Study Guide for Exam 1 Bio 1010
Study Guide for Exam 1 Bio 1010 BIO_SC 1010 - 01
Popular in General Principles and Concepts of Biology
Popular in Biological Sciences
BIO_SC 1010 - 03
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
BIO_SC 1500 - 02
verified elite notetaker
BIO_SC 1500 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
BIO_SC 1010 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO_SC 1010 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see General Principles and Concepts of Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.
Reviews for Study Guide for Exam 1 Bio 1010
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/09/16
Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Unit 1 Properties of Life: 1. Living things are organized a. Unicellular- one cell capable of surviving on its own b. Multicellular- many cells that collectively for an organism, one cell cannot live on its own 2. Living things acquire materials and energy a. Energy- cannot be created or destroyed b. Metabolism- the set of life sustaining chemical reactions 3. Living things maintain homeostasis a. Homeostasis- property of a system in which variabl3es are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant (ex. Body temp.) 4. Living things respond to stimuli a. Behavior- the internally coordinated responses of living organisms to internal and or external stimuli 5. Living things reproduce and develop a. Reproduction- new individuals are produced from their “parents” b. Development- process of regulated growth and differentiation of cells and tissues 6. Living things have adaptations a. Adaptation- a trait of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection (i.e. opposable thumbs, eye color, etc) Two additional properties of life: 1. Life is connected a. Ecosystem- all organisms in a given area along with the nonliving factors with which they interact i. Ecosystems recycle chemical nutrients and the flow of energy 2. Life is diverse a. Prokaryotic cells- a type of cell lacking a nucleus and other organelles. Found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea b. Eukaryotic cells- a type of cell that has a nucleus and other organelles c. Three domains of life: i. Bacteria ii. Archaea iii. Eukarya four kingdoms: 1. Protists 2. Fungi 3. Plant 4. Animal Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Unit 2 Matter: Liquid, solid, gas, plasma (a gas with a charge) Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space Atoms: Atomic number- number of protons in an atom determines which element it is Mass number- the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom (mass # can change creating isotopes) Atomic symbol- code for a chemical element Isotope- variant of a chemical element which differs in neutron number but has the same number of protons Electrically neutral atom- the overall charge of the atom is zero Valence shell- the outermost shell of an atom determines how the atom behaves in a chemical reaction Octet rule- states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell (outer shell) Compounds and molecules: Molecule- an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds Compound- a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances Formula- a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound Chemical bonds: Ionic bond- a type of chemical bond that involves the attraction between oppositely charged ions. An ion is a molecule in which the total number of elections is not equal to the total number of protons Covalent bonds- a chemical bond that involves the SHARING of electron pairs between atoms o Nonpolar covalent bond- electrical charge is shared equal amounts o Polar covalent bond- the electron shared in these covalent bonds spend a greater amount of time around a particular atom in the molecule, thus creating charge difference Hydrogen bonds- the attractive force between the hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of a different molecule. This bond is weaker than polar or ionic, but strong collectively Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Properties of water: 1. Water has a high heat capacity a. Heat capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ration of heat added to or removed from an object to the resulting temperature change b. Water has the second highest heat capacity in the universe c. Water regulates the global climate (why the world can survive during global warming) 2. Water is a good solvent a. Water pulls on the electronegative ends of ionic or polar compounds which in turn breaks those bonds b. Hydrophilic- water loving molecules, dissolves in water c. Hydrophobic- water fearing molecules, do not dissolve in water d. Solute- a substance that is dissolved in a liquid to form a solution e. Solvent- the dissolving agent in a solution (water is most versatile) f. Solution- a liquid consisting of a mixture of two or more substances, a solvent and solute 3. Water molecules are cohesive and adhesive a. Cohesion- the property of water to stick to itself b. Adhesion- the tendency of dissimilar particles to cling to one another c. Surface tension- the elastic tendency of liquids which makes them acquire the least surface area possible 4. Ice is less dense than liquid water