Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide
Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide 3600
Popular in Criminology
Popular in Sociology
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Andrew Fisher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 385 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
Reviews for Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/09/16
Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: The Field of Criminology o Definition of Criminology An academic field that uses the scientific method to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior o Criminology vs. Criminal Justice Criminal justice is the different agencies of control o Subareas Criminal Statistics Definition: calculates the trends and amounts of criminal activity Valid measurements o A factual measure Reliable measurements o A measurement that produces consistent results How they measure o Analysis (collect and analyze records and activities) o Measurement (estimate percentages) o Identification (surveys for victims to report unreported loss/injury) o Testing (investigate % of crime vs. neighborhoods, poverty, etc.) Sociology of Law/Law and Society/Sociolegal Studies Definition: subarea concerned with the role social forces play in shaping criminal law and criminal law in shaping society They investigate the history of legal thought like rape, theft, etc. to see how they have evolved over time and how they have changed society Develop Theories of Causes of Crime Some view crime as a function of a personality, development, social learning, cognition, or as an antisocial behavior, or a biochemical, genetic, or neurological imbalance. Criminologists test these theories Understanding/Describing Criminal Behavior Definition: research on specific criminal types and patterns Wolfgang’s 1958 study “Patterns in Criminal Homicide” is a landmark discovery of the nature of homicide and the relationship between victim and offender. He discovered that victims often caused the confrontation o Victim precipitated homicide When the victim is a direct precipitator of an incident Sutherland’s analysis of businessrelated crimes created white collar crime o Illegal acts that capitalize on a person’s status in the marketplace Ex: theft, embezzlement, fraud, false advertising, etc. Penology: Punishment, Sanctions, and Corrections Definition: penology is the correction and sentencing of criminal offenders Some criminologists suggest rehabilitation to crime prevention Some criminologists suggest mandatory sentences or capital punishment for social control These criminologists evaluate the effectiveness of crime control Victimology The use of victim surveys o Measures the extent of criminal behavior like the therapy, time off work, and money needed for the victim to resume their every day life The role of the victim o How did the victim know the criminal? Culpability o What has changed because of crime? o Ex: Putting jewelry behind glass… something must have happened before to make this necessary History of Criminology th o Classic Criminology (18 century) Beccaria believed that people act in their own selfinterest and that the benefits outweighs the cost of committing a crime Everyone has free will Crime is attractive Crime can be controlled by the fear of punishment Good punishment = severe, certain, swift Sentencing = seriousness of crime o Positivist Criminology (19 century) Comte believed that societies go through stages of discovering the world Positivism The use of the scientific method to conduct research Everything can be figured out in a logical way Empirical verification… everything must be backed up by a law and the scientific method There cannot be biases in science Early Criminological Positivism Physiognomists o Studied facial features to find antisocial behaviors Phenologists o Studied injuries to find antisocial behaviors o Sociological Criminology (19 century) Crime reflects social and economic conditions Functions of crime Paves way for change in a society Conflict of crime Crime is inevitable th o Developmental Criminology (20 century) Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck Interpreted biological and psychological ideologies through the course of criminal careers Developmental theory Crime depends on how you developed o Contemporary Criminology Rational Choice theory Trait theory Social structure theory Social process theory Crime vs. Deviance o Crime: an act that is deemed unacceptable and punishable my law o Deviance: an act that violates social norms in a positive or negative way Concepts of Crime o Consensus Belief that the majority shares common values and agrees on what behaviors are criminal in society o Conflict Belief that criminal behavior is determined by people of power and crime is defined to protect their power Ex: Poor = prison; Wealth = probation o Interactionist People with social power impose their values on society and this defines criminal behavior Consensus through conflict Criminal Law o Definition: a written law defining crimes o Felony vs. Misdemeanor Felony is a serious crime Misdemeanor is a minor/petty crime Social Goals of Criminology o Enforce social control, discourage revenue, express public opinion, teach moral values, deter criminal behaviors, punish wrongdoing, create equity, and maintain social order Ethical Issues of Criminology