Introduction to Personality, Week 2 Notes
Introduction to Personality, Week 2 Notes PSY3101
U of M
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY3101 at University of Minnesota taught by Rachael Grazioplene in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Personality in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
PSY 3101 Introduction to Personality Week 2 Lecture 2 (January 25), What is Personality? Why does Personality Matter? - Individual Outcomes: . Happiness/Well-being . Spirituality/Virtues . Health/Longevity . Psychopathology -Self-concept/Identity - Interpersonal Outcomes: . Peer and family relationships . Romantic relationships - Social/Institutional Outcomes: . Occupation choice and performance . Political attitudes . Pro-social actions . Criminality Person: - Social Influences - Personal Influences - Thoughts (Cognition) - Feelings (affect) - Behaviors The Things Personality Psychologists Study: - A.B.C.s of Psychology . Affect – emotion, feeling . Behavior—doing . Cognition – thinking - Overlap with clinical psychology . Normal vs. extreme patterns of personality . Both needs to understand the whole person - The whole person . How all other areas of psychology come together . Every person is ‘like all others, like some others, and like no others’ . Not just how a person is, but also how they came to be that way . Personality psychology interfaces with developmental, physiological/neurobiological, environmental/situational, clinical, and cognitive The goal of personality psychology - Explain the whole person in his or her daily environment . Why do you do, think and feel what you do Major Concepts Underlying Personality Theories 1) Objective vs. Subjective (Which one matters more?) - Behavior View . Observed experiments . Objective information - Internal/Dynamic View . Private, internal experiences (a more ‘inside’ way) . Subjective information 2) Person vs. Situation - People are consistent (Is she always like that?) . E.g: ‘Leslie is really friendly’ (Person) . Is Leslie always friendly? . Eg: ‘Leslie is really friendly… unless she is around Tammy’ (Situation) 3) Idiographic vs. Nomothetic - Idiographic . Idios = personal . Implies that you can never perfectly measure all the reasons a person is who they are (probably true) - Nomothetic . Nomos = law . Uniqueness, but according to participants and within ranges defined by the laws of nature . Example: Many people have difficulty regulating their emotions, while others seem to cope well in the face of adversity/trauma (An common outcome caused by a unique chain of events for each person) 4) Personality Adjustment (sort of changing yourself to suit into the environment) - Adjustment emphasis . People have needs and requirements . Adjust the environment to suit those needs - How people tend to adjust to their environments is their personality . Different people adjust to the same environment in different ways Good Theories: - Testable - Makes predictions - Understand behavior Basic Approaches: - Trait approach . How people differ psychologically - Biological approach . Understand the mind in terms of the body . Genetic, evolutionary, neurobiology, neurochemistry - Psychoanalytic approach . Unconscious mind and internal mental conflict - Phenomenological approach . Humanistic psychology: how conscious awareness produces uniquely human attributes . Cross-cultural psychology: how the experience of reality varies across cultures - Learning and cognitive processes approach . Learning: how behavior changes as a result of rewards, punishments, and life experiences . Social learning: learning through observation & self-evaluation . Cognitive personality psychology: focuses on perception, memory and thought Integrating Approaches: - Good science encourages the ‘blind man’ to communicate with one another - Each of the basic approaches can be informed by the others; the best aspects of each approach can be usefully combined . Example: Studying creativity & personality development Pigeonholing vs. Individual Differences: - People really are different - Describing individual differences in typical cognition, feelings and behavior does not force anyone into a neat little box; personality psychology acknowledges that ‘typical’ does not mean ‘always’, & personally can change Week 2 Lecture 3 (January 27), Personality Research Methods: Sources of Data S Data: Self-Judgments or Self-Reports - Definition: a person’s evaluation of his or her own personality - Usually questionnaires or surveys . E.g: The BFAS on Moodle - Most frequently data source - High face validity (The degree to which an assessment instrument appears to measure what it is intended to measure) Advantages of S Data: - Based on a large amount of information . You are always with yourself . People are usually their own best expert - Access to thoughts, feelings, and intentions - Definitional truth - Causal force . Efficacy expectations (what you think you are capable of and the kind of person you think you are) . Self- verification - Simple and easy data Disadvantages of S Data: - Maybe people wont tell you - Maybe people cant tell you . Memory is limited and not perfect . Fish and water effect (Fish is always around water cant tell you much apart from water) . Active distortion of memory . Lack of self-insight - Too simply and too easy (Fail to get other source of data) I Data: Informant Report - Definitions: Judgments by knowledge informants about general attributes of the individual’s personality - Family, Acquaintances, coworkers, clinical psychologists, teachers, etc. - Based on observing people in whatever context they know them from - Used frequently in daily life Advantages of I Data: - Based on a large amount of information . Many behaviors in many situations . Judgments from multiple informants are possible - Based on observation of behavior in the real world . Not from laboratory tests or constructed situations . More likely to be relevant to important outcomes - Based on common sense about what behavior mean . Takes context into account - Definitional truth - Causal force . Reputation affects opportunities and expectancies . Expectancy effects/behavior confirmation Disadvantages of I Data: - Limited behavioral information . For example: only has one context - Lack of access to private experience - Error: more likely to remember behaviors that are extreme, unusual or emotionally arousing - Bias: due to personal issues or prejudices . E.g: Sibling reports, parent reports L Data: Life Outcomes - Definition: Verifiable, concrete, real-life outcomes that may hold psychological significance - Obtained from archival records of self-report . Advantages and disadvantages of archival records - The results of ‘residue’ of personality Residue of Personality: - Things that you own - How you get to work/school - Receipts - Public records, arrests - Online presence/trail Advantages and Disadvantages of L Data: Advantages: - Objective and verifiable - Intrinsic importance - Psychological relevance Disadvantages: - Multidetermination - Access/privacy B Data: Behavioral Data - Information that is carefully and systematically recorded from direct observation Nature B Data: - Based on real life - Diary and experience-sampling methods (like EAR) - Reports by acquaintances - Naturalistic observation - Advantages: realistic - Disadvantages: difficult and expensive; desired contexts may seldom occur Laboratory B Data; Experiments: - Make a situation happen and record behavior - Examine reactions to subtle aspects of situations - Represent real-life context that are difficult to observe directly - Example: The Marshmallow Test . (Certain) personality test To see how a person responds Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Advantages and Disadvantages of B Data: Advantages: - Range of contexts in the lab - Appearance of objectivity (But subjective judgments must still be made) Disadvantages: - Uncertain interpretation - Behaviors may not mean what we think they do (Laughing vs. happiness, delay time vs. delay of gratification) Summary of B Data: (Laboratory) Experiments: - Make a situation happen and record behavior - Constrain external influences - Example: neuroticism and ‘emotional utility’ experiment Certain Tests: - Example: MMPI (Minnesota Personality Inventory) - Blurry line between S and B - Rorschach Physiological measures: Example: Facial muscles, eye movements, plethysmographs Exercise: - Is your bed made? (L) - How many things are hanging on your bedroom walls? List 5 things that are hanging up on the wall. (L) - How often do you procrastinate? (S) - If I asked your roommate, how would they tell me that your dishes sit in the sink before being washed? (I) - Imagine you are brought into a lab and asked to write short summaries of all of the books you have read for pleasure in the last year. How many could you summarize? (B)
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