SW222 Key Terms for Exam #1
SW222 Key Terms for Exam #1 SW 222
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddi Caudill on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SW 222 at University of Kentucky taught by Teresa A. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Development Social Welfare in Social Work at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Key Terms – Chapter 3 profession: Occupation which is characterized by a unique skill valued by society, lengthy, specialized training for practitioners based on a systematic theory, a code of ethics to guide practice, and professional membership organizations which protect the interests of its members. Charity Organization Society: Movement developed in part as a reaction to the proliferation of small private charities during the 19th century. The main premise of the movement was that private, carefully orchestrated relief efforts offered the greatest promised for the eradication of poverty. The movement proposed to coordinate the work of all private charities in a given locality in order to prevent recipients from receiving aid from several sources, and reflected a conservative interpretation of poverty. Settlement House movement: Social settlements focused on environmental factors in poverty. Settlement house workers lived along side the poor in the communities they served, and attempted to empower their neighbors through support of the labor movement and democratization of political institutions. friendly visitors: Workers associated with the Charity Organization Society movement. Volunteer friendly visitors would be assigned to needy families. Visitors were urged to be friendly but firm; their primary functions were to correct the character flaws of the poor and to inspire them to strive for independence and the moral life. social casework: A conceptualization of individualized charity work which emphasized the need for systematic technique and specialized scientific knowledge. Rank and File movement: A loose coalition of social work unions and other activist groups that grew up in the depression era. Many of the unions were formed by the new public welfare workers in an attempt to deal with demanding working conditions, but they also joined groups of established social work professionals in calling for far- reaching changes in American economic and political life. empowerment: Process of increasing personal, interpersonal and political power so that individuals can take action to improve their own life situations. dual relationships: Occur when social workers interact with current or former clients, colleagues, field students, or supervisors in more than one relationship. Dual relationships often present ethical dilemmas for social work professionals. Key Terms Chapter 4 person-in-environment: The dual focus of social work practice, which addresses both the individual and the social environment aspects of problems. generalist practice: A unified theory and method of social work practice which is comprised of both micro practice and macro practice and enables practitioners to work with all levels of social work clients, from individuals to communities. macro practice: Social work methods which focus primarily on changing social conditions, rather than on changing individuals. Macro practice consists of indirect practice strategies such as community organization, administration, planning, and policy advocacy. micro practice: Social work methods which focus primarily on changing individuals, rather than on changing social conditions. These direct practice methods are known as counseling, social casework or therapy. systems theory: A theory adapted for social work which stresses the similarities of all systems, both natural and social, and which points out the folly of studying and treating any one part of a system without attention to the rest of the system. strengths perspective: A generalist practice concept which holds that it makes far more sense to focus on the strengths and abilities a client brings to working on a particular life difficulty than to stress the client’s deficiencies. empowerment orientation: A corollary of the strengths perspective, which means that generalist practitioners mobilize client strengths to activate natural helping networks and environmental resources. case management: A set of practice methods in which a social worker, together with the client, organizes, coordinate and maintains a network of formal and informal helping systems designed to maximize the well-being of people with multiple needs. Key Terms Chapter 1 political perspective: Social attitude or ideology. Describes a collective mind-set, and refers to the beliefs and values of a group of people that are systemized enough to have a semblance of universality, or “worldview.” conservative political perspective: Conservatives generally favor keeping things as they are. They perceive people as being corrupt, self-centered, lazy, incapable of true charity, in need of control, and responsible for their own behavior and the outcomes of that behavior. Conservatives revere the “traditional” family and try to devise policies to preserve it. Conservatives view society as a system composed of interrelated and interdependent parts, all of which are beneficial to both society and the individuals within it. Conservatives believe in as little government intervention into the social order as necessary. liberal political perspective: Liberals are generally in favor of change, and view change as the reform, rather than the radical restructuring of existing institutions. Liberals believe that people are born good and are naturally social, curious, loving, and in need of protection from corrupting influences. They acknowledge free will, but put more emphasis on the environment as a determinant of behavior than do conservatives. Liberals view the family as an evolving institution. Liberals view society as an organismic system, but see the social system as in need of nurturing and regulation, and view government intervention as desirable. radical political perspective: Radicals have many of the same beliefs as liberals, but believe that more fundamental changes are needed in society. Radicals believe that people are basically good, inherently industrious and creative, and that if they have control over their working conditions, they will take pleasure in working hard. Radicals regard the conservatives’ traditional family perspective as oppressive and favor ways of supporting “new” family styles. Radicals see the social system as a class hierarchy in which one class has predominant power and uses it to control the others. They therefore view liberal tinkering with government as inadequate, and believe that complete restructuring is necessary. reactionary political perspective: Reactionaries believe that change has already gone too far and that things should be changed back to the way they used to be. Reactionaries believe that government beyond a bare minimum is inherently evil, and support government activity only in areas such as national defense, criminal justice, and maintenance of public utilities. Key Terms Chapter 7 Lorenz curve: Curve that shows the percentage of total household incomes received by successively larger fractions of the population, starting with the poorest group. annual income: Amount of money coming in during a one-year period. wealth: Accumulated assets, including things such as houses, real estate, cars, jewelry, savings accounts, stocks and bonds. absolute definitions of poverty: A relatively fixed level of income below which a person cannot function in a productive and efficient manner in a given society. It is based on calculations derived from minimum costs of food, housing, clothing, and transportation in that society. relative definitions of poverty: Where absolute definitions of poverty attempt to set an objective line that separates the poor from the non-poor, relative definitions see poverty as subjective; i.e., it is a matter of opinion on the part of both the poor and the non-poor as to what constitutes poverty. Poverty is viewed as relative to the wealth of the rest of society. Key Terms Chapter 8 longitudinal data: Data collected from the same persons at many successive points in time. levels of poverty: Segalman and Basu suggested the existence of three different segments in the poverty population. 