Psychology Study Guide Test 1
Psychology Study Guide Test 1 PSY 1113
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ryan Henry on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Psychology Notes Week 1 Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Different approaches to psychology: Biological approach ● focuses on the brain, nervous system, and other biological functions ● Includes: genetics, instincts, etc Behavioral approach ● which is the study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants ● John B Watson and BF skinner and big on this scene ● Shows patterns of reward and punishment Psychodynamic approach (Freud) ● Emphasizes unconscious thoughts and conflict between biological drives and the demands of society ● Freud also said that early childhood experiences are especially important ● Similarities between behavioral and psychodynamic: environment affects both, rewards and punishments play a big role ● Differences between behavioral and psychodynamic: behavioral is concscious while psychodynamic is unconcious. The humanistic approach ● Carl's Rogers and Abraham Maslow ● All individuals have an inborn drive to grow, develop, and be fulfilled ● Emphasis on free will to make choices ● Unconditional positive regard (no matter what you do, it will always be positive) ● Conditions of worth (I'm only good enough if I get a job, good Gpa, good spouse, etc) Cognitive approach ● Focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world ● Brain is viewed as a problem solving supercomputer ● Our behaviors is affected by how we process information (how much influence does certain factors have in influencing your decision) Evolutionary approach ● Uses evolutionary principles to explain the origins of human behaviors (aggression, fear, mating patterns, etc) Sociocultural approach ● Examines the influences of society and culture on behavior. ● Compared behavior across countries ● Compares group differences within a country Psychology Notes Week 2 Prompt: you are studying alcoholism, what questions would you ask your patients that deal with the 7 contemporary schools of thought? ● Biological: How healthy do you feel with it? Does your family has a history of alcoholism? Do you just not like withdrawals? ● Behavioral: How does drinking make you feel? Do you feel rewarded when you drink? ● Psychodynamic : Did anyone in your family drink as you were growing up? ● Humanistic: Did you decide to drink excessively? Do you feel fulfilled? ● Cognitive: Does your point of view push you to drink? Does drinking make you feel more creative? ● Evolutionary: Do you like the warmth alcohol gives you? Do you have an addictive personality? Is there some sort of reward for alcoholic behavior in the past? ● Sociocultural: Do people around you drink? Are you socially pressured to drink? Is drinking a cultural custom? Chapter 2: Research Five Steps: 1. Observe some phenomenon 2. Formulate a hypotheses and predictions 3. Testing through empirical results 4. Drawing conclusions (EX use statistics to explain the phenomenon) 5. Evaluate conclusions (EX how other react to your results, peer review, which push them to try it themselves) Key Terms: ● Variable: anything that can change (EX weather) ● Theory: a broad explanation or prediction about the topic of interest (must be falsifiable, or must be ABLE to prove it wrong) ● Hypothesis: a prediction that is stated in a way that allows it to be tested ● Operational definition: the translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures (EX: helping behavior) Types of Research: Descriptive ● Naturalistic Observation: behavior is observed in its natural; environment with NO interference (advantages: the behavior is not influenced by the experimenter's appearance)(disadvantages: researchers have no control) ● Survey: a representative sample of people are asked questions about various topics (advantages: quick and inexpensive) (Disadvantages: people lie, and they are boring, bad wording bias) ● Case Study: Behavior of one person or a group of people is studied indepth (advantages: more accurate information) (disadvantages: not much room for generalizing, bias from researcher) Types of Research: Correlational ● The relationship between two variables is examined to determine if they are associated ● Correlation coefficient (+1 or 1) tells us the strength and the direction of the relationship ○ Positive: varies together ○ Negative: varies opposite ○ Larger relationships closer to 1 Correlation does not equal causation! EX: ● Ice cream does not actually lead to murdering people or vice versa, so there may be a third variable! ○ Such as ice cream sales AND murder rates are affected by the temperature outside getting hotter Terms used in psychology: ● Treatment: manipulation used by an experimenter ● Experimental group: the group that receives the treatment ● Control: the group that does not receive treatment manipulation ● Independent Variable : the variable being manipulated ● Dependent variable: the variable being measured ● External Validity does the study measure the realworld issues it is supposed to measure? ● Internal Validi: are changes in the dependent variable due to manipulation of the independent variable? Or is there some unknown variable making the experiment invalid? Research