Study Sheet for Week 5
economic capital idea that class is determined by both income and ownership, money determines class status
cultural capital: is a collection of symbolic elements, such as skills, taste, posture, clothing, mannerism, material belongings etc. that one acquires being a part of a particular social class.
habitus: the physical embodiment of cultural capital, system of durable, transposable dispositions we possess due to our life experiences.
class (give a definition according to Marx, Weber, Bourdieu, Wilson, and Wright) Class according to Marx: is determined by owners: capitalists, and nonowners: laborers. He believed that these two classes will further become isolated from each other over time (i.e bourgeois and proletariat)
Class according to Weber: believes that class is also based on money, but not due to ownership, rather he focuses on income due to your success in a labor market; suggesting that if you have a good job, you will have income.
Class according to Bordieu: incorporates WEBER and MARX ideas when he suggests that there are 4 levels of class, involving economic and cultural capital combinations. The top has high cultural capital + high economic capital while the bottom has low cultural capital + low economic capital. The middle two classes are flexible to move up or down, so those that have no cultural capital, but all economic can lose all of their money and fall into the lowest class level. Additionally, those that do have cultural capital, but do not have economic, have the intelligence that could help them to gain economic capital, and move up in class.
Class according to Wilson: defines class based off one’s socioeconomic status, education, and employment opportunities
Class according to Wright: defines class similarly to Marx’s ideals but considers those in between classes and how individuals can cross class locations by occupying different jobs throughout their career.
culture (patterned ways of acting)/Culture (Embodied (object that holds) the patterned ways of acting)
doxa: those silent “rules” that surround our lives, and all of society abides by them. (aka.. a norm) Don't forget about the age old question of ferdinand gomez fiu
orthodoxy: the norm in society, what is accepted
heterodoxy: what society does not consider normal (unconventional; alternate)
symbolic violence: rules that we follow in society, and individuals may oppose in their actions, without literally involving weapons. (ideas and values imposed by the ruling cultural class)
underclass: the segment of the population that occupies the lowest position in class hierarchy below the working class. (Wilson)
exploitation: when one person uses someone else's work to their own benefit. skill/credential assets: Educational degree, general knowledge.
organizational assets: Position of specific knowledge. We also discuss several other topics like cressed
contradictory class positions: People who don’t unambiguously own or not own assets.
analytic Marxism: Sociologists from the first column of the chart: (believe in deductive nomological ideal. There is no practical difference between natural science and social science)
1) According to Bourdieu, how are cultural objects linked to class (that is, combinations of economic and cultural capital)? Cultural objects are linked to class because depending on one’s class position in relation to economic and cultural capital, people will hold certain interests which attract them to particular cultural objects and legitimize their interests as “homology” (similarity/sameness) across classes.
Give two examples from the reading (give examples of cultural objects and Cultural
ex Upperclass will indulge in foods that are less fatty, more expensive and less filling while working class would prefer to indulge in foods that are more filling and physically gratifying. Cultural objects (object that embodies the patterned ways of acting) ex The dominant classes will wear elegant and refined clothes that embody luxurious taste while lower classes will wear clothes based on their functionality versus. aesthetic. If you want to learn more check out can forensic psychologists have tattoos
Don't forget about the age old question of tina hopper
How do these examples reflect habitus? These examples reflect habitus because different classes represent common behaviors due to growing up in particular “material” settings. Preferences towards particular foods and ways of dressing are representative to tastes in art.
How do economic and cultural capital reproduce class, and thus, social stratification?
Deriving from Marx, economic capital reproduces class and social stratification based off whether or not individual’s own a means of production. If they do own a means of
production, they will have wealth and rank in the dominant classes which social stratifies classes subordinate to them in which they exploit those people for labor. The working class shares a common culture which why they’re attracted to objects with a particular cultural capital. Don't forget about the age old question of chemical substances obtained from food
How is this theory similar to, or different from, Willis’s theory of educational reproduction? HELP!
Bourdieu, Habermas, Marcuse, Adorno, Gramsci, and Althusser, in different ways, talk about how human behavior comes to look similar either in society as a whole or within certain groups – explain this. What are other similarities and differences between these authors? Human behavior comes to look similar because classes undergo particular lived experiences with each other and sometimes alienation If you want to learn more check out math 229 usc
due to the exploitation of their labor, with common lived experiences, they tend to share common material interests and act towards a common behavior.
How does Turner describe Bourdieu’s main intellectual contributions? Bourdieu’s main intellectual contributions are his descriptions of class cultures and concept of habitus.
What is a cultural structuralist theory? Human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger structure. It uncovers the interrelations of people’s thoughts and actions and establishes the idea that culture has a structure that is itself a reality.
How does Ritzer (pp. 536548) describe Bourdieu’s main intellectual contributions? His concept of habitus (mental or cognitive structures through which people deal with the social world) and his concept of field (a network of relations among the objective positions within it; relations existing apart from individual consciousness), the values of cultural capital, viewing culture and taste as a kind of marketplace, and agency.
2) What is class for Marx, Weber, Bourdieu, Wilson, and Wright? For Marx, class is determined by owners of the means of production (capitalists) and those who did not own a means of production (laborers) in which eventually both the class will increasingly divide over time.
Weber: class is based on market position in which one’s income determines their success in the labor market and not necessarily based on whether individual’s own means of production.
For Bourdieu, class is determined based off combinations of cultural and economic capital, if you have one or the other you are capable of shifting between different classes. However there is an upper class and a lower class. Wilson defines class based off one’s socioeconomic status, education, and employment opportunities.
Wright defines class similarly to Marx’s ideals but considers those in between classes and how individuals can cross class locations by occupying different jobs throughout their career. (REPEAT OF DEFINITIONS)
For Wilson, what is an underclass? An underclass is the segment of the population that occupies the lowest position in class hierarchy below the working class.
