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Study Guide 1

by: Jessi Hines

Study Guide 1 PSY 1013

Jessi Hines
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

covers the study guide she posted for us, minus information from the last lecture. anything denoted inside something like this --> {* *} is simply a quirky trick i am using to remember something....
Mary Pollard
Study Guide
psych psychology
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessi Hines on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Mary Pollard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Lecture in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
General Psych Study Guide Exam 1 -The scientific method is a way we learn about the world, following steps like observing, hypothesizing, developing theories, then making further predictions and hypotheses. -Hypotheses are testable predictions in the development of theories. One observes something worth testing, tests it to see if the prediction made is consistent, and if so, the prediction or hypothesis becomes a theory. -Theories are built from hypotheses that are repeatedly tested and confirmed. They are falsifiable. -Scientific Literacy is the ability to understand, analyze and apply scientific information. -Empiricism is the idea that knowledge comes from solely from experience. {*Empiricism and Experience start with E.*} -Determinism is the idea that all events are governed by cause and effect. {*Cause, Determinism, and Effect go together to make an alphabetical sequence  C-D-E*} - Psychology didn’t become a science until the late 1800s due to the Zeitgeist of the time. Zeitgeist is a German term that means “spirit of the times” and is used to refer to the belief system of a particular culture. The Zeitgeist of the time was one that believed in dualism, or the idea that people have souls and free will. The idea that one could use psychology to predict a person’s actions implied the opposing belief, materialism (people are nothing more than complex machines, made only of physical matter) -Freud hypothesizes that behavior and personality are affected by the subconscious… he didn’t really come up with any tests or find any evidence to back him up. {*Freud was a fraud*} But in all reality, psychologists still look back to Freud’s theories and such relating to one’s subconscious and how childhood memories affect them in adulthood; that is his theory of psychoanalysis. He usually applied it by causing people to enter a cocaine-assisted trances (inspired by Mesmer’s hypnosis). - The relationship between nature and nurture was first questioned by Sir Francis Galton. Nature refers to heredity and nurture refers to environment. That’s what this was often tested on twins who were adopted into separate homes. {*nature of the person verses the way they were nurtured. Fairly self-explanatory*} -Behaviorism is the study of someone based only on the observable behaviors. There is little to no attention on unseen factors such as mental events or instincts. It was rejected because it implies a loss of free will. -Humanistic psychology focuses on the individual and their freedom to act and use rational thought. -Gestalt promoted the humanistic psychology, emphasizing the importance of human beings as a whole, taking into account all evidence. -Social psychologists focus on how society affects people. Applied psychologists are pretty much any position in which a person applies psychological knowledge to address problems in any kind of profession. These jobs are useful for improving employee productivity and organizational structure of the company. > Psychiatrist, forensic psychologist, school counselor, health psychologist -Twin studies are helpful, especially identical twins over fraternal, because they have such similar genetics. Where fraternal twins just shared the womb, identical twins came from the same egg. Identical twins who have been adopted into different homes are ideal for nature versus nurture studies because it identifies the genetic nature as a semi-constant so researchers can essentially compare differences in personality to differences in home environment. -Genes are the basic unit of heredity and can be found on DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Genes are capable of affecting a person’s behavior. Inheritance of a gene does not insure it will be developed. One gene is not independently responsible for. -A person’s genotype is their genetic makeup. It is not observable. -Phenotypes are the observable characteristics like physical structure and behaviors. {*you can PHysically see PHenotypes*} -Neurons are composed of dendrites, axons, and somas (cell body). So what I understand happens is you’ve got these dendrites and axons as well as terminals at the end of axons. The axons and dendrites extend from the soma. The axon is the part that sends the information in the form of electrochemical reactions and the dendrites receive that information and relay it to the soma where the nucleus is so it may be processed in a sense. Lock and key binding refers to the way that each message has a specific physical structure and will only fit perfectly into a corresponding receptor. It triggers the production of either an inhibitory or an excitatory neurotransmitter. Inhibitory neurotransmitters stop an action potential while excitatory produce an action potential. -Agonists are drugs that enhance or mimic neurotransmitter activity, either directly or indirectly. Agonists can physically bind to the receptor, meaning it behaves directly, or it can increase the release and availability of the neurotransmitters. A drug that prevents reuptake is an indirect agonist. -Antagonists are drugs that stop neurotransmitter activity by blocking receptors or blocking synthesis of neurotransmitters. Botox is an antagonist that utilizes a nerve- paralyzing bacterium that, in small doses, paralyzes muscles that lead to wrinkles. {*because antagonists block the activities of protagonists in stories*} -Hormones are chemicals secreted by glands of the endocrine system secreted into the bloodstream to be transported around the body. {*hormones can cause impulsive [endo]crimes.. except with an N*} -The master gland of the endocrine system is the pituitary gland. {*a conductor can conduct from a pit[uitary]*} -Central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal chord -Autonomic nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system and regulates glands and organs. {*auto because we don’t consciously tell our organs to perform their jobs*} The autonomic system is composed of two other systems: sympathetic and parasympathetic. Sympathetic is responsible for the fight or flight response. Parasympathetic keeps our bodies in a balanced state (homeostasis). - Peripheral nervous system encompasses everything that branches from the central system. It transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body. -Somatic nervous system is responsible for sensory input and skeletal movement. It controls reflexes as well as voluntary movement. -The basal ganglia is the part of the brain active when learning new skills. -Cerebellum is part of the hindbrain and is responsible for things like balance, timing and coordination. {*bell is coordinated to chime at certain times*} {*cats use their tails—part of their behind—to maintain balance.*} -Cerebral cortex is the wrinkled outer layer of the brain. The more you learn, the more it grows therefore the more it wrinkles. -Limbic system is responsible for memories and emotions. The amygdala interprets the emotions of others and organizes memories related to emotions. The hippocampus is in charge of the more basic memories that have no emotional connection. {* the hippo base camp is boring.*} -Midbrain relays information and reactions. {* information goes to the core or the middle*} -Brainstem is the part of the hindbrain that connects it to the spinal cord. It houses the medulla that regulates heartbeat and breathing. -Lesioning is intentionally damaging part of the brain and studying the results. -MRIs use magnets to spin atoms in the same direction, then send a disruptive radio wave to produce a single 3D image. {*M for Magnet*} -PET scans use radioactive glucose injected in the bloodstream for one image of where the blood is concentrated. -TMS is sending a pulse to one area of the brain to disrupt activity there {* another M for Magnets, but this can Totally Mess Someone’s brain activity.*}


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