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oceanography chapter 11

Created by: Lincoln Connelly Elite Notetaker

> oceanography chapter 11

oceanography chapter 11

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a layer of water in which the salinity changes rapidly with changes in depth

halocline

coastal wetland that occurs at subtropical to tropical latitudes devoid of killing frosts

mangrove swamp

equal salinity

isohaline

a long, narrow, deep U-shaped inlet that usually represents the seaward end of a submerged glacial valley

fjord

a very deep river mouth with a large volume of freshwater flow beneath which a wedge of salt water from the ocean invades

salt wedge estuary

concentrated organic matter

sewage sludge

DDT

persistent organic pollutants

PCBs

persistent organic pollutants

The international Law of the Sea treaty _____

provides for arbitration of disputes

The Law of the Sea Treaty is an international agreement which gives the United Nations control of the ownership of coastal waters.

False

Of the following statements about the characteristics of coastal waters, which is/are true?

-coastal waters are more affected than open ocean by river runoff and tidal currents -coastal waters have high biologic diversity -coastal waters typically have high biologic productivities -a very large percentage of oceans' biomass is located in coastal waters

prevailing offshore winds produce coastal waters that:

have higher salinities

Of the following statements about the physical characteristics of coastal ocean, which is/are true?

-because of onshore wind and coastal runoff, geostrophic currents along western North America flow northward -in high-latitude areas, the coastal ocean is isothermal (has a uniformly low temperature from surface to deeper waters) -in middle-latitude coastal oceans where evaporation is high, a halocline can develop -in low-latitude areas where there is no mixing, surface water temperatures can be very high

San Francisco Bay is a ____ estuary.

tectonic

An estuary formed from a flooded glacial valley is called a

fjord

An example of a coastal plain estuary is the

Chesapeake Bay

Estuarine circulation associated with a deep, high river volume system where no horizontal salinity gradient exists at the surface is called a

salt wedge estuary

The Columbia River estuary received its most significant ecological damage form which of the following sources?

hydroelectric dams

The type of circulation pattern found in Laguna Madre is

opposite the typical estuarine circulation pattern

Identify the word or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern A. coastal plain B. highly stratified C. salt wedge D. slightly stratified E. vertically mixed

A. coastal plain

The Pamlico Sound, a body of water between coastal North Carolina and the barrier islands of Cape Hatteras and Ocracoke Island, is an example of a bar-built estuary

True

The Coriolis effect is evident in the surface circulation of Chesapeake Bay

True

The Mediterranean Sea water has little impact on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean

False

Which of the following describes an estuary located at the mouth of a high-volume river where freshwater flows to the ocean over a layer of dense saline water?

salt wedge estuary

Of the following statements about the Mediterranean Sea, which is/are true?

-The Mediterranean Sea is one of the few inland seas int he world that is underlain by oceanic crust -The warm, salty, and dense Mediterranean Intermediate Water flows out as a subsurface flow over the Gibralter Sill and into the Atlantic Ocean -The Mediterranean Sea is actually a number of smaller seas connected by narrow necks of water into one larger sea -Evaporation in the arid eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea causes an inward surface flow at the Strait of Gilbralter -Thick salt deposits on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea suggests that it completely dried up 6 million years ago

Important plants in a coastal wetland at 45°N latitude are most likely to be __________

halophytic grasses and pickleweed

Coastal wetlands are characterized by

high levels of organic matter in the tidal zone and anoxic muds

The percentage of the original area of wetlands currently left in the United States is approximately

50%

Mangrove swamps are protective buffer areas in coastal ecosystems outside of the tropics

False

Look at the accompanying graph and answer the questions regarding the time relationship between rainstorms and flooding. Based on this graph, which of the following statements are true?

-flooding correlates with increases stream discharge -peak stream flow happens after a storm

Many pollutants from coal-fired power plants are properly managed today. Which of the following is currently considered to be the biggest threat to the environment?

carbon dioxide

All fossil fuels, including coal, are considered an indirect form of ____ energy

solar

Where is electricity made at a coal-fired power plant?

generator

During peak usage, what happens to the cost of electricity?

it almost always increases

What color smoke coming from a coal-fired power plant would indicate wasted fuel?

black

On average how long does it take people in Germany to get their money back after they install solar panels?