What theorists influenced Bourdieu, Wilson, and Wright, and how do they extend them? Marx (class analysis and capitalism), Weber (market position and stratification), Durkheim (theories of social structures), Levi Strauss (structuralism).
What definition of a theory are Bourdieu, Wilson, and Wright using (refer to the chart from the first day of class)?
3) Explain Wright’s theory of exploitation and contradictory class positions. Wright’s theory of exploitation is concerned with the social relations that arise from class inequalities and exploitation of labor. Although, there is now a varied middle class of workers who do not seem highly disadvantaged or see themselves as exploited, individuals have more autonomy to occupy more than one job, or move across jobs and cross class locations during the course of their career which is how they can hold contradictory class positions in the system.
Does this explanation help to fill in deficiencies in Marx’s theory?
Does this concept explain social stratification well in the US? Why or why not? I believe so, because in modern society there is always a higher position to be occupied and it is rare for an individual to have total ownership of assets, especially within the American workforce. The expansion of the varied middle class explains how social stratification can occur (varying positions of people in power yet technically exploited, sets a new stage in the hierarchy of classes.
According to Turner, what is neoMarxian conflict theory?
Extends on Marxist theory by changing Marx’s core ideas to fit current historical realities. (Battles ideas of the predicted fall of capitalism and rise of communism along with the increasing polarization of the proletariat and bourgeoisie class.)
How can exploitation occur at different levels of analysis? Exploitation can occur at different levels of analysis due to the existence of contradictory class locations. People have combinations of owning the means of their production, purchasing the labor of others, controlling and managing the labor of others, while also selling their own labor. This gives rise to contradictory material interests.
How does Turner use this idea to classify neoMarxian conflict theories?
By utilizing analytical Marxism as constantly changing in an effort to come to grips with the complexity of the class systems of advanced capitalist societies.
How does Turner label Wright? Why?
phenomenology: studying phenomenons, study of experience
microsociology: study of society on a smaller level focus on the individual → social action: action oriented towards others, only after the individual has a complete understanding of their surrounding social setting and those other individual's actions. → humans vary in their actions in their social contexts, ex: context and social aspect → → ex: everything we do, the way we speak in front of a professor. we interact in a way that we recognize how they would respond we interact according to context/ social → situation we are in.
subjective interpretation: interpretation by the individual themselves, may be different than another's understanding (making the understanding your own) lifeworld (Schutz): focus on the little details (experiences and thoughts) in an individual’s life ex: the messy details of everyday life, things that we experience and → react to, but we do not take the time to make comments and stop and analyze, these are things we react to subconsciously ex: the blowing wind, the car horn, etc. verstehen: an interpretive understanding, but very thorough so that the individual reacts in a certain way
→ “empathic understanding of human behavior”
→ understanding the meaning of action from the point of view of the actor/ person doing it
→ interpretive understanding/ sympathetic with other people
sensible action: the “correct” way to react in a social setting only once the individual has a complete grasp on everything that is going on
→ action that follow social norms, typical, “this is what you’re supposed to do when you take a test/ go into a library”
→ clear to partners or observers, does not have to be driven by motives reasonable action: → different choices and you make the most reasonable action at that moment.
→ choice among different choices of action
rational action: → individual rational considers how their actions will have secondary effects
→ distinct insight into the ends/means/consequences
rationality (Black Box, relational): Black box: says that we can understand what is good for us, on our own, without needing to compare against other people. Relational: says that we can only understand the best course of action in comparison to the surrounding social setting, we must decide what is in our best interest ONLY in a social setting, so that we can compare.
stock knowledge: knowledge that is common, everything has the same understanding of an object or idea.
typification: to group a set of things (to construct) and give those groups objectlike characteristics, into classification. ex: snazzy the dogs is a: dog/ poodle/ pet/ animal
→ understanding others actions by figuring out a typical way of acting/ typical personality/ etc.
→ social derived
→ (Shutz)> classified by nondescriptive means, umbrella terms..
common sense constructs:
→ the world involves constructs, created by individuals
→ subjective, personal
→ objective, broad generalizations and conclusions that we be reviewed by others → scientists interpreting how individuals use common sense
intersubjectivity: it is possible to know and understand what someone else knows and understands.
→ created through a common subject world, shared understanding to help us understand different situations
→ ex: every class has a lecture/ section, they may be different, but we understand that this is how it works across the board
mechanisms of intersubjectivity
(reciprocity of perspectives: we can switch our perspective to match other individuals, so that we can better understand what that other person is doing → we can change our perspectives, we aren't fixed, put each other in another's shoes
ex: picking classes at school we all understand what that means
→ you don’t have to break it all down for the people who share that current understanding (all other ucla students)
→ smoothing over/ glossing over differences in perspective, ignoring some things for the purpose of communicating
ex: we all may be of different majors and it varies between those, but we all recognize it happens in general, we don’t have to explain why it is stressful in a certain way, we all understand waitlists etc..
the interchangeability of the standpoints,
→ we can switch places and come to the same conclusion, ex: putting yourself in another's shoes
the idealization of the congruency of relevances
→ both have picked out similar pieces of the same field
social origin of knowledge: an overarching concept that will relate several theorists, specific mechanisms develop common sense knowledge.
social distribution of knowledge: each person has their own sphere of knowledge, but don't know deeply everything about that. The knowledge one knows is socially distributed.
experience: interpreted facts that we use to form constructs, which are the way we think. Experiences are the individual's everyday life, and how they react and interact. meaning: Attending to one part of experiences ( on one specific piece). behavior: The process of attending that meaning
In order to Motive: generated toward the future, immediate. Doing X in order to get to X.
Because Motive: oriented towards the past, deeper cause.
action: Human conduct devised by the actor in advanced.
project: idea in a person's mind, based on stock knowledge, is accumulated wisdom, knowledge, could be be social.
course of action: What people are going to actually do, this encompasses action, project, and motives.
