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Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Kathryn Hardison

Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide 3600

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Sociology > 3600 > Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide
Kathryn Hardison

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study guide for exam 1
Andrew Fisher
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Andrew Fisher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 385 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
Criminology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1:  The Field of Criminology o Definition of Criminology  An academic field that uses the scientific method to study the nature,  extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior o Criminology vs. Criminal Justice  Criminal justice is the different agencies of control o Subareas  Criminal Statistics  Definition: calculates the trends and amounts of criminal activity  Valid measurements o A factual measure  Reliable measurements o A measurement that produces consistent results  How they measure o Analysis (collect and analyze records and activities) o Measurement (estimate percentages) o Identification (surveys for victims to report unreported  loss/injury) o Testing (investigate % of crime vs. neighborhoods, poverty, etc.)  Sociology of Law/Law and Society/Socio­legal Studies  Definition: subarea concerned with the role social forces play in  shaping criminal law and criminal law in shaping society  They investigate the history of legal thought like rape, theft, etc. to  see how they have evolved over time and how they have changed  society  Develop Theories of Causes of Crime  Some view crime as a function of a personality, development,  social learning, cognition, or as an antisocial behavior, or a  biochemical, genetic, or neurological imbalance.  Criminologists test these theories  Understanding/Describing Criminal Behavior  Definition: research on specific criminal types and patterns  Wolfgang’s 1958 study “Patterns in Criminal Homicide” is a  landmark discovery of the nature of homicide and the relationship  between victim and offender. He discovered that victims often  caused the confrontation  o Victim precipitated homicide  When the victim is a direct precipitator of an  incident  Sutherland’s analysis of business­related crimes created white­ collar crime o Illegal acts that capitalize on a person’s status in the  marketplace  Ex: theft, embezzlement, fraud, false advertising,  etc.  Penology: Punishment, Sanctions, and Corrections  Definition: penology is the correction and sentencing of criminal  offenders  Some criminologists suggest rehabilitation to crime prevention  Some criminologists suggest mandatory sentences or capital  punishment for social control  These criminologists evaluate the effectiveness of crime control  Victimology  The use of victim surveys o Measures the extent of criminal behavior like the therapy,  time off work, and money needed for the victim to resume  their every day life  The role of the victim o How did the victim know the criminal?  Culpability o What has changed because of crime?  o Ex: Putting jewelry behind glass… something must have  happened before to make this necessary  History of Criminology th o Classic Criminology (18  century)  Beccaria believed that people act in their own self­interest and that the  benefits outweighs the cost of committing a crime  Everyone has free will  Crime is attractive  Crime can be controlled by the fear of punishment  Good punishment = severe, certain, swift  Sentencing = seriousness of crime o Positivist Criminology (19  century)  Comte believed that societies go through stages of discovering the world  Positivism  The use of the scientific method to conduct research  Everything can be figured out in a logical way  Empirical verification… everything must be backed up by a law  and the scientific method  There cannot be biases in science  Early Criminological Positivism  Physiognomists o Studied facial features to find antisocial behaviors  Phenologists o Studied injuries to find antisocial behaviors o Sociological Criminology (19  century)  Crime reflects social and economic conditions  Functions of crime  Paves way for change in a society  Conflict of crime  Crime is inevitable th o Developmental Criminology (20  century)  Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck  Interpreted biological and psychological ideologies through the  course of criminal careers  Developmental theory  Crime depends on how you developed o Contemporary Criminology  Rational Choice theory  Trait theory  Social structure theory  Social process theory  Crime vs. Deviance o Crime: an act that is deemed unacceptable and punishable my law o Deviance: an act that violates social norms in a positive or negative way  Concepts of Crime o Consensus  Belief that the majority shares common values and agrees on what  behaviors are criminal in society o Conflict  Belief that criminal behavior is determined by people of power and crime  is defined to protect their power   Ex: Poor = prison; Wealth = probation o Interactionist  People with social power impose their values on society and this defines  criminal behavior   Consensus through conflict  Criminal Law o Definition: a written law defining crimes o Felony vs. Misdemeanor  Felony is a serious crime  Misdemeanor is a minor/petty crime  Social Goals of Criminology o Enforce social control, discourage revenue, express public opinion, teach moral  values, deter criminal behaviors, punish