o What to Study Their research topics can’t be directed by funding Conflict of interests o Whom to Study They can’t only study poor and minorities and ignoring middle and upper class criminals too o How to Study How far should a criminologist go to protect their sources and themselves? You can be arrested for pretending to be a crack dealer. Chapter 2: Forms of Crime Data o Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Provides data to FBI on the characteristics of criminals arrested Part I Crimes Homicide, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, GTA, arson Part II Crimes Sex crimes, drug offenses, vandalism Cleared Crimes When someone is arrested, charged, or turned over to the court Problems with UCR It only collects data of reported, serious crimes o National IncidentBased Reporting Systems (NIBRS) Like UCR but requires more data Samples the population to study criminals and victims o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Unreported crime and characteristics of victims Annual survey of victims Addresses the issue of “nonreporting” because fewer that ½ crimes are reported Problems with NCVS Overreporting (thinking there’s a theft but there isn’t) Underreporting (don’t report car breakins) Sampling errors (are you representing the whole nation?) Question format (some people might not understand survey ?s) o Self Report Survey Gathers information of offender characteristics Subjects reveal their own participation in criminal acts anonymously Problems with this People don’t want to admit People exaggerate Crime Trends o Depends on economy, neighborhood, time of year, weather, etc. Crime Patterns o Ecology of Crime Day, season, climate, temperature More likely to commit a crime on a warm, summer day o Age Teens have less supervision, increased social demands, want to be more “adult” Elderly are prone to identity theft “aging out” means that people commit less crimes as they age o Sex Males commit more violent crimes Women commit more property crimes o Social Class Instrumental crimes improve the criminals financial or social position Expressive crimes are committed out of rage o Race Racial biases Minority population increase = threat to white population = more social control on minorities Career Criminals o The Chronic 6% (Wolfgang) People who commit crimes for a living Chapter 3: The Victim’s Role o Effects on Victim Blaming themselves Long term stress PTSD Adolescent stress Relationship stress Fear Antisocial behavior o Cycle of violence: childhood abuse – abusing as adult o Where Victimization Strikes Public places, daytime/early evening, city vs. suburb, schools, households o Victim characteristics Gender (more male than female) Age (teens and adults… elderly are targets of fraud) Social status (poor are of greater risk to Part I and II crimes, homeless are of greater risk to assault, and the wealthy are of greater risk to personal theft) Race (intraracial) o Repeat Victimization Target vulnerability Weakness leads to being an easy target Target gratifiability When a victim is “attractive” to a criminal Target antagonism A quality of a victim that arouses the criminal o Theories of Victimization Victim precipitation theory Active precipitation: aggressive behavior of a victim results in victimization Passive precipitation: personal or social characteristics make them an attractive target Victim impusitivity: impulsiveness leads to victimization Lifestyle theory Highrisk lifestyle College lifestyle Criminal lifestyle Deviant place theory “wrong place, wrong time” Routine activities theory Without a capable guardian, motivated offenders find suitable targets… o Caring for the Victim VictimWitness Assistance Programs (VWAP) Victim compensation Victim advocates Victim impact statements Public education Crisis intervention Victim Bill of Rights To be notified of proceedings and the status of the defendant To be present at criminal justice proceedings To make statements at sentencing and receive restitution To be consulted before a case is dismissed To a speedy trial To keep contact information confidential Chapter 4: Rational Choice Theory o Explanation Criminals choose whether to commit a crime or not o OffenseSpecific Crime A crime in which the offender reacts selectively to the characteristics of a particular crime How do they need to act in order to fit the crime? o OffenderSpecific Crime A crime in which offender evaluate their skills, motives, needs, and fears before committing a crime If you commit a crime, have the skills to do so o Structuring Crime Choosing place of crime, targets, and creating scripts o Is Crime Rational? Theft (you choose to steal) Drug use/sales Violence (you plan who you follow and kill) o Seductions of Crime The thrill of it all An emotional pay off Crime Prevention o Situational Crime Prevention Potential targets are carefully guarded Means to commit crime are controlled Increase police force Lower rewards of crime Increase shame General Deterrence o A way to think about preventing crime o Crime does not equal benefits o Specific Deterrence the view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts 2/3 of criminals are rearrested after 3 years of being released Incapacitation o The view that placing offenders behind bars during their crime years reduces their opportunity to commit crime
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'