Review Weber's theory of social action. What is Weber’s concept, “verstehen”, and how does Schutz use it?
Weber’s theory of social action is action that is oriented towards others. Meaning, social action says we can only understand how to act once we thoroughly understand people and the situation; we must fully understand everything that is going on around us in order to act or respond appropriately. This includes his concept of “verstehen,” which is an interpretive understanding and a thorough understanding that is subjective to you.
“Verstehen” is a mixture between methodology and epistemology. Schutz uses this idea to help develop an approach to phenomenology, or why people act in social situations.
→ he builds on verstehen and includes typification
How does Schutz combine Husserl and Weber?
Schutz combines Weber’s concept of “verstehen” paired with Husserl’s ideas about phenomenology, which Husserl explains cannot be studied scientifically because experiences are unique and there is no way to accurately measure or create a scale of measurement. Schutz also includes Weber’s concept of social action, which is related to “verstehen” that you can react to a social setting subjectively, only after you can fully grasp what’s already going on in that social setting, i.e people’s behavior and surroundings.
→ applies scientific knowledge to phenomenology
→ Weber: analysis of social structure, (class etc.), actors can share subjective meanings → Husserl: humans hold a natural attitude, and a lifeworld (things that are taken for granted in our world ex: gender, female and male, we recognize people in this way without even realizing, we don’t question, it is pretty automatic
→ ex: understanding the common language (contextual because in another country people speak differently)
→ ex: technology or electricity, we don’t always think about how it functions → we have a common sense about it, like power etc, but we don’t think about the thinking behind it or the composition of water…
→ it the topic is so far removed from us, we don’t think about it ex: deforestation → can be problematic because we take so much for granted
→ ex: sitting/ walking/ breathing are lifeworlds
→ rarely the topic of reflective thought, but it shapes the way people act and think****** → you reflect what is out of the norm
What is the problem of intersubjectivity and how it is related to Weber’s theory of social action?
→ people may not even understand the social setting to being with
→ ex: taking Emigh’s test if you have never been in her class before, you will not be able to make the best decision because you don’t understand the social settings → ex: people going to church if they have never been to church before, they don’t understand the social setting (at first)
How does Schutz’s theory of social action expand on Weber’s theory of social action?
He focuses on how Weber understands that individuals have interpretive understandings, that are very thorough and subjective and Schutz adds that these understandings must be based on how thoroughly that individual understands their surroundings.
According to Schutz, how is intersubjectivity created?
It is created through the reciprocity of perspectives, that we can change our perspective to match other individuals so that we can better understand why they are doing something
Why is Schutz a phenomenologist?
Because he studies the individual experience or a situation.
Why is he a microsociologist?
Because he focuses on the individual, and not the entire society.
How is this different from the macrosociologists in the previous weeks? They focused on the society as a whole and how those individuals all work within a society.
What is a courseofaction type?
Course of action type refers to what people are going to actually do, it encompasses Action, Project, and Motives.
How is social interaction based on coursesofaction?
Social interaction is based on understanding motives & typical actions Ex: Roommate leaves dirty dishes, you get home and roommate is gone. Schutz states that to figure out which is which you would go through the course of action. What was your roommates action?
1. Roommate is lazy, inconsiderate (Action/Project/Motive).
2. Roommate has an emergency (Action/Project/Motive).
How are coursesofaction related to the establishment of the subjective interpretation of meaning?
Because one must be able to understand and analyze the courses of action in order to develop an understanding. For example, the coursesofaction are necessary to go through in order to know how to respond to your roommate.
How does Schutz’s use of the term rationality compare to that of the other theorists in previous weeks?
He states that means and ends have been exhausted and evaluated?? HELP!
How would Schutz’s work fit into the structure/agency debate? HELP!!!
According to Schutz, what is the difference between natural and social sciences?
Social science works in principle, the same way as in everyday life. Social scientist is a “disinterested observer” (Weber’s value free), they shouldn't think of what is good or bad, what it should be or should not, a social scientist does not have judgement. Social scientist uses a different stock of knowledge.
Social scientist could also use imaginary actor.
Postulates for scientific modelmethods create logical consistency (“THESE AREN'T PRESENT IN EVERYDAY LIFE”).
What is the difference between common sense constructs and scientific constructs?
Social scientist uses a different stock of knowledge.
Social scientist could also use an imaginary actor.
Why is the scientist a disinterested observer?
Because the scientist focuses on evaluations and they think about how people think, so they don’t really care, but they are trying to give value to thought process, which is impersonal.
What definition of a theory does Schutz use?
How do these distinctions (between science and everyday life; between social and natural science) differ from the way that critical theorists view these differences? How does Turner describe the main intellectual developments of early interactionist and phenomenological theory and how does Schutz fit into these developments? What are the main American and European contributions?
Study Sheet for Week 7
Turner Reading: Dramaturgical Theory Goffman
Turner calls Goffman one of the most creative theorists of the interaction process. He analyzes the process of interaction, on a micro level (facetoface contact). He calls it the interaction order where this constitutes a “distinctive realm of reality that reveals its own unique dynamics.” He says there are loose similarities between the macro and micro realms and that macro is based on the individuals as a larger group, society, while micro focuses on those specific individuals and you can understand the macro level through these micro interactions, in terms of setting and encounters, but they cannot explain macrolevel events. Interactions between individuals are a lot more unique than the macro explanations. Sometimes the macro constraints these interactions, but sometimes it acts as a guide.
He says that we should study social life naturally, but not with such a rigid observance. we have to look at some of the smaller details of the individual interactions, that are much more specific than can be documented through allencompassing data. BUT, it can be studied with a sense of science, such that is has the ability to be studied and understood.
Presentation of Self: goes on to summarize Goffman’s values of the presentation of self.
