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Chem 113, Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Natalya Bracewell

Chem 113, Exam 1 Study Guide Chem 113

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Chemistry > Chem 113 > Chem 113 Exam 1 Study Guide
Natalya Bracewell
GPA 3.53

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This PDF version of my review PowerPoint hits on all the main ideas for this first exam. I took many ideas from the Chem with Ray session which is extremely helpful! Tried to keep the points short,...
General Chemistry II
Kerry MacFarland
Study Guide
Chemistry, Chem 113, Exam 1, Study Guide, test
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalya Bracewell on Monday February 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 113 at Colorado State University taught by Kerry MacFarland in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
CHEM 113, EXAM 1 Review/StudyGuide Many ideas come fromChem with Ray sessions! Thermodynamics ΔH: Enthalpy ΔS: Entropy ΔG:Gibb’s Free Energy (+) endothermic (+) increasingdisorder (+) non spontaneous (-) exothermic (-)decrease disorder (-) spontaneous ΔH= products–reactants ΔS= products-reactants ΔG =products–reactants ΔG =ΔH-TΔS • Spontaneous: once started, can proceed without any outside intervention (withsufficientquantities ofreactants) • Non spontaneous: can NOT happen on it’sown, not self-sustaining • Entropy: measureof how dispersedenergyisat a specifictemperature, think of itas disorder/chaos • Enthalpy: heat released or absorbed Laws ofThermodynamics 1. Law of the conservation of energy • Energycannot be created nor destroyed 2. Entropy of the universe is increasing • Weirdconcept,chaos of the universe isalways increasing • Life Example:you can tellhow busy my week was by how messy/disorderlymy room is,I didn’t intentionallymake itmessybut itrequiresenergynow to fix it 3. Entropy = zero atO Kelvin • Absolutezero, crystallization • Amorphus solid: exception to the law! Basicallyanything imperfectin some way Entropy • As temperature increases, entropy increases •s = kln(w) • s=entropy,k = constant, w = available microstates • As the number of microstates increases, entropy increases •Microstate:howmanydifferent waysmolecules canarrangethemselves • Life Example:likeplayinghide-n-seek,the more peopleplaying—themore chaos, and the morehidingspots—themore chaos. • Only1 microstate atO Kelvin ComparingSystems’ Entropy 1. Look at phases! • Solid<Liquid<Gas 2. Number of moles • Asnumber of moles increases,entropy increases 3. Mass • Asmass increases,entropy increases 4. Complexity (common for organic m’cules…that’s a year away though) • The moresurface area, the more entropy ithas • Linear/elongated m’culeshave more entropy Problems • 2NO +O2 2NO2 • Alwayswrite downthis step andpluginvalues: •ΔHorΔS=(2(NO2))–(2(NO) +O2) products- reactants ΔG = -70kJ; spontaneous •When is it not spontaneous? • Equilibrium, setΔG =O MEMORIZETHIS ΔH ΔS ΔG (-) (+) Always spontaneous (-) (+) (-) Always non spontaneous (+) (-) (-) Spontaneous (-)at lower temps (+) (+) Spontaneous (-) at highertemps • RememberthatΔShas more of an impactat higher temperatures,so if it’spositiveit makes sense that itisspontaneous at highertemps Systemvs.Surroundings • System is the same as reaction • Entropy is based on temperature, hence the whole new equation for the entropy of surroundings ΔHsys= products- reactants ΔH sur= -ΔHsyst ΔSsys=products- reactants ΔS su= -ΔHsys/T ReactionRates • Rate = change in concentration / time =Δ[A] / t • Reactants decrease in a concentration because they’re being used! • Rate expression: • aA+bB cC+dD −1 Δ[????] −1 Δ[????] 1 Δ[????] 1 Δ[????] • ???? ???? = ???? ???? = ???? ???? = ???? ???? • Negative signindicates a reactant, bottom of the fraction isthe coefficient Example:2N2O5 4NO2 +O2 • When one mole ofO2isproduced, only −1 Δ[????2????5= 1 Δ[????????2= 1 Δ[????2] half of the N2O5 isconsumed 2 ???? 4 ???? 1 ???? • To findrates you can also set up the stoichiometry/moleratios KMT(Kinetic MolecularTheory) • Requirements EnergyProfile: 1. Must haveenoughenergy to react 2. Must be orientedcorrectly Ea reverse Eareverse • Activationenergy/transition state: minimum energy required (highestenergy ΔH state) • Bondsare broken and formed, willbe representedwith dashed lines • Highestpointonthe energyprofile • Life Example:likebikingup a hillor hikinga ΔH: (-)exothermic mountain, youneed the energy to get up productsare lower than reactants the hillbefore youcan go down on the other side ΔH: (+) endothermic Exampleabove ElementarySteps • Reaction mechanism: set of steps that describes how a reaction occurs at molecular level (can’t really predict it) • Intermediate: product of one elementary step, consumed in the next • Catalyst: substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed • Elementary steps: a single process in a reaction mechanism • Canbe unimolecular,bimolecular,termolecular, etc. • Representedon energy profileby various“hills”in thegraphs HelpfulTips • Kelvin = ºC + 273 • Memorize the table!! • Understand the concepts, calculations will come easier that way • Prepare,Take some deep breaths, Relax, anddrink aShirleyTemple 


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