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Exam 1 Nutrition 1165 study guide

by: Erica Jingozian

Exam 1 Nutrition 1165 study guide NUSC 1165

Erica Jingozian
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

All of the material that will be on Nutrition 1165 exam 1
Fundamentals of Nutrition 
Stacey Mobley
Study Guide
NUSC 1165, nutrition, UCONN, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Jingozian on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NUSC 1165 at University of Connecticut taught by Stacey Mobley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition  in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Connecticut.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
Exam 1 Study Guide 02/11/2016 ▯ Powerpoint 1 ▯ Cellular Level  Red Blood Cells transport oxygen in the form of hemoglobin  Carbs broken down to glucose produces ATP o Can get ATP from fat, protein, alcohol  1 ATP = 7 K calories ▯ ▯ Red Flags  Too good to be true advertisements  Ex: “Vitamin E supplements increase longevity” o Can’t believe this because the study was done on rats and rats are not humans, a lot of claims are based on animal studies o Humans need vitamin C to live  Sources of Food and Nutrition Misinformation o Consumer opinions o Media- lack of context, only get a small piece of the story o Internet- inaccuracy, need to look at reliable sources  .gov or .edu o Industry- testimonials o Friends, Family, Culture- instilled values o when it comes to food, the regulations aren’t as strict as medication  10 Red Flags o 1. Recommendations of a quick fix  “quick fix”- takes at least 4 weeks to change blood cholesterol level  saturated fat will cause your blood cholesterol levels to increase which will led to obesity but you can eat it in moderation o 2. Dire warnings of danger from a single product or regimen o 3. Claims that sound too good to be true o 4. Simplistic conclusions drawn from a complex study o 5. Recommendations based on a single study o 6. Dramatic statements that are refuted by reputable scientific organizations o 7. Lists of “good” and “bad” foods o 8. Recommendations made to help sell a product o 9. Recommendations based on studies published without peer review o 10. Recommendations from studies that ignore differences among individuals or groups ▯ ▯ Role of the FDA  Food is safe and wholesome  Cosmetics will not harm us  Medicines and medical devices are safe and effective  Radiation-emitting products are not harmful  Products are labeled truthfully  The FDA has jurisdiction over the content and labeling of foods, drugs, and medical devices ▯ Role of the FTC  Federal trade commission o Nation’s consumer protection agency  Jurisdiction over advertising and marketing of foods, non- prescription drugs, medical devices, and health care services ▯ ▯ Sensationalism  When websites make products seem “better” to the public  PCRM and PETA not reputable ▯ ▯ Sources of Reliable Information  Refereed journals, research journals, experiments ▯ ▯ Types of Studies  What they lead to in terms of making recommendations or guidelines o Ex: observational case controlled study lead to fortifying salt with iodine because of goiters o Ex: cross sectional study lead to Mediterranean diet o Ex: cohort- Framingham heart study- learned if your blood cholesterol levels are elevated your risk for heart attack is increased. Blood cholesterol levels should be under 200  1. Observational o no active intervention by investigators  2. Case-Control Studies o retrospective o looks back on what happened and asks why it happened  3. Cross- sectional study o prevalence o what is currently happening  4. Cohort o prospective o following populations over the years to see what will happen  Experimental o Usually carried out in lab animals or cell cultures before humans o Researcher actively intervenes so that conditions under investigation are assigned according to pre-specified plan o 1. Controlled  randomly assigned to a experimental group or control group for later comparsion  “placebo” o Laboratory based study  Ex iron. Cells in a test tube will die/ become damaged when exposed to iron; however, humans need iron in our diets o “Gold Standard”  Double-blind placebo controlled study  when you randomize your study  “RCT” randomized controlled trial  ex: Calcium- will giving adolescent females calcium decrease their chance of osteoporosis? o Meta-Analysis  Combines data from smaller published studies into a larger sample size which is then statistically evaluated in more robust fashion  Ex: dietary guidelines came out and it said you should decrease added sugars in your diet. Hundreds of researchers looked at thousands of studies and came up with that conclusion ▯ ▯ Powerpoint 2 ▯ ▯ Dietary Guidelines  1. Maintain calorie balance over time  2. Focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages o how much nutrient per calories o A 100mg K/1000 kcal = 0.10 mg/kcal o B 100mg K/10 kcal = 10 mg/kcal – more nutrient dense o Calorie density= kcal/amt  Control Total calorie intake o Monitor food and beverage intake, physical activity, and body weight o Reduce portion sizes o Make better choices when eating out o Eat nutrient dense breakfast o Limit screen time  Increase physical activity and