Focused Interaction: explains the guidelines to this and how it has a set of characteristics that make is a focused interaction and then follows with the rules of such interaction and how focused interactions occur during gatherings, and gatherings take place during social occasions. These rules include how to talk to each other, how to frame a situation, or what to exclude etc. Ritual: explains everyday rituals such as normal greetings between individuals and how rituals are found in the way people interact, they share an understanding of how to act.
symbolic interactionism: humans can present themselves as symbols + interact on the basis of those symbols, self arises of this behavior.
gestures: physical actions where the body makes movements in place of verbal speaking, where these movements are symbolic of language
self: Personality or individuality.
I: the fundamental human being, what everyone is born with.Impulsive tendencies of individuals.
me: The part of the self that internalized other’s responses. Ex: (Kids do not do that) generalized other: the “audience,” where the larger group of individuals is categorized as one, and we base our actions off of what the generalized other will say or think. ritual: a common experience where all that are participating share a common viewpoint, share a common focus, are in close social setting, and experience common feelings in that setting
dramaturgy: metaphorical, explaining life and the individual’s role as a stage and and actor, with an audience
definition of a situation: Things that are defined as true come to have real/genuine consequences.
stages: Physical place where performances take place. Front: Part where others see, organized and tidy, how we want others to see us. Backstage: Hidden, private, messy, for ourselves where others can not see.
performances (8 elements):
1. Believe in the part one is playing
2. Front: links to individuals, helps define the situation for the audience. Setting: props, furniture. Personal front: clothing, demeanor, gestures, manners (embodied).
3. Dramatic realization: infusion of signs to highlight aspects of its performance (talking to a Dr.) and tech terms.
4. Idealization: The performer will try to highlight parts of the performance that are socially acceptable values.
5. Maintenance of expressive control: The performer must maintain expressions of the role (consistent). Doctor and terminal cancer, when delivering the news his tone of voice will change.
6. Misrepresentation: people can give a convincing performance but can be lying. (Act like a Dr. but aren’t really a doctor. Audience is generally attending to only a few social ques. (Professor) (Dr.).
7. Mystification: When the performer can control what the audience is shown or can not see.
8. Reality + contrivance: performances that look easy are convincing.
What are the main points in the required reading by Berger and Luckmann? reality is ordered, taken for granted, common knowledge, temporal structure of everyday life
it is coercive
“as continuous and finite”
“my own life is” we live in a very specific time structure →
we are not consciously thinking about it, but we all know we are “slowly dying” from the time we are born. (p.27)
temporal aspects of life that are very coercive, we go through steps in order to get to another level
time affects our social consciousness that affects what we do or do not do. How does interaction work in everyday life?
They say that face to face interaction is “prototypical”. The bases for all other social interactions. To engage in nonfaceto face interaction we use F+F interaction as a guideline.
What role does language play in everyday life?
We can understand each other through common language.
→ bridges different zones of reality, makes it meaningful and can be understood → we take language for granted, but they make our interactions easier What concepts do Berger and Luckmann draw from Schutz and how do they use them?
language and knowledge and typification= using language or responses to types we are already aware of, we have constructs that we withhold and employ when we are interacting (3031)and projects (idea and course of action)
project=idea/mental aspect (23)
action = how we carry those ideas out
course of action = how that action is carried out
here and there (time and space) (22)
→ decrease of closeness, spatially and temporally
∙ different degrees of reality
Language is a key mechanism that creates intersubjectivity.
Why are Berger and Luckmann phenomenologists? What definition of a theory are Berger and Luckmann using?
phenomenological theory, constructivist theorist
Tbe are phenomenologists because they are examining the human phenomena of interaction.
What is symbolic interactionism?
humans can present themselves as symbols and present themselves based on those symbols
Why is Mead a symbolic interactionist?
focuses on how people take on roles and interact based on those roles ex: occupation, familial status, friendship
What are the Weberian influences on symbolic interactionism? people acting in accordance with how they view the world.
Why is Goffman a symbolic interactionist? How does Goffman draw on Durkheim and Mead?
rituals (durkheim) 1) Physical assembly, 2) Common focus of attention, 3) Common emotional mood 4) Sacred object 5)Enhanced emotional energy for the participants. Roles (mead)
Compare and contrast what we have learned in lecture to what is in the 10/29 Turner reading. What definition of a theory are the symbolic interactionists using? What is dramaturgy?
It is a metaphorical analysis of the individual’s everyday life and presentation of self, where the individual is an actor and life is the stage, and their actions are all specifically performed for the audience to better understand them and then react. What is the “definition of the situation”?
It is a term that comes from Zhanieoki & Thomas, meaning that things that are defined as true, come to have genuine meanings “consequences”
perceptions and beliefs about a certain situation have an impact on consequences → ideas about something will come to be true, even if those ideas were not originally correct
Explain the different parts of a performance from the required reading by Goffman, and give at least one example for each from his reading. → belief in the role you’re playing
→ He explains that a performance has a front, which is the physical setting as well as personal image, that includes an individual’s unique identity ex: clothing, sex, race, speech. Setting tends to stay put and consists of physical objects and space, such as the living room or a doctor's office. A front consists of expression, which are those emotions, appearance, which are one’s outwardly display of social position, status, or ritual state, and manner, which are those signs that tells the audience about the role and individual is playing. People expect consistency of fronts and they tend to be selected and not created these fronts match a role that has been established and stereotyped → so the audience has an understanding.
→ Dramatic realization is the use of gestures that prove the actors commitment to the situation/ role. Ex: An Umpire makes a call at a game without hesitation, his confident gestures makes his more believable and trustworthy in his role. Sometimes we can tell when someone is acting correctly if their role is publicly established, and we know what type of gestures to expect, but sometimes we do not.
What does his work say about how the “self” is created?
Goffman and creation of self???
Compare and contrast the forces that shape individuals in Goffman and the theorists from previous weeks.
