PSYC 10213, Exam 1 notes
PSYC 10213, Exam 1 notes PSYC 10213
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Exam 1 – General Psychology Chapters 1 – 4 Hindsight bias The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. “I knew it all along.” Illusory correlation The perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. Parents conceive children after adoption. (false) we must look at confirming and disconfirming evidence. Theory: an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events. Ex: students who study more perform better on exams. Hypothesis: A testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory. Control Group The group in an experiment that is not exposed to the treatment. Contrasts with the experimental group. Experimental Group The group in an experiment that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental (breast-fed) and control (formula- fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups. Random Sample A sample that fairly represents a population, because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. Double-blind procedure In evaluating drug therapies, patients and experimenter’s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment. Ex: rogain cream. Operational Definition: A statement of the operations used to define research variables. Ex: human intelligence may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures.” Independent and Dependent variables Independent: a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study. For example, when examining the effects of breast-feeding upon intelligence, breast-feeding is the independent variable. Dependent: a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process. For example, in our study on the effect of breast-feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable. Case Study A technique in which one person or one group is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. Survey A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people. *not very in depth due to no follow up Qs. *great for getting a lot of info. from many. Experiment: The actual experiment/what you do in your study to find an answer and gather data. Correlation When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. R=correlation coefficient (-1-1) positive: the same. Negative: inverse. +1=perfect positive correlation (not realistic). *just because there’s a correlation, doesn’t mean x causes y. Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunchroom constitute naturalistic observation. However, the observer often changes the behavior of the ppl. Ex: principal watching a classroom. *no such thing as a perfect study. Sample The group of people used in the experiment. Population The total population of a given region. Biological Psychology The application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals. Dendrites Branching extensions at the cell body. Receive messages from other neurons. *info. comes through the dendrites. *info. goes to the cell body. *info. is then passed through the axon to the terminal branches of the axon. Axons Long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons. Synapse A junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft. (between dendrite and axon tip) Action Potential A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane. *it either fires or it doesn’t. *It’s essential that everything is lined up correctly. Threshold Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many neurons. When the excitatory signals minus the inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron fires an action potential. *if it’s below the threshold then it does not fire. *if it’s enough info. then the neuron fires. Reuptake Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action. Sympathetic Nervous Systems Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. Parasympathetic Nervous Systems Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy. Central Nervous System The brain and the spinal cord. Cerebellum The “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance. Corpus Callosum The large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them. “Split brain” patients Their corpus callosum is severed and object presented in the right visual field can be named. Objects in the left visual field cannot. Occipital Lobe The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive info. from visual fields. Brain plasticity The brain’s ability to modify itself after some types of injury or illness. *Ability to relearn things. Ex: walking or talking. Left brain: Speaking or calculating. Adept at making quick, literal interpretations of language. Right brain: performing perceptual tasks. Excels at making inferences, helps us modulate speech, helps orchestrate our sense of self. Consciousness: an awareness of ourselves and our environment. Dreaming – latent and manifest content Latent: the underlying meaning of a dream. Manifest: the remembered storyline of a dream. Change Blindness When we fail to notice change. A form of inattentional blindness in which two-thirds of individuals giving directions failed to notice a change in the individual asking for directions. Circadian Rhythm Occurs on a 24 hour cycle. (Sleep and wakefulness) *when light comes into our eyes, melatonin is suppressed. Like when looking at phone screen or computer. REM Rebound The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation. Levels of brain waves during sleep (delta, alpha, theta) Alpha: Awake but relaxed. Theta: Sleep stages 1-2. High amplitude, slow regular wave form. Delta: Sleep stages 3-4. Large amp. Slow waves. 4 is the deepest sleep stage. Beta: Sleep stage 5: REM sleep. REM Sleep Rapid Eye movement. Dreaming, looks more like an awake wave pattern. REM is crucial. REM periods get longer throughout the night. Rem gives us the feeling that we slept well. Impact of alcohol or sleeping pills on REM Sleep Not good for REM sleep. Sleep deprivation Very dangerous. Causes: Fatigue and subsequent death. Impaired concentration. Emotional irritability. Depressed immune system. Greater vulnerability. Night Terrors The sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration), which occur during Stage 4 sleep. Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Cultural differences - Nature and Nurture impact Nurture is the environmental influence on someone which Is what culture is. Culture is not nature based. It’s a learned behavior. Evolutionary psychology Studies why we as humans are alike. In particular, it studies the evolution of behavior and mind using principles of natural selection. (humans are much more alike than different). Sex Unknown video Twin boys have circumcisions. One boy’s penis gets burnt off. Parents decide to raise him telling him he is a girl. He undergoes traumatic therapy and ends up finding out his true gender and later commits suicide in his thirties. Twin Studies (identical and fraternal) Identical twins separated at birth still share many of the same characteristics. Temperament types (easy, difficult, and slow to warm) Refers to a person’s stable emotional reactivity and intensity. Identical twins express similar temperaments, suggesting heredity predisposes temperament. Nature vs. Nurture Some human traits are fixed, such as having two eyes. However, most psychological traits are liable to change with environmental experience. Genes give choices to change its form or traits when environmental variables change. (self-regulating genes) Gender Schema Explains how individuals become gendered in society, and how sex-linked characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of a culture. Gender Role A set of expected behaviors for male or female, shaped by our culture. Change throughout the decades. ie. Girls having to wear dresses or not being allowed to attend college out of state. Natural Selection An evolutionary process through which adaptive traits are passed on to ongoing generations because these traits help animals survive and reproduce. *When evolution causes traits to change over very long periods of time. Selection Effect Artificial selection is when we breed 2 specific beings to get a desired effect. ie. Race horses. Norms Rules for accepted and expected behavior. Individualistic cultures If a culture nurtures an individual’s personal identity. Individualist in an emergency will be more independent. Collectivist cultures If a group identity is favored then the culture. Collectivists will be more dependent on everyone else.
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