NFS 043: Exam 1
NFS 043: Exam 1 NFS 043
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emilly LaFleur on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NFS 043 at University of Vermont taught by Farryl M. Bertmann in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 241 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
NFS Exam 1 RDA,AI, EAR, ULand Daily Values RDA: Recommended DietaryAllowances (adequacy) AI:Adequate Intakes (adequacy) EAR: EstimatedAverage Requirements (research + policy) UL: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (safety) Daily Values: values on food labels, based on a 2,000 calories diet AMDR:Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges - healthful ranges for energy-yielding nutrients. AMDR - Calorie % Ranges: 45 to 65 percent of calories from carbohydrate 20 to 35 percent of calories from fat 10 to 35 percent of calories from protein DRI diet composition *The DRI sets nutrient intake goals of individuals, standards for researchers + public policy makers, and tolerable upper limits. RDA,AI, UL, and EAR lists are DRI standards, along withAMDR ranges for energy yelling nutrients. The DRI applies to those in a healthy state only. DietaryAssessment data collection U.S. Diet + Dietary Guidelines Compared Healthy Eating Index (HEI) *yields a score Americans need to choose less of.. Americans need to choose more of.. Many need to reduce intake Impact of diet on basic disease states (specifically chapter 1) Elements of a healthy diet Diet and Health Connection Influential Lifestyle Habits: Tobacco use, alcohol use, diet choices *Chronic diseases often connect with a poor diet Good food choices -> healthy body Bad food choices -> malnutrition, deficiencies, over/under imbalances Genetics and Individuality Genetics and nutrition affect diseases to varying degrees Human genome - DNA Genetic <——————————————————————————————> Nutrition Related e s a e s i D Downs Osteoporosis Diabetes Anemia Syndrome Cancer Hypertension Vitamin/Mineral Infectious Heart Disease Deficiencies e s a e s i D Non-Modifiable vs. Modifiable Risk Factors Age Weight Gender Growth Race/Ethnicity Other Lifestyle Choices tobacco and alcohol use substance abuse physical activity NFS Exam 1 sleep stress environmental factors Healthy People 2020: Nutrition Objectives for the Nation U.S. Department of Health set a goal forAmericans to live a healthier lifestyle The Human Body and It’s Food Your body uses energy: mechanical, electrical, thermal *How meat contributes to global warming: The amount of CO2 produced in food production is scary per 1/2 lb. of beef, it is equivalent to driving 9.81 mi (7.4 lbs of CO2 equivalent) Forms of nutrition research Nutrition as a Science - Field of knowledge composed of organized facts - Active, changing, growing body of knowledge The scientific approach: systematic process to answer questions Scientific challenge -> theories Types of Studies Case study: examples Intervention study: blind study Epidemiological study: correlation Laboratory study: example Large national surveys and their role in nutrition Important Nation Nutrition Research NHANES -> National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) - asks people what they’ve eaten - records measurements of people’s health status Harvard’s Nurses’Health Study est. 1976 238,000 nurses reporting back on women’s health, especially cancer. Energy yielding nutrients including alcohol and possible role(s) in body composition and calorie count 6 Kinds of Nutrients , 4 of which are organic (carbon containing), 3 are energy containing. Carbs -> 4 cal/g, Fats -> 9 cal/g, Proteins -> 4 cal/g Water, Carbs, Fat, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals energy: capacity to do work grams: units of weight organic: carbon containing (of the four organic nutrients, three are energy yielding) Stages of Behavior Change Changing Behavior takes substantial effort Assessment and goals - Realistic goals Obstacles to change - competence - confidence NFS Exam 1 - motivation 6 Stages of Behavior Change Pre-contemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Adoption/Moving On Key messages from the Dietary Guidelines forAmericans 2015 Avariety of vegetables from all of the subgroups Fruits, especially whole fruits Grains, at least 50% whole grains Fat-free, or low-fat dairy Avariety of protein foods Oils FDA- specifically the oversight of health claims and dietary supplements Menu labeling Discretionary calories Claims on food labels nutrient claims: food must meet criteria Checking out food labels common/usual name manufacturer contact info net contents nutrient contents (Nutrition Facts Panel) Ingredients - must be listed in descending order Health warnings Manufacturers will break sugar down into spirit ingredients, so they don’t have to list it first claims on food labels - structure/function claims, requires no prior approval, notification of FDAis sufficient, required label disclaimer - loop holes Examples of possible structure/function claims for dairy products Key messages from MyPlate The Basics - 5 Groups Grains: Make sure at least 50% of your grains are whole grains. (entire grain kernel) ex) whole wheat flour, brown rice, oatmeal Refined grains remove the bran and germ, making them less nutritious Enriched grains are when some nutrients are put ‘pack in’But, what is it really? Veggies & Fruits: Make 50% of your plate whole fruits and vegetables Dairy: Key consumer message: Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk Proteins: Choose lean/low fat meat + poultry select sea food legumes (double purpose - also count as a veggie) Oils: Fats liquid at room temperature Choose oils that are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, + low in saturated fats. *Coconut oil is an exception NFS Exam 1 Empty Calories: Currently,American’s diet consists of 35% or more of empty calories, in