1. The transitional poor are those people whose experience of poverty is only temporary and is usually brief. 2. The marginal poor are the group often referred to as the “working poor,” who generally have low-paying and insecure jobs. 3. The residual poor are a group who remain in poverty over an extended period of time, and who are generally dependent on welfare benefits for their daily living. individual explanations of poverty: These theories view poverty as being the result of individual characteristics. There are three main types of individual explanations of poverty. 1. The genetic inferiority explanation argues that people are poor because of inferior genetic quality, especially, but not limited to intellectual ability. 2. The psychological impairment explanations posit that the poor suffer from psychological problems that inhibit their ability to compete for good jobs. 3. Human capital theory asserts that poor people don’t have the knowledge, skills and attributes that make them valuable to employers. cultural explanations of poverty: Cultural explanations of poverty see the cause of poverty in individual characteristics which people possess because of the social situations they were born into and in which they were reared and educated. There are two slightly different versions of cultural explanations. 1. The culture of poverty explanation looks at poverty as a subculture with its own structure and rationale and as a way of life which is passed down from generation to generation. 2. Cultural deprivation theory, on the other hand, asserts that the poor are deprived of the opportunity to develop the knowledge, beliefs, and values of the larger society. structural explanations of poverty: Structural explanations view poverty as the result of social factors that act on individuals, causing them to exhibit the characteristics that the other theories state are the result of individual or cultural shortcomings. • The liberal version of the structural explanation looks at poverty as a vicious circle in which the class system reproduces itself over time, and sees the organization of the economy and institutional discrimination as contributing causes, together with increasing social isolation of the ghetto. • The conservative version of the structural explanation blames government welfare programs for encouraging dependency and undermining the family. Key Terms Chapter 9 Statute of Laborers: English law passed in 1349 that sought to solve a labor shortage problem by setting a maximum wage, compelling unattached workers to work for whoever wanted them, forbidding laborers from traveling, and making it illegal for able- bodied men to beg. Elizabethan Poor Law: English law passed in 1601 that represented a compilation and refinement of all the antipoverty legislation of the previous 250 years. It became the basis of welfare policy in the United States until about 1860. indoor relief: The preferred mode of assistance in the American colonies. Help was offered to people in the various categories of need, but rather than receive cash or commodities in their own homes (outdoor relief), people were care for by being taken into some form of custodial care. Indoor relief rapidly developed into large-scale institutions such as poorhouses and orphanages. The Social Security Act: Federal legislation passed in 1935 that was a beginning attempt of the government to provide cradle-to-grave security for the citizens of the nation in response to the needs of the Great Depression. Social Security represented a two- pronged approach to the alleviation of financial dependency: contributory social insurance and public assistance. War on Poverty: President Lyndon Johnson called on Congress to develop legislation to address persistent poverty. The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 established the Office of Economic Opportunity, VISTA, the Job Corps, Upward Bound, the Neighborhood Youth Corps, Operation Head Start, and the Community Action Program, many of which are still in operation today. In addition, Congress passed the Food Stamp Act in 1964 and the Medicare and Medicaid amendments to the Social Security Act in 1965. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996: Signed into law by President Clinton, this legislation was directed toward the reform of the welfare system demanded by an increasingly conservative American public. The Aid to Families with Dependent Children program was replaced by the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program, which was provided through capped block grants to states. Adults receiving cash benefits are required to work or participate in a state-designed program after two years, or they can be terminated. Families are also allowed a maximum of 5 years total lifetime welfare support. Key Terms Chapter 12 biomedical model of disease and health: This model describes disease as a deviation from a biological norm. Disease is perceived as a discrete entity, independent of the social context in which it occurs. Health is characterized as the absence of disease. psychosocial/environmental model of disease and health: This model looks at a person’s well-being as related to the overall functioning and harmonious interaction of the full range of interrelated, natural systems, ranging from subatomic particles, through families, to cultures. Poor health stems from disruption of the interaction of natural systems, to the point where one or more of the system levels are malfunctioning. Health, according to this perspective, is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. public health approach: This approach to health care stresses prevention of illness rather than treatment of diseases already acquired by studying the epidemiology of illness and its distribution within a community. Three levels of prevention are then applied: 1. primary prevention, or intervening in the social environment to keep diseases from occurring in the first place; 2. secondary prevention, or early detection and treatment of disease; and 3. tertiary prevention, or responding to acute and chronic health problems through rehabilitation and other measures. health maintenance organizations: Alternate form of organizing the delivery of health services which eventually became the dominant player in the health care system of the United States. HMOs were first developed in the 1930s as prepaid medical services, originally provided in specific clinical or medical centers. Fixed monthly fees, usually covered at least in part by employers, and minimum out-out-pocket expenditures by patients covered all needed medical treatment from HMO-affiliated physicians, clinics, and hospitals. These plans generally offer more coverage than conventional insurance plans, including preventive services, such as annual checkups. managed care: This is a broad term used to describe a wide range of programs, including HMOs, that are designed to contain costs and maintain quality. Basically, it is a set of health care systems and technologies aimed a organizing and managing both the clinical and financial services to a given population of customers, where individual patient care is determined by external review procedures rather than exclusively by the practitioner
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