How does Turner, in the 11/5 reading, describe Goffman’s main contributions? Turner calls Goffman one of the most creative theorists of the interaction process because he analyzes the process of interaction, on a micro level (facetoface contact). What are focused and unfocused interaction? Frames?
Focused interactions are more personal, cognitive/ visual attention is given to the opposite individual in settings such as a conversation or a board game, full attention. Versus unfocused, which is where you are in the presence of a stranger and you act in a way that they are judging you, and you check up on each other's personal presentation, but never interact personally. Focused interactions are called encounters, and there is a set of guidelines that belong to these interactions such as focused attention, mutual verbal communication, mutual relevance of acts, mutual perception, “we” or feeling a connection, ritual and ceremonial entrances, exits, and a set of procedures for corrective compensation for deviant acts. Focused interactions follow rules of: irreverence, “frames,” a situation where some material is excluded such as cultural values or psychological state; rules of transformation…..
Study Sheet for Week 8
Ethno. is the study of everyday life, practices in social settings by everyday individuals. But, ethno. is a diverse study that initially focused on noninstitutional interactions and later shifted to focus on institutional interactions. Further, there is a large emphasis on
conversation analysis which focuses on conversational structure itself, and not the individuals involved. He also talks about breaching experiments as altering a social aspect, so that light can be shed on how people construct social reality. He continues with critiques of ethnomethodology, explaining that some people think their studies are trivial and fail to recognize the overall society. Or that it now fails to recognize the phenomenological process. However, Ritzer concludes with the real sociological integrations.
Turner Postmodern Theory
ethnomethodology: Methods/practices that individuals use to find out about the real. conversation analysis: Is the detailed understanding of the fundamental structure of conversational interaction
breaching experiment: Some rules of social action are deliberately broken to highlight how social interactions work, how fold methods work.
passing: The work of achieving and making secure her (Agnes’) rights to live as a normal, natural female while having continually to provide for the possibility of detection and ruin carried within socially structured conditions.
→ trying to present oneself in a way that is normal, while constantly being aware that people can tell you are not normal in the socially structured norm.
** passing as work (practice, labor) is a fundamental process in which everyone is → always involved, and this includes the possibility that anyone can at anytime challenge
the identity that we have been working at and which has been the default identity of others (significant or not) have used is in fact not the identity that others should work with in our future. At any point we can be “discovered” as having always been someone else lending either to demigration or graduation ceremonies depending on whether the new identity we will now be known for is a positive or negative one within the polity of relevances thus the importance of the examination
ascription: given, independant of the conditions of its occurrence, invariant, not by choice or as a condition of available resources or opportunities.
(bottom of 133)
achievement:(134) Reaching status which one aspires
devices: Ongoing courses of action, directed towards mastery of the situation. What agnes is doing to control wants going on around her. Beach setting and utilizes the device such as a stall, the skirt over the bikini which assist in passing as a woman. game model: (p.140)19** games have a structure, turn taking, rules Games have a structure, time, fairplay, turn taking, rules. Agnes can treat being a female by these dimensions to accomplish passing.
rules: 2 Dimensional set of guidelines for social interaction.
maps: 3Dimensional set of guidelines for social interaction.
In order to apply rules/maps in everyday life you need to know: a)context, b)stock of knowledge c) rules and maps are alternatives, d) Documentary method of interpretation (Particulars to themes, or themes to particulars).
practical methodology: Method of living in the real world and finding out about it. documentary method of interpretation:
Particulars > themes (Small to big)
Themes > particulars (big to small)
PTh: people chit chatting, new one comes in and sees, collect all the particulars and put them as a theme: they are turn taking.
Thp: i know im in a social setting where people are waiting: see people come in.
Give several examples from Garfinkel’s text of passing (relate this to achievement and ascription), the game model (relate this to rules/maps), devices, and practical methodology.
did not want the doctor to touch her
boyfriend (Bill) achievement: being accepted as a female, girlfriend; ascription: → proving that she was heterosexual
→ feminine, embodied the idea of beauty (cousin example142)
→ game model: (141) at the beach (143)(145)
→ did not like to drive in case she would get in an accident and be discovered (worried she would be found out in some situations: ex: taking her roommate's pee, scar) (146 sunbathing, how a lady should conduct themselves)
→ devices: special underwear, bathing suits that can be worn as disguise → explaining that she is a virgin, avoiding sex
→ practical methodology: method of living in the real world, and finding out about it → bathingsuit and tanning (you learn that if you have a BF you don’t do this in public) → interacting with female friends when new in LA, learning how to interact as a woman
→ avoiding her past, as a boy
Why is Agnes a “breaching experiment?”
because it shows how people accomplish gender roles in real life, take out the obvious assignment and she/he has to take a stance and apply actions that confirm that status → something missing, so she has to overcompensate and figure out how to interact normalling in society, so that people don’t ask question
→ social reality was violated (ritzer reading)
What are the “methodological” aspects of ethnomethodology? Use examples from Garfinkel’s text.
Why is Garfinkel an ethnomethodologist?
coined the term
Examining the everyday life of Agnes
What does Garfinkel draw from Weber?
rationality, Weber does not differentiate between rationalities, but we have to choose how we interact best in our everyday life.
stock of knowledge socially distributed and social origins →
knowledge is typified
intersubjectivity, we can act in common based on norms and
How does Garfinkel critique Parsons? Use examples from the text to link the authors.
lacks means and methods for executing the task, because they don’t know how to do it, need means to get to the end
Just knowing the context is good but you must know the behavior.