reality it should be 10% or less SoFAs: Solid fats, added sugars, + calories, 0 nutrients Enjoy your food, but eat less! Avoid oversized portions Drink H2O rather than sugary drinks Choosing nutrient dense food nutrient density solid fats added sugars Concept of Discretionary Calories: Discretionary (calorie allowances) Weight (maintenance vs. nutrient supplies) Sources Nutrient-dense foods Physical activity guidelines 16-17 y/o - 60 min or more daily 18-64 y/o - at least 150 minutes a week 64+ Older - as physically active as their abilities and conditions allow Diet PlanningApplication USDAMyPlate Marketing of supplements Vitamins and Minerals provide no energy, however they do assist in all body processes necessary to sustain life. Elemental Diets tube or peg (in stomach) ^ both keep the organs going IV and TPN don’t use the organs, they supply nutrients, but will not make patients feel full. “Real food” is in this way far superior to direct supplements Nutrient interactions -> phytochemical Supplemental diets don’t work and many current problems regarding them currently revolve around companies not being truthful on what is actually in these supplements. Nutrient dense vs. energy dense AWay to Judge Which Foods are Most Nutritious - Nutrient Density ex) Nutritious Breakfast vs. Doughnut Breakfast high vitamins/nutrients low vitamins/nutrients high/med energy high energy Calculating personal calorie requirements Considers your sex, age, lifestyle (how much you move), height, weight, etc. NFS Exam 1 USDAFood Patterns Diet PlanningApplication USDAMyPlate Amounts need form each food group U.S. trend toward colossal helpings HUGE servings Controlling portion sizes at home + away Portion size may be harder to judge, U.S. Trend Phytochemicals Non-nutrient components of plants, emerging as potential regulators of health “Super foods” Blueberries: antioxidants, chocolate: flavonoids, antioxidants, flaxseed: lignin + phytoestrogens, garlic: antioxidant, organsulfur compounds. Digestive organs and their structure and function Digestive Tract > flexible, muscular tube, path (about 26 feet) System’s job is to digest food to it’s components, absorb, + excrete System works at two levels: Mechanical + Chemical Mechanical Mouth (chewing, saliva) > goes down esophagus > stomach/intestines (peristalsis) > Chyme travels through pyloric valve > large intestine > digestion is complete *Peristaltic wave passing down the esophagus + beyond Chemical Digestive juices: salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, liver, + small intestine (enzymes) Mouth: Saliva > starches + fat Saliva > health of teeth Stomach: Hydrochloric acid > protein pH Values of Digestive Juice + other common Fluids Intestine Bile, pancreatic juice, digestive enzymes in wall of intestine, fiber Food combinations + digestion “I am what I eat” 24-48 hours 90% of carbs, fat, + proteins are digested + absorbed Mouth > chew food + mix with Saliva Carbohydrate digestion begins Swallowing (peristaltic waves) Stomach > gastric juices mix with food (unwinds proteins) Chyme Small intestine > bile from liver, pancreas Large intestine mouth> less than one minute stomach > one to two hours small intestine > seven to eight hours colon > twelve to fourteen hours (twenty-four hour process) NFS Exam 1 Absorption: Nutrient molecules transverse intestine lining Hormones related to each digestive organ gastrin (stomach) secretin (small intestine) cholecystokinin (small intestine) gastric inhibitory peptide (small intestine) motilin (small intestine) CHO, PRO and Fat digestion including organs, hormones and movement and storage Carbohydrates are broken into smaller molecules in the saliva, in the juice produced by the pancreas, and in the small intestine’s lining. Proteins are digested by enzyme juices in the stomach, then by the small intestine, juices from the small intestine and and pancreatic juices break protein into amino acids. Fats are dissolved in the intentional cavity, bile acids produced by the liver allow the enzymes to break the large fat molecules into smaller ones. Bile acids work with the fatty acids, and move to the mucosa cells, they then pass through vessels and make their way toward fat storage. Storage sites: Liver - carbohydrates Muscles - carbohydrates Fat cells - fat + fat-related substances General taste preference Four basic chemical tastes: sweet, salty, fatty, and bitter/sour. We have a preference for sweets, and don’t care for bitter flavors. Alcohol metabolism Moderation: Two for men, One for women act as a lipid solvent, penetrate membrane > kill all ETOH: Ethanol *euphoria What is a drink? Proof percent of alcohol (in 100 proof > 50% is ETOH) Defining a drink Who should never drink alcohol? Children + adolescents People who cannot restrict drinking to moderate levels Women who are pregnant or have the possibility of being pregnant People who plan to do an activity that requires attention, skill, or coordination People who take medications that may interfere with alcohol Immediate effects ofAlcohol Body gives special attention to alcohol Diffusion through stomach walls Reach brain in one minute Presence of food in stomach Absorption in small intestine Arriving in the Brian Nerves (Inhibitory + Excitatory) Lethal dose (speed + amount consumed) Alcohol arrives in the body Liver processes most of the body’s alcohol NFS Exam 1 Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) Alcohol breakdown in the stomach Women vs. Men Excretion in breath + urine Rate of alcohol clearance only time restores sobriety Liver Healthy lover to fatty liver to liver fibrosis CDC: FAS > now supporting no drinking for pregnant women, closer lens of effects to women in general Alcohol’s effects on nutrition All discretionary or ‘empty’calories Fattening power of alcohol Effects on vitamins malnutrition
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