avoid inactivity  Reduce intake of foods and beverages high in sodium, solid fats, and added sugars; refined grains, alcohol  Increase intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk; seafood, replace solid fats with oils o Ex: seafood= get a lot of nutrients with not a lot of calories o Ex: watermelon  Choose foods for nutrients, but stay within calorie needs ▯ Top sources of calories  1. Grain-based desserts o cake, cookies, pie, cobbler, sweet rolls, pastries, donuts  2. Yeast breads o white bread and rolls, mixed grain bread, flavored bread, whole wheat bread and bagels  3. Chicken and chicken mixed dishes o fried and baked chicken parts, chicken strips/patties, stir fries, casseroles, sandwiches, salads, and other chicken mixed dishes  4. Soda/energy/sports drinks o sodas, energy drinks, sports drinks, sweetened bottle water including vitamin water  5. Pizza ▯ ▯ Food components to reduce  American have diets in excess of o Sodium o Solid fats (major sources of saturated and trans fatty acids) and added sugars (SoFAS) o Refined grains  Been process where all fiber has been taken out of it  Eat more while grains o Alcohol  Women <1 drink per day  Men <2 drinks Reduce Sodium Intake o Reduce to <2300 mg o African americans <1500 o Consume more fresh foods and fewer processed foods high in sodium o Eat more foods prepared at home o Read nutrition facts label for information on sodium content of foods and purchase foods low in sodium  Low sodium= 140 mg or less per serving  No sodium= less than 5 mg per serving Reduce kcal from SoFAS o <10% kcal from saturated fat  10g sat fat x (9kcal/1 g fat) = 90 kcal from sat fat  90 kcal sat fat/1000 total kcal = 9% kcal from sat fat o keep trans fat low o reduce kcal from SoFAS o <10% kcal from added sugars  natural sugars ex: apples, milk (unflavored)  added sugars: high fructose corn sugar, soda, candy, donuts  65 g sugar x 4kcal/g = 260 kcal from sugar  260 kcal from sugar/2000 total kcal x 100% = 13% from sugar  for every gram carbohydrate 4 kcal  for every gram fat 9 kcal  45 sugar with 200 total kcal  45 x 4 / 2000 x 100% = 9% Top sources of sodium o 1. Pizza o 2. Processed foods: deli meats, processed cheeses o 3. Soup o 4. Canned vegetables ▯ Americans lacking in potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and vitamin D Fruits and vegetables o esp green leafy vegetables, red and orange and beans and peas whole grains o half of grains come from whole grains o replace refined with whole Milk and milk products o Increase intake of fat free or low fat milk and milk products (seafood) o protein foods: increase amount and variety of seafood (8 oz/week) in place of some meat and poultry  Find potassium in o Bananas, green leafy vegetables  Dietary fiber o Plants  Calcium  Vitamin D o Dairy o Egg yolks ▯ <5% of Americans follow dietary guidelines ▯ ▯ “My plate” ▯ ▯ Balancing calories  Enjoy food, but eat less  Avoid oversized portions ▯ Foods to increase  Make half your plate fruits and vegetables  Make at least half your grains whole grains  Switch to fat-free or low-fat milk ▯ Foods to reduce  Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals- and choose the foods with lower numbers  Drink water instead of sugary drinks ▯ Based on a 2000 calorie diet  Fruits- 2 cups  Vegetables- 2.5 cups  Grains- 6 ounces  Protein- 5.5 ounces  Dairy- 3 cups  SoFAS- <14% total kcal ▯ Protein foods  Meat, fish, poultry, dry beans or peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds  Go lean- fish, nuts, and seeds contain healthy oils  1 ounce of meat, poultry, or fish  Vitamin b12, protein ▯ Dairy  All milk products, yogurt, cheese, milk based desserts  1 cup  calcium ▯ Fruit  Any fruit or 100% fruit juice  1 cup  vitamin C, soluble fiber, potassium ▯ Vegetables  Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice  1 cup  vitamin C, sodium, vitamin A, insoluble fiber, ▯ Grains  Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barely, cereal grain  Whole grains o Fiber is not removed  Refined grains o Remove outer shell and germ  “milled” process that removed the bran and germ  only endosperm is left  required to add back B-vitamins- enrichment ▯ ▯ Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) graph  EAR- estimated average requirement- prevent nutrition deficiencies in half the population  RDA- recommended dietary allowance- meet at least 98% of general population  Range between RDA and UL- adequate intake  UL- upper tolerable level (limit)  Ex: if you consume 0% amount of a nutrient your risk of developing inadequacy is 100%  But then you keep consuming iron, UL, iron overload, risk of excess ▯ ▯ Nutrition Labels  Foods exempt from labeling o Foods with no nutritional significance o Restaurant foods o Foods sold in bulk or very small packages o Foods served for immediate consumption o Medical foods  % daily value o <5% poor source o 10-19% good source o >20% excellent source  Label Claims o Nutrient content claim o Structure/function claims  What it will do for your body o Health claims  If the claim has a disease in its claim ▯ Food Label Activity  Is this a whole grain? o It needs to say 100% whole grain  High in fiber? o Needs to be more or greater than 20  


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