a. As liquid water cools it becomes denser until it reaches its maximum density at 4 degrees Celsius b. If the temperature drops lower ice forms which is 9% LESS dense than water at 4 degrees Celsius Unit 3 Inorganic Organic Contain (+) and (-) ions Always contain carbon and hydrogen Usually ionic bonding Always covalent bonding Small number of atoms Large, many atoms Organic molecules Carbon skeleton- a series of carbons bonded in a chain with hydrogen atoms Functional group- a specific combination of bonded atoms that always react in the same way, regardless of the particular carbon skeleton Synthesis of organic molecules Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Dehydration reaction- chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule o Results in the linkage of monomers into polymers o Monomer- single molecule Hydrolysis reaction- chemical reaction that involves the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water o Results in the breaking of a polymer o Polymer- molecule composed of monomers Four types of biomolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates “Carbs” are bio molecules consisting of simple sugars, double sugars and polysaccharides Monomer: monosaccharides o Basic unit of carbohydrates form of sugar o Ex. glucose Polymer: polysaccharides o Polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bond together Functions: o Energy source o Energy storage: Starch- a polymer of glucose, found in the root of plants Glycogen- multi branched polysaccharide of glucose and energy storage molecule of animals and fungi o Structural components: Cellulose- consists of a linear chain of several hundred to several thousand glucose units Forms a cell wall in green plants and algae Chitin- glucose polymer found in the cell walls of fungi and in the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans Peptidoglycan- a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh- like layer forming the cell wall of most bacteria Lipids Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Lipids are a group of naturally occurring molecules that are hydrophobic and are NOT polymers Monomer: glycerol/fatty acids Polymer: fat Functions: o Long-term energy storage o Plasma membrane component o Protection Varieties: o Fats, lipids, oils, steroids and waxes Fats consist of a glycerol molecule joined with three fatty acid molecules, this is a triglyceride o The major portion of a fat molecule is the long hydrocarbon chain which stores energy o Unsaturated fat- a fat in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain (less calories) o Saturated fat- have no double bonds between carbon atoms, chain of carbons is considered “saturated” (high calories) o Trans fat (hydrogenated oil)- a type of unsaturated fat which is uncommon in nature but is produced in the food industry because it allows food to have a longer shelf life Responsible for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the U.S. Phospholipids are a major component of all cell membranes, they form a liquid bilayer o Polar head and nonpolar tail Steroids are a group of cyclic organic compounds comprised of 17 carbon atoms in a 4 ring structure o Cholesterol is a common steroid that is an essential component of all animal cell membranes and the “base steroid” from which your body produces other steroids Proteins A large biomolecule consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids and is the most intricate and diverse molecule Monomer: amino acids o Amino acids are composed of anmine, a carboxylic acid, a hydrogen, and a functional group o All covalently bonded o There are 20 different common amino acids Polymer: polypeptide Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Protein shape: o Primary structure: unique sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain; dictates overall structure o Secondary structure- hydrogen bonding between amino acids from unique local patterns o Tertiary structure- overall 3-D shape of the polypeptide o Quaternary structure- proteins with two or more polypeptide chains bonded together Major types of proteins: o Structural- provide support o Storage- provide amino acids for growth o Contractile- help movement o Transport- help transport substances o Enzymes- help chemical reactions Nucleic acids Are large biomolecules that store information, provide structure and can act like an enzyme. They are essential to every living organism and each nucleotide is composed of three parts: phosphate group, sugar, and nitrogenous base Monomer: nucleotides Polymer: RNA /DNA RNA- involved in coding, decoding, regulation and expressing genes as well as being a structural molecule and an enzyme DNA- molecule that codes genetic instructions used in all living organisms and many viruses (storage place) ATP- is composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates o Known as the “molecular unit of currency” used in cells as a coenzyme for intracellular energy transfer Unit 4 4 stages to the origin of life 1. Synthesis of organic monomers 2. Synthesis of polymers 3. Synthesis of protocells 4. Abiogenesis Stage 1: synthesis of organic monomers Chemical evolution-formation of complex organic molecules from simpler inorganic molecules through chemical