Why are Schutz, Berger and Luckmann, Goffman, and Garfinkel considered to be “microsociologists?”
the focus on specifics and on the individual, especially the everyday life interaction. bottom up approach** (how micro affects the micro structures)
What are the similarities and differences between phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, and ethnomethodology (use your general knowledge, Schutz, Berger and Luckmann, Goffman, Garfinkel, and Turner pp. 343367**review early phenom.)?
they all focus on the individual level
diff: ethno. is not so much focusing on phenom.;
What are the differences and similarities between Garfinkel and Schutz (think about “verstehen,” “commonsense constructs,” “social science constructs,” “typification, ” “rules and maps,” etc.).
V: (empathetic understanding of human behavior) people understand Agnes’ medical info, without pushing)
What are the similarities and differences between Garfinkel and Goffman (think about “performance,” “front,” “misrepresentation”, etc.)?
Agnes's management techniques are like those described by Goffman, as in his Presentation of Self..., but Agnes was not just involved in a game. She had genuine fears that the doctors would amputate her breasts and not her penis; she insisted on normal views of sexuality, which she took as a given; her actions were not entirely instrumental; she was involved in managing a great deal of innertime, including 'recollections, remembrances, anticipations, expectancy' (166). Her passing was not episodic but continuous, and this sort of passing is not accounted for by Goffman's work.
hers was not a natural identity but a performed one.
What are the similarities and differences between Bourdieu and Garfinkel, and more generally between Bourdieu and these microsociologists? Differences:
Garfinkel focuses on the ethnomethodological perspective which is very individualistic, while Bourdieu focuses on the aspect of classes which is not individualistic or as micro.
Bourdieu talks about Culture: the embodied patterned ways of acting, similar to the embodied ways of acting for Agnes in Garfinkels argument in order for her to utilize the game model in order to pass.
What are the similarities and differences between the critical theorists and these microsociologists?
What are the similarities and differences between Willis and Hebidge and these microsociologists? (Think of some of topics, e.g., socialization, education, interaction, science, strategies/rules/maps).
Hebdige discusses the appropriation of the punks and reification of commodities in order for them to express their subordination.
How does Ritzer describe the main subfields within ethnomethodology? early studies focused on noninstitutionalized (ex: in the home) and then shifted towards institutionalized studies (ex: courtrooms, health clinics, police departments). In these studies the focus was on how people perform their everyday tasks and how that constitutes the setting of the institution, as opposed to the institution has an effect on the task. The other ethnomethodology focus is on conversation analysis, and the language itself versus the communication between the two individuals. (what is actually being said vs, external constraints)
How did ethnomethodology diversify?
There is an infinite variety of everyday life, and there are so many micro, subgroups to study.
What is conversation analysis (explain some examples)?
examining the organization of the conversation itself, and not the individuals involved.
Ex: studying how applause and boos happen applause is generally more accepted whereas booing is not as immediate because people don’t want to stand out alone; and when a laugh is appropriate and encouraged in a conversation, where a speaker will give the listener a que to respond in laughter; as well as how shyness plays a part in a conversation where shy people are more likely to talk about how they are being monitored versus a more confident person will engage immediately into conversation and get to you know you questions;and formulations as a means for an individual to demonstrate that they are aware of what is going on, without the other person explicitly saying it.
How did ethnomethodologists study institutions (explain some examples)? They studied job interviews and the turntaking methods of conversation, as well as the interviewer’s position of control where they can direct the conversation and the interviewee follows. They also studied calls to emergency centers, where background noise that one hears during a casual friendly call is ignored and takenfor granted, the background noise during an emergency call is closely monitored, and they skip introductions and go right to the point. Studies also look at mediations where an outside party is able to control a conversation in order to eliminate disagreements and getting offtrack.
How did ethnomethodologists criticize other sociologists?
they criticize that sociology uses everyday life as a means to draw examples and sample studies, but they don’t study those examples explicitly. confusion of topic and → resource, they pick a topic and prove it using everyday life as a resource, but fail to study those actual resources closely.
they focus on the constructed world and therefore, mask those everyday practices that are so important
sociology relies too much on the scientific and fails to recognize the social, glossing over reality.
Ex: adults try to teach children about organizations, but they fail to recognize that a child is its own organization
What are some of the criticisms of ethnomethodology?
maybe too focused on trivial matters, and fail to recognize the overall issues in society. may have lost sight of its phenomenological roots and concern for the conscious processes, ex: the conversation analysts tend to focus on the structural properties of the talk itself.
may have lost sight of radical reflexivity
How has ethnomethodology become incorporated into sociology?
How does Ritzer describe structuralism, poststructuralism, and postmodernism? structuralism as that which focuses primarily on language structure post structuralism and postmodernism are similar in poststructuralism deconstruction of language and uncovering writing that is not form a constraint, it is not a structure. postmodernism is similar in that it subverts and deconstructs.
poststructuralism lay a groundwork for postmodernism
How did structuralism influence poststructuralism, according to Ritzer? How does Turner describe postmodernism?
challenges the scientific and sometimes analytical pretensions of sociology. critique of sociology as a science.
Give examples of authors that fall into three major schools of postmodernism that Turner describes and explain why Turner classifies them as he does: critiques of science Lyotard, because he focuses on language as a game, expression is like a game and acts for no other reason than itself, it is autonomous and there is no why and because, it simply exists.
economic postmodernism Jameson
Lash & Urry
cultural modernism Baudrillard
conspicuous consumption: Demonstrate extreme wealth, mark social status. Everyone can consume conspicously to mark social status, or social belonging, more generally (Backpack, social status is affiliated with the university).
semiotics: structure of sign systems; encompasses language AND other sign and symbol systems (facial expression, body language, literary texts all forms of → communication)
signifier: The doing/ representing. Chicago example were the “shorts”. Material, physical form. Sound or image.
signified: Represented (past participle). In example was “the designation of the particular belonging to that group”. Mental concept.
sign value: Marking tastes, styles, status, and other symbolic representations of individuals.