12 years

Why isn't solar panel installation as profitable in the United Kingdom as in other countries?

utility companies pay a low cost to buy electricity

Which city has the title: "Solar Capital of Europe"?

Feriburg

What percentage of Germany's electricity comes from renewable sources?

12%

What was one effect of Germany's Renewable Energy Act of 1999?

They thought the laws were anticompetitive

What source of energy would be best for the country of Mauritius?

bagasse

Why has Mauritius seen an increase in demand for electricity?

an increase in tourism

What type of power is associated with photovoltaics?

solar

According to the video, what is the primary obstacle to the promotion of renewable energy sources?

political will

Which energy source is the biggest polluter in London?

coal

What is one obstacle to building a large wind power array in London?

wind power is much more expensive than other forms of electricity

Which of the following solutions would most effectively reduce air pollution in London?

widen and crease more bicycle lanes

What human activity is the main source of air pollution in Beijing?

driving cars

What is the Chinese government's response to the use of cars in Beijing?

develop public transportation

How does the availability of food in London compare with that in Beijing?

Most food in London is imported, and in Beijing it is locally grown

How does wealth affect food consumption in Beijing?

diets change from vegetables to meat

What is the major problem with London's water system?

it was designed and built 150 years ago

What would best address the problem of waste in London?

build more recycling facilities

What is different about how waste is processed in Beijing?

Many poor people in Beijing recycle waste they find to make money

Which conventionally grown agricultural crop uses more pesticides than any other?

coffee

Why are mudslides becoming more common in places like Guatemala?

deforestation and overgrazing

What is the leading cause of deforestation in Guatemala?

need for firewood

How have coffee farmers in Guatemala changed their farming practices to be more sustainable?

they are recycling and purifying their water

What is one effect of growing coffee organically?

less-toxic waste water

What solution would best address the problem of water pollution in Guatemala's villages?

create trash sites away from the river where people can dump their waste

Why do plants grow so rapidly in Guatemala's river valley, often blocking the flow of water?

pollutants like phosphorus and other plant fertilizers lead to rapid plant growth

What is the benefit of planting mangrove trees in Guatemala's river valleys?

-They act as filters to purify water -They provide homes for fish -They absorb large quantities of water -They minimize coastal damage from hurricanes -ALL of the ABOVE

Which country is the principal supplier of the world's organic coffee?

Mexico

Why are farmers in Mexico diversifying their crop production?

farmers can sell other crops while coffee is growing

China is the second largest importer of which of the following resources?

oil

What is one problem with China's large-scale energy projects, like the Three Gorges Dam?

They ignore the needs of rural areas

How does the current fuel source used by many rural Chinese impact the environment?

it leads to soil erosion

At the current rate of wood use, in ___ very litte of China's natural forests will remain

50 years

What is one benefit of the new energy-efficient stove that has been designed for China's rural families?

it requires less wood

Which of the following ferments animal and human wastes to produce energy in the form of gas?

biogas digesters

What is an effect of biogas production?

improved educational opportunities

Which of the following groups in China is leading the shift to biogas production?

students

What is threatening the ecology of China's northwest Yunnan province?

loss of natural forests

What is the main obstacle to the installation of solar water heating systems in rural China?

cost

Approximately what percentage of people in Uganda have access to electricity?

3%

Why is energy known as the "engine for development" in Uganda?

it enables entrepreneurship and helps meet social needs in rural areas

What is the primary source of electricity in Uganda?

hydroelectricity

Why is Owen Falls Dam failing to meet Uganda's energy needs?

Uganda's population has grown rapidly

Based on the sources available to Uganda, what form of energy would be best for the rural areas of Uganda?

solar

What is the main occupation for most villagers in Arua, Uganda?

subsistence farmer

Why do rural industries in Uganda have difficulty increasing production?

insufficient electricity to run machines

What is the purpose of the DFCU Bank and the Uganda Energy Fund?

to provide financial support to small and medium sized businesses

What is the primary source of energy in rural areas of Uganda?

fuelwood

What is a challenge to producing organic products in the rural areas of Uganda?

organic certification is expensive

What gas is a byproduct of agricultural production?

methane

What country is the world's largest agricultural producer?