wrongdoing, create equity, and maintain  social order  Ethical Issues of Criminology o What to Study  Their research topics can’t be directed by funding  Conflict of interests o Whom to Study  They can’t only study poor and minorities and ignoring middle and upper  class criminals too o How to Study  How far should a criminologist go to protect their sources and themselves? You can be arrested for pretending to be a crack dealer. Chapter 2:   Forms of Crime Data o Uniform Crime Report (UCR)  Provides data to FBI on the characteristics of criminals arrested  Part I Crimes  Homicide, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, GTA, arson  Part II Crimes  Sex crimes, drug offenses, vandalism  Cleared Crimes  When someone is arrested, charged, or turned over to the court  Problems with UCR  It only collects data of reported, serious crimes o National Incident­Based Reporting Systems (NIBRS)  Like UCR but requires more data  Samples the population to study criminals and victims o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)  Unreported crime and characteristics of victims  Annual survey of victims  Addresses the issue of “non­reporting” because fewer that ½ crimes are  reported  Problems with NCVS  Over­reporting (thinking there’s a theft but there isn’t)  Under­reporting (don’t report car break­ins)  Sampling errors (are you representing the whole nation?)  Question format (some people might not understand survey ?s) o Self Report Survey  Gathers information of offender characteristics  Subjects reveal their own participation in criminal acts anonymously  Problems with this  People don’t want to admit  People exaggerate  Crime Trends o Depends on economy, neighborhood, time of year, weather, etc.  Crime Patterns o Ecology of Crime  Day, season, climate, temperature  More likely to commit a crime on a warm, summer day o Age  Teens have less supervision, increased social demands, want to be more  “adult”  Elderly are prone to identity theft   “aging out” means that people commit less crimes as they age o Sex  Males commit more violent crimes  Women commit more property crimes o Social Class  Instrumental crimes improve the criminals financial or social position  Expressive crimes are committed out of rage o Race  Racial biases  Minority population increase = threat to white population = more social  control on minorities  Career Criminals o The Chronic 6% (Wolfgang)  People who commit crimes for a living Chapter 3:   The Victim’s Role o Effects on Victim  Blaming themselves  Long term stress  PTSD  Adolescent stress  Relationship stress  Fear  Antisocial behavior o Cycle of violence: childhood abuse – abusing as adult o Where Victimization Strikes  Public places, daytime/early evening, city vs. suburb, schools, households o Victim characteristics  Gender (more male than female)  Age (teens and adults… elderly are targets of fraud)  Social status (poor are of greater risk to Part I and II crimes, homeless are  of greater risk to assault, and the wealthy are of greater risk to personal  theft)  Race (intra­racial) o Repeat Victimization  Target vulnerability  Weakness leads to being an easy target  Target gratifiability  When a victim is “attractive” to a criminal  Target antagonism  A quality of a victim that arouses the criminal o Theories of Victimization  Victim precipitation theory  Active precipitation: aggressive behavior of a victim results in  victimization  Passive precipitation: personal or social characteristics make them  an attractive target  Victim impusitivity: impulsiveness leads to victimization  Lifestyle theory  High­risk lifestyle  College lifestyle  Criminal lifestyle  Deviant place theory  “wrong place, wrong time”  Routine activities theory  Without a capable guardian, motivated offenders find suitable  targets… o Caring for the Victim  Victim­Witness Assistance Programs (VWAP)  Victim compensation  Victim advocates  Victim impact statements  Public education  Crisis intervention   Victim Bill of Rights  To be notified of proceedings and the status of the defendant  To be present at criminal justice proceedings  To make statements at sentencing and receive restitution  To be consulted before a case is dismissed  To a speedy trial  To keep contact information confidential Chapter 4:   Rational Choice Theory o Explanation  Criminals choose whether to commit a crime or not o Offense­Specific Crime  A crime in which the offender reacts selectively to the characteristics of a  particular crime  How do they need to act in order to fit the crime? o Offender­Specific Crime  A crime in which offender evaluate their skills, motives, needs, and fears  before committing a crime  If you commit a crime, have the skills to do so o Structuring Crime  Choosing place of crime, targets, and creating scripts o Is Crime Rational?  Theft (you choose to steal)  Drug use/sales   Violence (you plan who you follow and kill) o Seductions of Crime  The thrill of it all  An emotional pay off  Crime Prevention o Situational Crime Prevention  Potential targets are carefully guarded  Means to commit crime are controlled  Increase police force  Lower rewards of crime  Increase shame   General Deterrence o A way to think about preventing crime o Crime does not equal benefits o Specific Deterrence  the view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will  never repeat their criminal acts  2/3 of criminals are re­arrested after 3 years of being released  Incapacitation o The view that placing offenders behind bars during their crime years reduces their opportunity to commit crime 


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