simulacra: reproductions of objects or events. A fake representation of reality. hyperreality: representations of the real, such as TV, come to be predominant; the media is no longer a mirror of reality, but instead it has become the reality. representations of reality are now viewed as reality; falsehoods and distortions of reality result is that we can no longer distinguish the real from the representation. i.e: → Disneyland: a place but they arent doing anything real.
narrative: Is a form of expression that is close to the social world of real people; it is expressed within a social circle for the purpose of creating and sustaining this social circle. (Turner 229). How we talk in everyday life confined to a particular social circle.
denotative language: Used in science, abstraction used to examine everyday life, describes reality, removed from specific social setting or group to other scientists. Should explain reality in general terms.
metanarrative (grand narrative): The most abstract; purpose is to take scientific language and translate that into a language that is understandable in across all social settings and can still grasp the purpose/message/ideas.
legitimation by metanarrative: Typical of the modern era, validity of knowledge happens through connecting science to a grand narrative.
legitimation by paralogy: Paralogy means equivalent talk, “same language”. They are using the same rules of language, legitimation within group rules of game, language rules are known. People know how to play them and can accomplish their scientific endeavors.
language game: Language is a game, that has roles. The way we talk is like playing a game. And has structure, played by rules. (Wittengenstein).
What are the similarities and differences between a political economy of production and a political economy of consumption?
How does Baudrillard extend the idea of fetishism of commodities and reification (explain the analogy between commodities and signs)?
Fetishism of commodities refers to mistaking the relations between people within relations between people and objects. Baudrillard extends the idea of FOC by encompassing reification which refers to changing somethings meaning to object like. The is that the reified here is of exchange value in to price. Both are extended by the argument that Exchange takes precedence over the use value, and Fetishism of signs refers to where the signifier takes precedence over the signified. (An extension of Marx). Intersubjectivity: a shared understanding. The language has already been used to have a shared understanding of a product, intersubjectivity must occur because it the sign does not mean anything to anyone then it does not mean.
Give several examples (each) of a simulacra and a hyperreality from Baudrillard’s text, America.
American Television (hyperreality). The laughter is (simulacra).
The Roxy (Hyperreality), the lighting and strobes (simulacra)
Santa Barbara (Hyperreality), The gardens of (Simulacra)
Las Vegas ( Hyperreality), Hologram (simulacra).
How is Baudrillard’s understanding of hyperreality similar to or different from a phenomenologist’s understanding of everyday life?
∙ different because phenomenologists focus such as Schutz focus on the communication of the individuals in everyday life and the interaction; but rather Baudrillard argues that people aren't doing anything real, and in astral America, he states that people don’t event dare to look at each other. Similarity that there is fakeness, but with Baudrillard people tend to go along with it. There is no collective consensus unless you're driving, and no intersubjectivity.
How is Baudrillard’s understanding of hyperreality similar to or different from Habermas’s lifeworld?
differs from Habermas’s lifeworld because (he) argues that the lifeworld is an arena where people should come together to interact with informality, rather it seems that Baudrillard is more of a pessimistic about American society where nothing is real, but rather an image and do not communicate.
What are the similarities and differences between Bourdieu’s, Baudrillard’s, and Hebdige’s analyses of cultural objects?
Bourdieu argues that there is no such thing, or no absolute standards, but there is an observable correspondence between cultural objects and social status/class/
Baudrillard generalizes the the concept of conspicuous consumption and he notes that everyone can consume conspicuously to mark social status, or social belonging. But there is no specific class discussed with Baudrillard.
In Hebdige there is resistance and revolution, yet Baudrillard does not focus on that.
How do Turner and Ritzer classify Baudrillard? Why?
postmodern theorist (Ritzer) because he has big ideas (simulations,hyperreality, seduction, symbolic exchange) and these ideas show promise of standing the test of time, and he deals with major social issues.
Turner: As the developer of the strongest postponed statement on the effects of media on culture. Where sign values rival the use value or exchange value. The sign has no relation to any reality whatsoever, it is its own pure simulacrum (superficial). behavior is determined by image potential and is thus simply image. Disneyland becomes a simulation of a simulation with no relationship to any reality whatsoever, and it hides the non reality of everyday life. Media destroys information because of the information process: the constant bits of image and sign that have been removed an infinite number of times from actual social events. Advertising reduces use value, sign values (image more important).
Ritzer: Extreme postmodern social theory. Most radical and outrageous of this genre. His work can’t be contained by any discipline, thus he rejects the idea of disciplinary boundaries. We live in an “age of simulation”, which this process leads to simulacra. It is difficult to tell the real from those things that stimulate the real. Culture is going through a calm revolution, black hole that absorbs all meaning, information, communication, and messages. It is the anxiety about death and exclusion that leads people to plunge themselves even more deeply into the consumer culture. Fatal theory, we seem doomed to a life of simulations, hyperreality, and implosion of everything into an incomprehensible black hole.
How does Lyotard define modernism?
single, grand narratives
How does he define postmodernism?
rejection of grand narratives
”simplifying to the extreme”;
How does legitimation change?
He states that science loses its ability to use metanarrative, can’t be legitimated on the basis of metanarrative. Legitimizes arises because of internal erosion of knowledge, knowledge splits up into smaller units. Ex: Sociology. Then there is
legitimation of paralogy which refer to the fact of language and that everyone knows the rules of the game and people can accomplish their scientific endeavors.
How does Lyotard criticize science?
Lyotard criticizes science by saying that it loses its ability to use the metanarrative can’t be legitimated based on the basis of metanarrative. It is also affected by erosion.
How is this criticism similar to or different from the criticism posed by Critical Theory?
∙ Habermas discusses the dialectics of enlightenment, “science is a trick”, it is replaced Fatherpriest Scientist. Derives from Weber on “rationality”.
How is this criticism similar to or different from the criticism posed by Habermas? Lyotard’s criticism takes the opposite position, he believes that science does have distinctive logic
→ similar in that he believes that legitimation is achieved through communicative rationality, in a public sphere,
How is this criticism similar to or different from the criticism posed by Marcuse?