reactions o Most likely occurred in earth’s oceans Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Abiotic synthesis- formation of organic molecules from inorganic molecules Three theories for chemical evolution o Primordial soup- proposes that early earth had very little atmospheric oxygen, but instead was made up of water, hydrogen, methane and ammonia Miller-Urey experiment- chemical experiment that simulated early earth conditions and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions o Iron-sulfur world hypothesis-dissolved gases emitted from thermal vents pass over iron and nickel sulfide minerals which act as a catalyst that drives abiotic synthesis Chemosynthesis- the use of energy released by chemical reactions to produce food (used by organisms that have no access to energy from the sun o Panspermia-theory that life on earth originated from microorganisms or chemical precursors of life present in outer space (carried by meteorites, asteroids, and comets Evidence- Allan Hills 84001, chunk of Mars Stage 2: synthesis of organic polymers Organic monomers were joined to form organic polymers RNA-world hypothesis- only the biomolecule RNA was needed to progress toward formation of the first cell(s) o RNA is self-replicating (DNA and protein are not) o RNA can act as an enzyme o RNA can store information and form structures Stage 3: synthesis of protocells Organic polymers became enclosed in a membrane to form the first cell precursors Protocells- a structure that is characterized by having an outer membrane o Phospholipids likely formed the first membranes Membrane-first hypothesis- proposes that the plasma membrane was the first component of the early cells to evolve Stage 4: abiogenesis Abiogenesis is the natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds i.e. lipids, RNA, DNA and proteins Geologic timescale- it took 21,000,000,000 years for life to form on earth Large scale factors that influence the evolution of life: o Continental drift- movement of earth’s crust by plate tectonics resulting in the movement of continents Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Plate tectonics- earth’s crust is fragmented into slab-like plates that float on a lower, hot mantel layer o Extinction events- mass extinction is the disappearance of a large number of species or higher taxonomic groups within an interval of just a few million years Ordovician (443 mya)- continental drift Devonian (359 mya)- meteor impact Permian (251) mya)- global warming (90% of all life died) Triassic (199 mya)- meteor impact Cretaceous (65 mya)- meteor impact (end of dinosaurs) Anthropocene (10,000 years to present)- human activity Decline of all species by 25% over the past 500 years alone Causes: Overexploitation- killing animals for food, clothing, etc. Habitat destruction Global warming- number 1 contributor currently o Supervolcanoes Case study- Toba supervolcano eruption Occurred about 70,000 years ago Largest known eruption on earth Cause 6-10 year global winter plus a 1,000 year cooling Thought to be responsible for a bottleneck effect on the human species Climate engineering- erupt a volcano to slowly stop global warming Unit 5 Cell Theory 1. The cell is the most basic unit of life 2. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells 3. All cells arise from pre-existing cells Cell Size Cells need a sufficiently large surface area (membrane) to exchange materials across their membrane Surfcae-area-to-volume ratio requires that cells be small o Small cells have a larger surface-area-to-volume ratio, advantageous for exchanging molecules across membrane o Large cells have too much volume, not enough surface area, and it is hard to get enough materials in and out of the cell Common features of all cells Bio Exam 1 Study Guide 1. Plasma membrane- a barrier (phospholipid bilayer) which regulates the traffic of molecules between the cell and it’s surroundings 2. Cytosol/Cytoplasm- thick, jelly-like fluid on the inside of a cell, fluid in which everything else in a cell is suspended, and is mostly water 3. Chromosomes- gene carrying structure of all cells DNA/protein blend 4. Ribosomes- an ancient molecular machine that functions as the site for protein synthesis, “protein factory” of the cell Two major categories of cells 1. Prokaryotic cells 2. Eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells A type of cell lacking a nucleus and other organelles Very small, first life on earth, reproduce asexually Structure: o Plasma membrane o Cell wall- protective layer outside the plasma membrane o Capsule- provides protection and allows prokaryotes to stick to surfaces o Cytoplasm and ribosomes o Nucleoid- a region in a prokaryotic cell where DNA is concentrated, no nucleus o Plasmid- a small ring of DNA that is separate from the chromosomes Prokaryotic appendages: o Flagella-long appendage that propels the cell o Fimbriae-fine, hair-like bristles that helps cells attach to other things o Pilus- hollow tube used to transfer DNA between cells (antibiotic resistance) Eukaryotic cells Any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles o Organelle- a membrane enclosed structure with a specialized function within a eukaryotic cell Reproduce both asexually and sexually Nucleus- the genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell Nuclear envelope- phospholipid membrane with pores, encloses the nucleus Nuclear pore- a protein channel in the nuclear envelope that regulates transportation of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm Appendages: o Cilia and flagella- hair-like projections that can move either in an undulation fashion, like a whip, or like an oar Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Endomembrane system- membrane system that divides the cell into functional and structural compartments. Consists of: o Nuclear envelope o Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- extensive membrane network. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes, smooth ER lacks ribosomes o Golgi apparatus- packages proteins into vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent elsewhere Exocytosis- movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell via vesicles Vesicles- lipid bilayer vessel used for transporting materials o Lysosomes- spherical vesicles containing enzymes that break down organic molecules Endomembrane system summary Proteins are produced in the rough ER and lipids from the smooth ER, carried in vesicles to the golgi apparatus The golgi apparatus then modifies these products and sorts and packages them into vesicles that go to various cell destinations Lysosomes fuse with incoming vesicles and digest biomolecules Other vesicles and vacuoles Peroxisome- a special organelle used for breaking down fatty acid chains that is found in all eukaryotic cells Vacuole- organelle found in all plant and fungal cells that is use as storage and essentially filled with water Energy related organelles Chloroplasts- captures the energy from sunlight and stores it in organic molecules (photosynthesis). Have their own DNA and membrane Mitochondria- organelle in eukaryotes where ATP is generated (cellular respiration) Endosymbiotic theory Evolutionary theory which explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes States that two key organelles of eukaryotes originated as a symbiosis between separate single-celled organisms Symbiosis- a close and often long-term interaction between two different biological species Cytoskeleton A series of intercellular proteins that help a cell shape, support and movement Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Involved in cell movement and support the plasma membrane Unit 6 Plasma membrane Membrane surrounding the cytoplasm that consists of a phospholipid bilayer Three components: o Phospholipids- polar head, nonpolar tail o Membrane proteins-regulate the traffic of molecules into and out of the cell and also regulate cell signaling Integral proteins span the bilayer Peripheral proteins reside on one side of the bilayer o Cholesterol- a type of lipid found in cell membranes that regulate the fluidity of the membrane Permeability of the plasma membrane Permeable- the property of a material or membrane that allows liquids or gases to pass through it Selectively permeable- plasma membrane only allows certain substances into the cell while keeping others out Types of membrane proteins Channel protein- allows a particular molecule or ion to cross the membrane freely (like an open gate) Carrier protein- interacts with a specific molecule to transport Cell recognition protein- fingerprint for the cell, important for immune system responses Receptor protein- is shape in such a way that a specific molecule can bind to it, nothing passes through, it is used to respond to signals Enzymatic protein- catalyzes a specific metabolic reaction Junction protein- join cells tighter to form tissues Passive Transport Passive transport requires no energy input to move molecules from one side to the other o Two types: Diffusion- the net movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration Facilitated transport- passive transport of molecules in or out of a cell following their concentration gradient with the aid of a carrier protein Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Diffusion o Osmosis- the diffusion of water across a membrane through aquaporins (channel proteins that allow water to cross the membrane quicly) o Isotonic solution- no net movement of water (normal state of living organisms) o Animal cells: Hypotonic solution- water mainly enters the cell which may burst Hypertonic solution- water mainly leaves the cell which shrivels (crenation) o Plant cells: Hypotonic solution- vacuoles fill with water and turgor pressure (the swelling of a plant cell) Hypertonic solution- vacuoles lose water and the cytoplasm shrinks (plasmolysis) Active Transport Active transport requires energy input Two types: o Active- use of plasma membrane carrier protein to move a molecule from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration o Bulk- large molecules such as proteins and carbohydrates are too large to fit through carrier protein channels, they instead are transported by vesicles Exocytosis- vesicle carrying large molecules fuses with the plasma membrane to release molecules outside of the cell Endocytosis- process by which large molecules are moved into the cell from the environment via vesicles
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'