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Midterm 1 Psy 352 (personality)

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by: Jeulia Notetaker

Midterm 1 Psy 352 (personality) PSY 352

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 352 > Midterm 1 Psy 352 personality
Jeulia Notetaker
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These notes will cover what will be on midterm 1
Personality Psych
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeulia Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 352 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 341 views. For similar materials see Personality Psych in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
PSY 352: Personality Psychology  Study Guide #1  Introduction  ∙  What is personality?​  –An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, acting & feeling     ∙  How would you describe the traits vs. situationism debate? ​   Situationism​ ­ view of personality that view behavior as a function of the situation, not internal  traits. “multiple selves”  Traits­ intuitive appeal of perspective     ∙  Describe the psychoanalytic, trait, biological, humanistic, behavioral, and  cognitive approaches to understanding personality.  Psychoanalytic­  unconscious forces  Trait​ stable, defining characteristics    Biological​­inherited predispositions, physiological process    Humanistic​ ­ self actualization, growth    Behavioral​ ­ conditioning, learned expectations    Cognitive​­ information processing     Research Methods  ∙  What is self­report data, and what are its strengths and weaknesses?  How does  social desirability influence the validity of self­report data?  Self report­ ask someone about themselves (ex: 20 statement test). ​ Strengths­​ access to info  that others don’t have (anxiety, self esteem, goals)​eakness­ ​ do people have accurate self  knowledge & will they be honest  Social desirability­ tendency to answer in attractive/likeable ways (lying, distorted,  self­perception).  You can control this by using a forced questionnaire (ex: crownes­marlow  scale. Do you like soft or crunchy food?)  ∙  What is observer­report data, and what are its strengths and weaknesses?  Observer­self report data​ ­ ask someone else about that person. ​ Strengths­ access to info not  available to person, multiple perspective.Weakness­ ​ biased by own personality experiences w/  person.     ∙  What is test data, and what are its strengths and weaknesses​ ?  Test data​­ put people in identical situations, look for differenc​trengths​ Controlled  situations, allows hypothesis testing.Weakness­  possibility of participant, researcher bias.     ∙  What is life­outcome data, and what are its strengths and weaknesses?  Life out come data­​  Examine life events (ex: marriage, divorce, jobs).     ∙  What does it mean to say that a psychological measure is reliable, valid, and  generalizable?  Reliable­Consistent resultsValid​­ Measures what it claims​eneralizable​ Applies to whole  population     ∙  What is descriptive research, and what are its strengths and weaknesses?  Descriptive research​­case study. In depth examination of an individuals personality. (ex: brain  damage, ted bundy) behaviors like abusing animals, lie/cheat/ steal.​Etrengt­ lots of detail,  good source for ideas to test in larger gro​eakness­ ​s Low generalizability     ∙  What is a correlation?  What is the difference between positive, negative, and zero  correlations?  Be able to interpret a correlation coefficient.  What are the strengths and  weaknesses of correlational research.   Correlation­ measure of how closely related 2 variables are how much they predict one another  Positive­ Increase in one variable predicts increase in other (ex: height/weight)  Negative​­ increase in one variable predicts decrease in other  Zero­ no predictive relationship  Correlation coefficien­ ­1 to +1. Indicates direction & size.  Strengths­ demonstrates variation,  easy to do, low cost, when available cannot be manipulated  rd​ Weakness​ ­ correlation does not imply causation variable.     ∙  What is an experiment?  Be able to identify the independent variable (IV) and  dependent variable (DV) in an experiment.  How do random assignment and random  sampling help ensure an experiment’s validity?  Experimental­​ research that includes IV/DV  Independent variable (IV)­ manipulated by research to create groups (conditions).  Experimental control  Dependent variable (DV​ ) Variable measured by researcher to compare conditions.  