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ocacx

ocacx

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Anthropology
Course: Languages of the World
Professor: Marc zender
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Fromkin, Zender, Languages of the World, and Anthropology
Cost: 25
Name: ANTH 1030 - Week 4 Notes
Description: Lecture and textbook notes
Uploaded: 02/09/2016
7 Pages 228 Views 0 Unlocks
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Class of noun

  • Count noun: can be enumerated or pluralized
  • Mass noun: cannot be enumerated or pluralized

We also discuss several other topics like apothic definition

Fromkin Chapter 5 Notes - Phonetics

Phonetics: the study of speech sounds

  • Segment: separation of one sound into parts
  • Acoustic phonetics: physical properties of sounds
  • Auditory phonetics: how listeners perceive sounds
  • Articulatory phonetics: how speakers produce sounds
  • Orthography: spelling

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA): symbols to represent the sounds of all languagesIf you want to learn more check out for clarity, a communication theory should rest on a single hunch or isolated idea.

Articulatory phonetics

  • Vocal tract
  • Larynx: voice box
  • Pharynx: tubular part of throat
  • Oral cavity: mouth
  • Nasal cavity: nose
  • Place of articulation: where in the vocal tract airflow restriction occurs
  • Manner of articulation: whether or not the vocal cords vibrate
  • Voiceless: vocal cords are apart for free airflow
  • Voice: vocal cords are together and vibrating
  • Aspirated: no air released
  • Oral: sounds that only use the oral cavity
  • Nasal: sounds that use both oral and nasal cavities

Vowels

  • Vary in tongue position
  • Rounded vowels: produced with rounded lips
  • DiphthonG: sequence of two vowel sounds squashed together
  • Monophthongs: simple vowels
  • Diacritic (~): symbol that shows nasalization of vowels
  • Tense vowels: slightly longer with higher tongue position
  • Law vowels

Major Phonetic Classes

  • Non Constituents: stops and affricates, total obstruction of airstream in oral cavity
  • Constituents: all other consonants, and all vowels
  • Obstruents: non - nasal stops, fricatives, and affricates
  • Sonorants:: non - obstruents

Syllabic: sounds that function as the core of a syllable

  • Prosodic (suprasegmental) features: length, pitch, and stress (accent)
  • Pitch depends on speed of vibrating vocal cords
  • Stressed syllables: longer, louder, higher in pitch
  • Tone languages: languages that use the pitch of vowels to contrast meanings of words
  • Register tone: pitch is level across the syllable
  • Contour tone: pitch varies across syllable
  • Lowering of pitch: downdrift
  • Intonation: variation of pitch not used to distinguish words
  • Pitch contour: change of pitch to change meaning

Phonetic of Signed Language

  • Configured of hand ( hand shape)
  • Movement of hands
  • Location of hands

Fromkin Chapter 6 Notes - PhenologyIf you want to learn more check out What is the definition of vermonth?

Phonology - the study of how speech sounds form patternsIf you want to learn more check out What does NMR stand for?
If you want to learn more check out uvm statistics

Pronunciations (phonetic forms)

  • Allomorph: the variant of a morpheme
  • Minimal pairs: two words with different meanings that are identical except for one sound segment (example: cap and cab)
  • Morphophonemic rules: phonological rules that determine the phonetic form of morphemes

Phoneme: basic form of sound as sensed mentally

  • Allophone: perceivable sounds corresponding to phonemes (ways of pronunciation ie, nasal and non - nasal)
  • Complementary distribution: where oral vowels occur, nasal vowels do not occur, and vice versa
  • Bilabial: uses both lips
  • Alveolar: tongue touches alveolar ridge (front of mouth)
  • Velar: tongue pushes against velum (back of mouth)
  • Stop / no stop (fricatives)
  • Voiced / voiceless
  • Oral cavity / nasal cavity
  • Affricates: prolonged stop

Vowels

  • Front / center / back of mouth / tongue
  • High / mid / low lebel of tongue
  • Tense / lax tongue
  • Rounded / unrounded
  • Diphthongs: two vowels next to each other

Prosodid (suprasegmental) features

  • Length (duration)
  • Pitch
  • Tonal language: a language that uses contrastive pitch to differentiate between words
  • Stressed syllables
  • Intonation language: pitch does not distinguish words
  • Pitch contour may alter meaning of an entire phrase or sentence

Lecture Notes 2/4Don't forget about the age old question of chm 2210 fsu

Phonology: grammar component of the inventory of speech sounds and the rules of their combination

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