Exam 1 Review
Popular in Nutritional Biochemistry
Popular in Biochemistry
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOC263 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Hondal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Nutritional Biochemistry in Biochemistry at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
NADH, FADH2 and NADPH are molecular batteries because they store electrons, which we obtain through food. The e are stored in NADH and FADH2 are used to make ATP in the ETC. The e stored in NADPH are used for biosynthesis (anabolism). As e fall down the “electron hill” in the ETC heat is given off which is then used for pumping protons across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Proton in the inner membrane space of the mitochondria is referred to as molecular fuel. The fuel is then used to drive the synthesis of ATP by causing conformational change in the molecular motor that is ATP synthase. As the protons pass through this motor, the conformational change is actually a rotation, just like a motor that drives your car. The three macronutrients are proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Fats have the most energy because they have the most reduced form of carbon. Each carbon in fat is oxidized to CO2. As this occurs, e are given off that are stored in NADH used to make ATP later. Thus the more reduced carbon is, the more e are given off as that carbon atom is converted into CO2. More e equals more energy. A ketone is a carbon double bonded to an oxygen An aldehyde is a carbon double bonded to an oxygen with a hydrogen Thioester is a sulfur double bonded to an oxygen An ester is a carbon double bonded to an oxygen with an oxygen Shiff base or imine is a carbon double bonded to a nitrogen with a hydrogen The six macro minerals are calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium and potassium Magnesium is required for enzymes that utilize ATP because Mg2+ will bind negatively charged oxygen atoms of phosphate groups that are in ATP. The eight essential micro minerals are molybdenum, manganese, iodine, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, fluoride and selenium Sodium intake below 2300 mg a day Potassium for adults should be around 47000 mg per day Calcium for adults around 1000 to 1200 mg per day Magnesium in women around 1930 mg per day and men 400 mg per day Phosphorus around 700 mg per day Sulfur doesn’t have a set recommendation Micro minerals are referred to as trace minerals, meaning they are present at low levels in the body or required in smaller amounts in the animals diet Cobalt can ONLY be utilized as part of vitamin b12. Six ways that biology uses to regulate an enzyme include, allostery, regulation by the use of a zymogen, regulation by using izosyme, compartmentation, gene transcription and reversible covalent modification. Allostery is the process by which biological macromolecules (usually proteins) transmit the effect of binding at one sit to another, often distal, functional site, allowing for regulation of activity. Ligand binds to a specific receptor site on a protein, changing its shape and altering the affinity for the ligand at a second site (e.g either a receptor or a binding site) the ability of an effector molecule (ligand) to change the conformation and activity of a protein. Zymogen is an inactive substance that is converted into an enzyme when activated by another enzyme. Also known as a proenzyme. Requires a biochemical change for it to become an active enzyme. Ex. pancreas secretes pepsinogen which is an inactive zyomogen that can change to pepsin. Isozyme is each of two or more enzymes with identical function but different structures. Reversible covalent modification is when the catalytic properties of enzymes can very effectively be altered by a covalent attachment of a modifying group, most commonly a phosphoryl group. In this case ATP servers as the phosphoyl donor catalyzed by a protein kinase. As humans we cannot use temperature as a way to speed up or slow down metabolic processes. This is due to the fact that we are homeotherms. This means we have a constant internal temperature of 98.6 F and we cannot change the temperature of our brains, livers or any other internal organ as a method for regulating enzyme activity. Hondalase is an enzyme that utilizes two substrates, A and B. The Km for substrate A is 10 uM and the Km for substrate B is 10 mM. Hondalase binds substrate A more tightly because the Km is the  of substrate required to fill half of the active sites of an enzyme. A lower Km means that it takes less amount of substrate to fill half the active sites. This means that the enzyme that has a higher affinity (tighter bonding) to a substrate with a LOWER Km. Magnesium is important for the brain, bone and heart. It helps maintain normal nerve and muscle function, supports a healthy immune system. It stabilizes DNA and RNA structures. In bone MgPO4 is a mineral that strengthens bone and Mg2+ stimulates osteoblasts to make bone. In the brain it is involved in neurotransmission. It influences how glutamate opens ion channels. In the heart it affects ion channels in the heart tissue by affecting electrical properties of myocardium. It also affects heart contractility by influencing Ca2+ channels. Mg2+ helps to prevent arrhythmia. It also has antiinflammatory and vasodilator effect on vasculature. Magnesium is used as a therapy for constipation (Milk of Magnesia) and preeclampsia. It also prevents cramps because it influences how Ca2+ initiates muscle contraction (MgSO4=Epsom salts) PUFA’s can act like a nuclear hormone because they can bind PPARs. This method is different from a hormone that binds a cell surface receptor (ex. insulin) because together the PUFA/PPAR act like a transcription factor which influences how much of the gene is transcribed to messenger RNA. Hormones (insulin) act differently because they bind cell surface receptors and transmit their signal through the action of second messengers (kinases and phosphatases) [FOR FATTY ACID METABOLISM] PPAR is a peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor that alters expression of genes for fat and carbohydrate metabolism. PPARa works in the liver, heart and skeletal muscle and is activated by FA and