Random assignment​ ­ randomly choosing what the participant will be assigned to do  Random sampling­ ​ picking participants randomly  Strengths­ Establishes causation, control of situation  Weakness​ ­ Cannot experimentally control everything, artificial situations     Traits and Trait Taxonomies  ∙  What is a trait?  Describe the act frequency approach to defining traits.  Trait­ characteristic pattern of behavior a disposition to feel & act in a certain way  Act frequency approach​ ­ traits= categories of acts. More acts performed= stronger trait     ∙  Describe the lexical and statistical approaches to creating a trait taxonomy.  Lexical hypothesis​­ all important individual differences have been encoded in language over  time.  v Meaningful differences noticedàwords invented to discuss differences “natural selection for  words.  v 2 criteria for indemnifying important traits 1. Synonym frequency 2. Cross cultural universality  Statistical approach­start w/ pool of personality traitsàps rate themselves     ∙  What is a trait taxonomy?  Describe the most common taxonomies in personality  psychology (five­factor model, Eysenck’s hierarchical model, Cattell’s taxonomy,  circumplex taxonomies).  Be sure that you can explain what each trait within a taxonomy  is referring to.  Trait taxonomy​­list of most “important traits”  Big 5:  Conscientiousness​ ­ how we control, direct, organizes, regulate our lives.  Agreeableness​­ concern w/ cooperation & social harmony  Neuroticism​­ experience strong negative emotions  Openness​ ­ broad trait. Imaginative/creative people  Extraversion­ engagement with the outside social world  Eysenck’s​Model​­ determines traits by biological and heritability/physiological traits. These  traits aExtraversion, neuroticism, psychotic (PEN).​Psychoticis​ aggressive, egocentric,  impulsive, lacking empathy, cruel.  Cattell’s taxonomy­used factor analysis to make more traits. Wasn’t very good.  Circumplex taxonmy​ ­“circular personality model along 2 dimensions.” Traits are Dominant,  hostile, submissive & friendly with many subcategories inbetween.        Theoretical and Measurement Issues in Trait Psychology  ∙  Describe the concept of interactionism, and how it manifests in situational  selection, evocation, manipulation, and aggregation.  Interactionism­Behavior=function(personality x Situation)  Situational selectio­Personality may drive situations chose by person. Small personality  difference àbig life outcome differences.  Evocation​ certain traits may evoke situational reactions (ex: self fulfilling prophecy)  Manipulation​ intentionally influencing, changing others thoughts, emotions, beliefs, behaviors,  etc.  Aggregation​­ adding up multiple observations of personality. “Averages”     ∙  Describe the design and purpose of the following personality tes s: o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)­567 item survey. Most widely used &  researcher clinical assessment tool in mental health. Designed to detect mental illness in 10 sub  skills (hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathy, masculinity/femininity, paranoia,  psychasthenia, schizophrenia, hypomania, social introversion.)  o Myers­Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)­ Uses forced­choice questions to indicate preferences  in decision making. Extraversion v. Introversion, Thinking v. Feeling, Sensing v. intuition,  Judging v. perceiving. There is some issues with personality “types” but is easy to score and  interpret.  o Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI)­Designed for employee selection. Uses big 5 motives. 3  motives for work groups. 1. Acceptance (respect, approval) 2. Status & control of resources 3.  Predictability.  Has high reliability/validity.           Personality Dispositions Over Time  ∙  What is the difference between mean­level stability and rank­order stability?  What  is personality coherence?  Mean level stability​ ­maintaining consistent levels of a trait  Rank order stability​ ­ maintaining individual position w/in group  Personality coherence​ ­ predictable, changing. Behaviors over time, even with stable  underlying trait     ∙  Describe the concept of temperament.  What does it predict about adult  personality?  What are the 6 components of temperament?  Temperament​ ­ personality based differences in emotional reactivity. Consistent across  situations over time, it’s stable as we enter adulthood  6 Components​ :  1. fearful distress/inhibition (amount of w/drawl, distress in new situations)  2. irritable distress (anger/frustration)  3. attention span & persistence (habituation/length of interest)  4. activity level (physical movement)  5. positive affect/approach orientation (smiling, laughing, cooperation)  6. soothability (easy to calm etc)     ∙  What is a longitudinal study?  