: all human beings are a like and should develop in the same manner, general universal principles Ethnographic: By virtue of group membership, people are more like those they share group membership with than those they do not share group membership with, group differences Idiographic: there are ways in which every person is historically unique, individual differences/variations Ch 6 Sensorimotor Period  Birth-2yrs  Understand the world through their overt, physical action.  Object permanence: ability to understand things exist even if we cannot see them Reasons why kids repeat behavior 1) Circular Reaction: a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat chance events caused by their own motor activity (dropping a rattle on accident but then purposely dropping it to create the noise again) 2) Understanding of Time: They only understand time in the everyday mundane things they do 3) Intentional behavior: sequence of action in which schemes are deliberately combined to solve a problem  Mental representation: Vital for make believe play and deferred imitation (the ability to copy and remember the behavior of models who are not present) Preoperational  2-7  Use objects as symbols and mental representations take place  Egocentrism  Conservation: Understanding that certain physical characteristics of an object remain the same, even if appearance changes  Centration: Focus on one aspect/characteristic and neglect others (Example: tall glass vs short glass) Concrete Period  7-11  Thought becomes more logical  Understand things remain the same even if their appearance changes Formal Operations  11-Older  Abstract thinking occurs  Think of possible outcomes in scientific problems  Consequences of Abstract Thinking How Vygotsky feels kids use language -kids use language to help construct thought -Egocentrism: -It is how a child mental reasons its way through a problem -It doesn’t go away but internalizes, becomes the thoughts in our heads -Language and thought occur simultaneously Ch 10 Ainsworth -developed the strange situation (a procedure involving short separations from and reunions with the parents that assesses the quality of the attachment bond) -put a mother and her infant in the room with a stranger, the mother leaves and comes back a few minutes later. The was the infant responds to being left with a stranger as well as the way the infant responds to the mother coming back tells the type of attachment bond the mother and infant have Attachment types 1. Secure: have available and responsive caregivers, most common in society; child cried when mom left and became happy when she came back; form secure healthy relationships later in life 2. Anxious/ambivalent: inconsistent and inappropriate caregivers, kids are drawn to caregivers but don’t seem to trust them; child cried when mom left and cried when mom came back; insecure in future relationships because parents were unpredictable and unfair/inconsistency 3. Avoidant: result from unresponsive, sometimes rejecting caregivers, these infants appear to get no comfort or security from the caregiver; child did not cry either time mom left and came back; find it difficult to trust others, may not know how to interpret love because of neglect, jealous Ch 11 I-self -the active observer of experience -the knower Me-self -the observer, or what is known about the self -the known Looking glass self phenomena -Cooley and Meads -the idea that our sense of self is largely derived from our evaluation of social feedback from others -Cooley: we are what we think other people think we are The beginnings of the I-self start with kids recognizing their own actions between 1-2 years old During the second year the me-self develops with awareness of the self’s physical features. Self-efficacy Self-esteem -global overall feel and assessment about your self-worth Anorexia Bulimia Ch 8 Socialization -process of how we learn our roles in society through observation -different in theory if a group’s goals, values, and beliefs dominate a society -easier for white families than families of color because white families’ goals, values, and beliefs are supported by and congruent with society because they are the majority; people of color may have different goals, values, and beliefs How your group (whites, blacks, etc.) got here can affect your willingness to want to assimilate into the mainstream. Ch 12 Internalization: process of adopting societal standards for right action as one’s own Social learning theory -belief that morality is acquired just like any other set of responses: through reinforcement and modeling Modeling: observing and imitating adults who demonstrate appropriate behavior *According to the cognitive development perspective, cognitive maturity and social experience lead to advances in moral understanding, from a superficial orientation to physical power and external. Kohlberg’s 3 stages of moral reasoning: 1. Preconventional level: morality is externally controlled; morality is based on rewards, punishment, and the power of authority figures -punishment and obedience orientation: kids find it difficult to consider two points, they ignore people’s intention, and focus on people’s intentions and avoidance of punishment 2. Conventional level: second stage in which morality is based on conforming to societies rules to ensure positive human relationships and societal order 3. Postconventional level: third stage in which individuals define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies Piaget’s 2 stages of moral development  Heteronomous morality (5yrs-10yrs) - Children view morals in terms of realism (a view of rules as external features of reality rather than as cooperative principles that can be modified at will) - Two factors limit children’s moral understanding: 1. The power of adults that insist children comply with what they want, 2. Cognitive immaturity (inability to see and appreciate other perspectives) - Adult power, egocentrism, and realism result in superficial moral understanding. In judging an act of wrongness, younger children focus on outcomes rather than intent to do harm  Autonomous morality (about 10yrs and older) - Children view rules as flexible socially agreed-on principle that can be revised to suit the will of the majority - Cognitive development, gradual release from adult control and peer interaction lead to this transition, Piaget regarded peer disagreement as expecially facilitating - Children interact as equals with peers, they learn to settle conflicts in mutually beneficial ways - They start to use reciprocity (expression of others welfare as they would want for themselves). This defines the beginning or morality of cooperation which leads to ideal reciprocity (standard of fairness based on mutuality of expectation, in which individuals express the same concern for the welfare of others as they would have others grant to them; captured by the golden rule) Development of prejudice  Emotional adjustment - Links the acquisition of prejudice to the development of a certain personality type, the authoritarian personality type - Influenced by Freudian thinking children’s prejudice was considered to stem from emotional adjustment arising from a repressive and harshly disciplined upbringing - Child’s anger frustration and hostility towards his/her parents was considered to be displaced away from the parents towards scapegoats who were weaker and lacked authority and power, such as members in minority groups - Strengths: accounts for differences of levels of prejudice in individuals - Weaknesses: it cannot account for the uniformity of prejudice across whole groups of people in a particular place or time; nor does it explain why some groups are the recipients and not others - Ignores the importance of social environment in influencing people’s (including children’s intergroup attitudes and behaviors)  Social reflection - Children’s prejudices reflects community values, which are transmitted to children by parents - Children learn their attitudes towards ethnic groups by direct training or by imitating parents verbal or nonverbal behavior - Presumably, such learning occurs because: *the children are rewarded for their imitative behavior, *identify with their parents *and/or want to please them - Children between the ages of 3-4 begin to develop an awareness of intergroup relationships; there is a positive correlation between parents and their children’s feelings about race and other ethnic groups  sociocognitive theory: - most complete and explicitly developmental account of the development of prejudice is Aboud’s (1988) sociocognitive theory - children’s attitudes toward other groups depend on levels of development in relation to two overlapping sequences of perceptual-cognitive development - one sequence involves the process that dominates a child’s experiences at a time - children are initially dominated by affective (emotional) perceptual experiences associated with fear of the unknown and attachment to the familiar *here perceptual processes dominate creating preference for in-group and rejection of out-group being determined by physical attributes (skin color, language, etc.) - cognitive processes take over around age 7, from here children start to understand the individual rather than group based qualities - the second sequence deals with focus of attention *while very young kids focus on themselves because they are egocentric, older kids focus on categories of people and those categories that they are a part of - tries to give an age related account of children’s prejudices - weaknesses: does not account for how fear turns into hate and dislike even in the absence of contact  social identity approach - places considerable emphasis on motivation and awareness of social structure in accounting for prejudice, its explanation is provided by the social identiy theory - prejudice and discrimination arise from people’s desire to identify with groups who are positively distinct and comparatively superior in order to enhance self esteem - in-group members are seen as similar, have positive qualities because they are similar and get positive bias, out group members are not viewed as similar and are more likely to attract prejudicial attitudes Ch. 4 SIDS - unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant under 1 year old of age that remains unexpected after thorough investigation. - SIDS babies are often sleeping on their stomach or side than on back. Cephalocaudal trend – First motor control of the head comes before the control of the arms and trunk, which comes before control of the legs. Head to tail sequence. Proximodistal trend – Proceeds from the center of the body outward, in that head, trunk and arm control is advanced over coordination of the hands and fingers. Gross motor development – Refers to control over actions that help infants get around in the environment (example: crawling, standing, walking, etc.) Fine motor Development – Has to do with smaller movements (example: reaching, grasping, finger movements etc..) Downs Syndrome -


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