Midterm 1 study guide
Midterm 1 study guide GEOL 120
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by KDeRoche92 on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 120 at Colorado State University taught by Bryan, Sean in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see Exploring Earth: Physical Geology (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
STUDY GUIDEMIDTERM 1 THIS STUDY GUIDE IS BUILT OFF THE WHAT TO KNOW LISTS DR. BRYAN MADE UP FOR US AND COVERS GEOLOGIC THINKING, EARTH MATERIALS AND PLATE TECHTONICS GEOLOGIC THINKING After this segment of the class you should be able to: 1) Determine if a statement is an observation and interpretation. An observation describes what you notice about an environment. For example, the book uses the example of cobbles in a river being rounded, lets go off that. We observe the cobbles are rounded. The next step is to develop an interpretation of this observation. An interpretation of our example would be as follows. The cobblestones in the riverbed are very smooth, this could be due to weathering from a river that used to run through this environment. (yellow highlight=observation green highlight=interpretation) 2) Describe the difference between quantitative and qualitative data. Determine if data are one or the other. Quantitative data is how many of something there are. Ex: there are 10 rocks. Qualitative data is a description of the physical properties of something. Ex: the rocks were black, lustrous, and smooth . 3) Make observations about a geologic problem. What would we observe to make interpretations about the geography of Fort Collins? the mountains are to the West, and it is relatively flat to the East. there are many manmade reservoirs. high rock exposure to the West Poudre River presence. Develop multiple hypotheses to explain your observations. Mountains were formed because of continental collisions (see plate tectonics) High rock barriers to the west. Soil Formation lead to agriculture to the East. Weather and Storm systems from WE could have an effect on agriculture. Lower elevations could experience flooding. Make testable predictions to test your hypotheses. Predictions we base off interpretations and hypotheses. Let’s say we are talking about the Poudre River. We could predict there to be dangerous conditions during big storm surges in the area based on relatively high surrounding mountains. (Making the environment a bowl for water runoff. PLATE TECTONICS What is the evidence for plate tectonics? The outer layer of the earth is broken up into tectonic plates that move relative to each other. Evidence would be movement in and all around the Earth. (earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain formations, oceanic ridges. What constitutes a plate? A plate is a section of the earth’s crust (lithosphere) moving atop the asthenosphere. What are the main differences between ocean crust and continental crust? OCEANIC CRUST CONTINENTAL CRUST VOLCANIC ROCK GRANITE MORE DENSE LESS DENSE THINNER THICKER What are the three main types of plate boundaries? Convergent, Divergent, and Transform What happens at divergent boundaries? Plates are moving away from eachother convergent boundaries? Plates are colliding with eachother transform boundaries? Plates are sliding by eachother Notes: Know that the colder the plate the older the plate. The densest plate will subduct. (Being colder will make a plate more dense) The Earths layers : Figure 1.7 A model of convection within Earth’s mantle [http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Oceanic_spreading.svg/1280px Oceanic_spreading.svg.png] Composition core=iron nickel metal mantle=thickest layer denser than ocean crustLithosphere=cold strong, makes up plates (upper mantle) Asthenosphere=melty, weaker. (Mostly solid) May need to interpret maps for exam. Be familiar with the maps and how to read contour lines. Contour lines The closer the lines are together = a faster increase in elevation. Farther apart=flatter area. Convergent boundary Far left We get volcanoes underwater with the oceanicoceanic convergent. Earthquakes can happen here where the subduction occurs, releasing magma. An oceanic trench forms where older denser plate subducts. ContinentalContinental cause for mountains. Convergent boundaryfar right With this oceaniccontinental convergent boundary we see another oceanic trench where the oceanic crust is subducting. We get a continental volcano where the magma is being released from the asthenosphere into the lithosphere and up through the crust do to the lower density of the magma. Earthquakes occur here as well. Divergent boundaryoceanicoceanic With transform we can have earthquakes, and plate motion is like picturing pulling out a slice of pizza from a pizza pie. The pizza slides out along the other pizza slices boundaries. Plates move only centimeters per year, as fast as out fingernails grow. Forces of plate tectonics include gravity and convection EARTH MATERIALS What are the characteristics that define a substance as a mineral? Mineral are solid, natural, inorganic, have an ordered internal structure, and specific chemical composition. What are the mineral characteristics that are used to define minerals? Specific characteristics include streak, luster, color, hardness, cleavage, crystal form, and density. What is a proton, neutron, and electron? What is a cation and an anion? Proton (+) positively charged particle; Electron () negatively charged particle; Neutron is a neutrally charged particle. Cation positively charged ion, Anion negatively charged ion. What are the different types of chemical bonding? (double & triple) Covalentshared electrons, ionice is gained/lost between two atoms, forming an ion. How are minerals classified in to groups or classes? CLASSES= SILICATES Most common, have silica tetrahedron SULFIDES Metal+Sulfer, ex Pyrite HALIDES Halogens, ex NaCl (Salt) OXIDES Metal+Oxygen, ex hematite (Fe2O3) NATIVE METALS n/a CARBONATES CO3, ex calcite What is the basic structure that all silicate minerals have in common? SILICATES ALL HAVE SIO4 INDIVIDUALLY Ex, Olivine (MgFe(SiO4)— mafic 3D FRAMEWORK Ex, Quartz (Felsic) & Feldspar (Felsic) SHEETS Ex, Mica, Muscovite(Felsic) & Biotite (Mafic) DOUBLE CHAIN Ex, Amphobile (Mafic) SINGLE CHAIN Ex, Pyroxene (Mafic) Mafic= contains Fe, Mg Felsic= doesn’t contain Fe, Mg 3 MINERALS MINED IN CO= 1) MOLYBDENUM (USED AS ALLOYING AGENT IN STEEL) 2) GOLD/SILVERHOT MATERIALS 3) GYPSUM (PLASTER/CERAMICS)
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