Give some examples of traits that remain stable  over time, according to longitudinal research.  Longitudinal​ ­study that examines same people over a long period of time    Some traits that stay stable over time are the big 5 except for neuroticism, it  lessens over time     ∙  Describe the relationship between self­esteem level and self­esteem variability.  What does each predict in a person’s life?  Self esteem​ ­Overall evaluation (+/­) of one’s self. High SE correlated w/ better health,  happiness, academic/career success. Negative SE correlated w/ aggressive behavior,  substance abuse, marital dissatisfaction.  Self esteem variability​ ­ the extent to which one’s self esteem changes because of outside  influence. Ex: social sitations  ∙  What is sensation­seeking?  When does sensation­seeking peak in a person’s life,  and what other traits is it correlated with?  What types of life outcomes are more likely for  people high in sensation­seeking?  How does the concept of optimum arousal relate to  sensation­seeking level?  Sensation seeking­​ preference got intense/risky experiences. Thrill & adventure seeking,  experience seeking, disinhibition, boredom susceptibility. More common in men, high in  adolescence then drops.  ­  sensation seeking level depends on individuals optimal level of arousal     ∙  How has personality coherence been demonstrated in relationships, education,  and health?  Best personality predictors of long life span include high  conscientiousness (better health  habits) , extraversion(healthy social life), agreeableness but low neuroticism (less stress & heart  problems)     Genetics and Personality  ∙  What is the genome?  What are chromosomes?  What is DNA?  What are genes?  Genome​ ­Complete set of genes to an organism. Mapping sequence of DNA  Chromosomes​  molecules of DNA in cell nucleus. 46 chromosomes/26 pairs  DNA​ ­ Molecules that contain bio chemical instructions for formation, functioning of person.  Genes­ ​ Sections of chromosomes. DNA packets.     ∙  What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype?  Genotype​ ­ Genetic material an individual inherits  Phenotype​ ­ observable expressions of genotypes (physical/behavioral)     ∙  What is behavioral genetics?  Be sure to include the concepts of variance and  heritability in your answer.  Behavioral genetics​  aims to determine degree of genetic basis (vs. environmental basis) for  variability in behavior/trait/ability  Variability (variance)­degree to which people vary on a dimension (ex: height)  Heritability­ Statistic that estimates % of variance that is due to genes that amount of  phenotypic variance that is attributable to genotypic variance     ∙  How do selective breeding, family studies, twin studies, and adoptive studies help  us study behavioral genetics?  What is the difference between monozygotic and  dizygotic twins, and why is this difference important?  Selective breeding­​ Promoting breeding between 2 organisms w/ desirable qualities (ex: like  how we bred dogs for aggression)  Family studies​  Correlate degree of generic similarity among family members & degree of  st​ personality similarity  (ex: w/ parent 50% shred genes, grandparents 25%, 1​ cousins 12.5%)  Twin studies​  If MZ & DZ twins are equally similar on trait, probably not heritable.  Adoption studies​ ­ Examine similarities between adopted kids & biological/adoptive parents  ­The difference between them is that it assumes equal environments for MZ/DZ twins r that it  assumes adopted kids/parents are representative      ∙  What has behavioral genetics taught us about personality traits, attitudes,  substance use, and relationships?  Personality traits­ that extraversion, neuroticism, Activity level, & psychoticism are high in  heritability  Attitudes​­ values, beliefs are heritable  Substance abuse​ ­is heritable  Relationships­ ​​high heritable     ∙  What is epigenetics, and how does it relate to the concept of interactionism?  Epigenetics​ ­ system by which genes are activated/silenced by environment. Genotype doesn’t  change but expression does. An attempt to shape the genetic future of human beings     ∙  What is molecular genetics?  Describe the DRD4 gene and the personality traits  that it predicts.  Studies structure and function of genes at a molecular level (DNA)  DRD4 is linked to activity level in dopamine   


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