China

China is home to ____ cows, pigs, and chickens

9 billion

Chinese rural residents have access to about ___ the energy made available to city dwellers

1/2

What is one obstacle to methane fuel production on rural Chinese farms?

rural farmers are often poor

How do biogas digesters work?

animal waste is broken down, producing methane gas, which is then piped into homes

What source of fuel is used by most Chinese farmers?

firewood

What source of fuel could sustainably provide electricity for China in the future?

biogas

What is one effect of biogas production?

improved literacy rates

What is one assumption behind China's push for biogas production?

forests should be protected

According to the World Health Organization definition of marine pollutants, ____ is NOT a pollutant

oil from offshore seeps

Pollutants are any substance that has a negative effect on the environment

True

Based on the World Health Organization's definition of marine pollution, which of the following is/are considered to be a form of marine pollution?

-warmer-than-normal water created by outflow from a coastal power plant -sound form cargo ships traversing the ocean -raw sewage released onto the floor of the deep ocean -biodegradable food items dumped overboard from a cruise ship

Approximately how much of the world's oil and natural gas reserves are believed to be in the arctic?

1/4

The ___ refers to the portions of Earth's surface where water exists in solid form

cryosphere

How is positive feedback affecting the arctic?

it is causing arctic temperatures to rise faster than areas of lower latitude

What is one result of the changing conditions in the arctic?

polar bears must swim farther to find food

why are countries like Russia, Canada, and the United States interested in securing legal rights to the arctic?

they want to access oil and natural gas found in the arctic

Who were the first people to profit from arctic water

whalers

What would be considered by some a positive outcome of the changing climate conditions in the arctic?

an increase in coal mining profits on the islands near the arctic

Which of the following solutions would best address the threat posed to arctic wildlife as a result of drilling for oil?

create a comprehensive arctic treaty that oil companies must obey

What is an "exclusive economic zone"?

a marine area where countries have the right to explore and extract resources

Why are some researches form the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland setting off explosions in an area of the arctic?

to determine whether the Lomonosov Ridge is joined to the Canadian/Greenland continental shelf

About how long have wastewater treatment plants been in existence?

120 years

Which of the following diseases has been all but eliminated from the United States because of wastewater treatment plants?

cholera

You accidentally flush your cell phone. Where will it most likely be found at a wastewater treatment facility?

bar screen

Where does settling of solids occur at a wastewater treatment facility?

clarifier

What does Kanapaha Wastewater Treatment Facility use to disinfect the treated water?

chlorine

Which of the following products of a wastewater treatment facility is often put on farm fields as a fertilizer?

biosolids

The pollutant responsible for major declines in the populations of pelicans, ospreys, and other marine birds was ___

DDT

All of the following are examples of pollutants in the marine environment except

phytoplankton

The two most significant human sources of oil pollution in the marine environment are

normal oil tanker/shipping operations and urban run-off

Bioremediation has been particularly effective in marine ecosystems in the clean-up of

hydrocarbons

Which of the following characterizes the pesticide DDT and industrial chemicals such as PCBs?

-persistence in the environment -propensity to accumulate in food chains -biologically active -relatively high toxicity -ALL of the ABOVE

Plastics cause significant biological damage to oceans when

plastic waste strangles seals and birds

Identify the word or phrase that does NOT fit A. Atlantic comb jelly B. Caulerpa taxifolia C. green crab D. Spartina alterniflora E. water hyacinth

D. Spartina alterniflora

Before the Deep-water Horizon blowout, the largest oil pollution event was the result of the Persian Gulf War in 1991

True

The primary treatment of sewage involves the removal of inorganic nutrients from the liquid effluent

False

The decreased calcium content in the shells of fish-eating birds was a result of bioaccumulation of pesticides in the food chain

True

Minamata disease was caused by mercury contamination

True

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Name: oceanography chapter 11
Uploaded: 04/09/2016
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