How is Lyotard’s view of communication/consensus similar to or different from that of Habermas?
We can understand it as a reading that takes the opposite position. Science does not have a distinctive logic. Legitimation is achieved through communicative rationality in a public space.
How does Lyotard draw on linguistic theory (Wittengenstein)? Language is a game, that has roles. The way we talk is like playing a game. And has structure, played by rules.
How does Ritzer classify Lyotard?
Ritzer: Smallish localized narratives are preferred to the meta, or grand. “Smallish” and “localized”. Post modern knowledge involved a rejection of such grand narratives. He defines postmodern as incredulity to metanarratives.
How does Turner classify Lyotard?
Turner: Deriving from Wittengenstein, language as presentation, reception and enactment of human expression. Lyotard argues that narrative and tradition are no longer needed in science because theory and research we reveal the true nature of the universe. Sense of doubt in any grand narrative and reveals science to be like any other language game; thus science has no special authority or power to supervise other language games.
Based on Emigh’s presentation in lecture, what is the relationship between postmodernists and the classic theorists (e.g., Marx, Weber)? Describe some of the main characteristics of premodernism, modernism, postmodernism, economic postmodernism, and cultural postmodernism.
∙ Most authors preserve the essence of Marx and Weber's theories. Weber: Value free because there is no way to evaluate them. Baudrillard adapts a lot of Marx’s ideas.
∙ Pre: Feudal, agricultural, family labor, traditional authority, organic solidarity, local affiliation, communal identity, God give (religious), Handmade own use, No F.O.C.
∙ Modern: Capitalist, Industrial goods, wage labor, legal rational authority, Mechanical solidarity, National affiliation, Personal identity, Science, commodities, F.O.C.
∙ PostModern: Post Industrial, Telecommuting, No belief in authority, Local Affiliation, Hyphenated Identity, Skepticism about science, Signs, Signifier over Signified.
∙ Hyperreality; Simulacra, Obsession of Simulacra.
∙ Economic Dimensions: Post Industrialism: Out sourcing, efficiency of transportation & communication. Post Fordist: Flexible Specialization: Increase in Hand Labor. Increase in the Service sector:
POMO: Argue that society has changed but this change does not represent progress. Reject the evolutionary view of society. Valuefree Because there is no way to evaluate them, Science should be value free. There is no way to judge social value.
What are the similarities and differences between critical theory and postmodernism?
Reject Type 1, deductivenomological ideal.
Both critique science, critiques of capitalism, and cultural apporaches.
What are the similarities and differences between the Birmingham school and postmodernism?
Birmingham school talks about Agency and Structure, Apparatuses, Consciousness: Spoken and Silent, but how does it relate?
Semiotic theory, but there is no discussion of structure and agency. Post modern abandons structuralism,
What are the similarities and differences between postmodernists and the microtheorists that draw on Weber?
Similarities is that they should both be ValueFree.
Differences is that micro focus more on the individual, while Postmodernism is more of a macro perspective interactional differention.
How would you fit postmodernism on the chart from the first day of class? We stated that based on the chart, we created a distinct new class where it all runs in () since they do not follow/agree with any of the categories.
structuralism: It involves Maxis structuralism (economic determinism). Structural functionalism (parsons uralism merton) and linguistic structuralism(chamsky, Deep structure/ surface talk) analysis of structures
poststructuralism:approaches that draw on structural theory in a loose way genealogy: Method/ Epistomology
discourse: A current social practice
panopticon: structure that allows officials the possibility of complete observation of criminals
discipline: is a form of power over the body.
“knowledge is power”:
Explain how Foucault uses the method of genealogy.
A. start with a current social practice (Discourse). Step backwards in time to locate a social practice that is strikingly different.
B. Trace the historical development forward in time to understand the current practice.
C. Method of geneology is a method to unveil the doxic.
How are torture and punishment two forms of social control, according to Foucault?
Ability to organize more bodies in space.
Physical retribution on the body of the criminal visible display of power,
How are discipline and the panopticon implicated in punishment, and more generally in power relations?
The example of the tower in the center of a prison.
employment of power
knowledge by observing
It gives control of a great population and grants knowledge by observing. Utilizing panopticon allows to gain great control of power over large amounts of bodies.
Is panoptic power like doxa?
Is it like hegemony?
What are the similarities and differences between Foucault and other theorists who discuss power relations in society (Althusser, Gramsci, Bourdieu, Marcuse, Willis, Hebdige).
Compare and contrast the use of language theory in Baudrillard, Lyotard, Hebdige, Schutz, Berger and Luckmann, and Foucault.
Foucault as a linguistic structuralist views that through language humans are constrained.
Hebdige: examines how it is utilized as a form of revolting.
Lyotard: Language: metanarratives
Schutz: Language as a form of understanding, reciprocity.
What are the similarities and differences between Foucault and the microtheorists?
Foucault's emphasis is more macro than micro because he focuses power of a population rather the individual.
How would you classify Foucault – is he postmarxist or postmodern or poststructuralist? Why?
Post Modern and PostStructuralist:
poststructuralism deconstruction of language and uncovering writing that is not form a constraint, it is not a structure.
postmodernism is similar in that it subverts and deconstructs.
How does Ritzer classify Foucault? Why? In what way does this matter?
What are the similarities and differences among Baudrillard, Foucault, and Lyotard? Why?
They all draw linguistic theory, they don’t necessary see progress but they do see changes in society, Foucault and Lyotard see more about scientific knowledge, but Baudrillard is not
Is this related to whether they are classified as postmodernists or poststructuralists?
Yes, because post moder thery science and social science is not possible Where would you put Foucault on the chart from the first day of class?
Webers theory of social action: action oriented towards others only if the individual has knowledge