eicosanoids. It turns on genes for uptake and oxidation of FA and for ketone body function (it signals the body to burn fat). It may be the master switch transcription factor specifically targeted by PUFAs to suppress genes controlling lipid synthesis and to induce genes that controls FA oxidation and thermogenesis Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol (phenols found in olive oil) act as hydroperoxide radicals because these compounds are capable of donating H to quench radicals. They form a stable radical due to resonance. Hence they are good antioxidants. You know a compound is a stronger antioxidant when you can draw more resonance structures. The more stable the radical, the stronger it is as an antioxidant. An example of an ROS is hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. When a fatty acid is more stable to oxidation it will have fewer double bonds. The carbons next to the double bonds can be oxidized because a radical can abstract H from this carbon. This radical is more stable than other carbon radicals on the lipid due to resonance with the adjacent double bonds. Saturated fatty acids cannot be easily oxidized because if you abstract H from an alkane, you form a very unstable compound. So PUFAs can be oxidized while saturated fatty acids cannot. The food industry processes unsaturated fatty acids and makes them more chemically stable by hydrogenating them to eliminate their double bonds. A byproduct of this process is trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids DO NOT increase circulating HDL (GOOD) levels, they increase LDL (BAD) levels. The food industry likes to use palm oil in its products because it contains no trans fat. It is low in omega3 FA hence it is more stable to oxidation. It is more solid at room temp than other oils and less expensive. Omega3 FA might lead to a decrease in cardiovascular disease because metabolism of omega3 FA leads to the production of antiinflammatory eicosanoids, which are paracrine hormones. CVD is thought to be an inflammatory process (which is found in omega6’s). An example of this is the oxidation of LDL to LDLox. LDLox is attracted to inflamed (damaged) areas of vasculature. Macrophages ingest the LDLox and become foam cells that lead to the formation of plaques. If a diet is low in omega3 fatty acids, then the inflammatory eicosanoids will dominate. These inflammatory eicosanoids control things like the production of thromboxanes, which promote blood clot formation. Oleic acid (omega9) is hypotensive, it helps in the process of reducing BP An eicosanoid is a paracrine hormone (act locally). They are both inflammatory and anti inflammatory. They are produced from the catabolism of omega6 and omega3 FA. They have 20 carbons each. Aspirin inhibits cyclooxygenase (Cox), Cox catalyzes the first step in the production of the inflammatory thromboxanes and prostaglandins Docosahexaneoic acid (DHA) is very important for neurological development. It is produced by A diet of 1:1 omega6 to omega3 is recommended because if you have too much had one or not enough of one you’ll produce too much inflammatory eicosanoids or too much anti inflammatory eicosanoids. Glycogen is linked by a14 linkages (going DOWN) and branched at position 6. Cellulose is unbranched and is linked by b14 linkages (going UP) The difference between cellulose and hemicellulose is that cellulose only contains glucose whereas hemicellulose contains other sugars as well The difference between soluble fiber and insoluble fiber is that soluble fiber is soluble in hot water whereas insoluble fiber isn’t Someone can be protected against CVD by eating a diet high in fiber even though they might consume a diet higher in fat than is recommended because fiber gives you a sense of satiety and by eating more you help contribute to weight loss. The fiber also absorbs FA so they are less able to be absorbed by your intestines. This can help rid of cholesterol and saturated fat that you consume in your diet by preventing it absorption. Fiber is good at absorbing water. It can help weight control because it increases fecal bulk, promotes healthy bowel movements and contributes to satiety. Unsaturated FA affects membrane fluidity because they contain a (SAME SIDE) double bond. This means they don’t pack well together. This lack of packing interactions means that individual lipid molecules are not strongly attached to each other. Lipids with cis double bonds will therefore have LOWER melting temperatures and this makes membranes more fluid. The three metabolites of cholesterol are vitamin D, steroid hormones and bile salts. Vitamin D is important because it helps absorb calcium and promote bone growth. Too little in children result in soft bones (rickets) and fragile, misshapen bones in adults (Osteomalacia). Steroids are important in growth and sexual development. Also important in adrenal gland function due to cortisol because it regulates carbohydrate metabolism and inflammation. Bile salts are highly effective detergents because they contain both polar and nonpolar regions. They are synthesized in the liver, and stored in the gall bladder then released into the small intestine. Bile salts are the major constituent of bile. Cholesterol makes a membrane more fluid because it has a unique shape. It prevents saturated fats from forming tight packing interactions and this makes the membrane more fluid. HMGCoA reductase is the first enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol. It is inhibited by statins The function of pancreatic lipase is to digest TAG that are transported by chylomicrons in order to liberate the FA so they can either be used for beta oxidation, for making phospholipids or for making TAG for storage in the cell Functions of the following lipoproteins, chylomicrons, VLDL, HDL, LDL VLDL: endogenous fat transport HDL: reverse cholesterol transport LDL: cholesterol transport The oxidation of PUFAs in LDL leads to the formation of an arterial plaque because CVD is thought to be an inflammatory process. An example of this is the oxidation of LDL to LDLox. LDLox is attracted to inflamed (damaged) areas of the vasculature. Macrophages ingest the LDLox and become foam cells that lead to the formation of plaque.
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