Ethics: What is ethical or not? ● IRB (independent research board) evaluates all experiments for adherence to APA guidelines ○ Informed Consent (paper saying that you officially say yes) ○ Protection of participants from physical and mental harm ○ Right of participant to privacy ○ Voluntary Participation ○ Deception ○ Debriefing at conclusion of study Psychology Notes Week 3 The Nervous System: ● Afferent nerves: sensory nerves => brain and spinal cord ● Efferent nerves: carry messages from the brain and spinal cord to motor neurons ● Neural networks : networks of nerve cells that integrate sensory and motor nerves (Sympathetic is known as fight or flight instincts” while parasympathetic is known as “rest and repose”) (electric pulses travel from dendrites to axons) ● Resting potential: the axon is negatively charged when not in use and when a message comes through, the axon flips the charges like this: ● Which sends the message to the dendrites of another axon ● The message cannot be “strong” or “weak” just on or off (like turning on the lights) ● Speed varies based on the thickness of the myelin sheath and length of the neuron (thicker sheath moves faster, shorter neuron moves faster) Synapses and neurotransmitters: ● The more a signal is sent to a neuron, the stronger the signal will become and the faster it will act (like studying material over time has better results than cramming) ● Synapse: space between axon of sending neuron and dendrites or receiving neuron ● Neurotransmitters: chemicals that carry messages across the synapse ● Reuptake: the reabsorption of neurotransmitters ○ Selective Serotonin Reuptake InhibiSRI) keeps serotonin in the neuron, used as a treatment for depression. (Types of neurotransmitters and what their purpose is) (DO NOT need to memorize for the tebut know the basics like serotonin and dopamine) ● Thalamus: Relays info between lower and higher brain centers ● Reticular Functio: diffuse collection of neurons involved in arousal and stereotypes patterns, such as walking ● Pons: governs sleep and arousal ● Medulla: Governs breathing and reflexes ● Cerebellum: Rounded structure involved in motor coordination ● Brainstem (general): Keeps us alive even when we do stupid things (breaths for us while we are doing other things) ● Hippocampus: involved in creating long term memories (goes offline when heavy drinking (makes sense)) ● Amygdala: involved in fear and discrimination of objects necessary for survival (why we find spiders and bears scary) (or why we hate Kmart because of one bad experience when an old guy was a dick) ○ Psychopaths have low threshold in their amygdala, so they don't find somethings scary while normal people do. ● Cerebral Cortex: the big wrinkly thing and controls logic, brain functions, thinking, or just people things (last thing to mature) The Brain's Hemispheres: ● Hemispheres operate contralaterally (left controls right, right controls left) ● Lateralization: the dominance of one hemisphere ○ Left: verbal abilities, thinking, reading, reasoning, sequential ○ Right: Visualspatial, emotional expression, artistic, global ■ Does not mean people are “left brained” or “right brained” ■ Most things are not lateralized, equally used ○ Communicates via the Corpus Callosum Genes and behavior: ● Behavior genetics: the study of heredity influence on behavior Psychology Notes Week 4 Sensation and perceptions: ● Sensation: the activation of sense organs ba a stimulus (light waves, sounds waves, skin pressure) ○ Like the room is 72 degrees ● Perceptions: the interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli (assign meaning) ○ Like the room feels hot to some and cold to others Sensation and perception do not necessarily cause one another. Perception without sensation: ● Synesthesia: the production of a sense impression relating to one sense or part of the body by stimulation of another sense or part of the body. ○ “Bro, I can smell colours and taste smells” ● Phantom limb: the sensation that an amputated or missing limb(even an organ, like the appendix) is still attached to the body and is moving appropriately with other body parts. Top down and bottom up: ● Topdown processing: using an understanding of the big picture to reason about the individual pieces (when you’re good at something) ● Bottomup processing: using individual pieces of information to make sense of the “big picture” (when you’re not good at something) Absolute threshold: ● The smallest thing you can observe (like the quietest noise we can hear, or the dimmest light we can see and how far away) Difference Threshold: ● smallest level of change in a stimulus that can be detected ● Weber’s Law: the just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the intensity of the initial stimulus Subliminal perception: ● The detection of information below the level of conscious awareness ● Subliminal presentation can have an effect (small, subtle) Selective Attention: ● focusing on a specific aspect of experiences while ignoring others ○ Cocktail party effect: ability to focus on one voice among many ○ Or focusing on particular stimuli (such as own name or “special words” like sex) ● Change Blindness: failure to detect changes in the environment (gorilla in the background video)
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