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NYU / Psychology / PSY 101 / What is in your dna and phenotype and what is expressed and seen?

What is in your dna and phenotype and what is expressed and seen?

What is in your dna and phenotype and what is expressed and seen?


School: New York University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Edgar coons
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Test 1 Review for Intro to Psych
Description: These are notes from review for the first test
Uploaded: 02/10/2016
4 Pages 21 Views 3 Unlocks

Travon Rosenbaum Sr. (Rating: )

Can you just teach this course please? lol :)

▪ Synapse- space between two neurons- neurotransmitter goes from presynaptic  neuron to postsynaptic neuron

What is in your dna and phenotype and what is expressed and seen?

▪ a neurotransmitter goes through reuptake- neuron shoots them out and sucks  them back up- if they aren’t sucked back up they aren’t used again ▪ Everything that will be on the test- 10.1 go through some multiple choice  questions from exam 1

▪ 1. what factors affect gene expression- chpt2- genotype the phenotype weather  the genes are dominant or recessive- incomplete dominance- brown eyes is a  dominant gene and blue is recessive- express brown eyes but be carriers of blue  eyes

⁃ genotype is what is in your DNA and phenotype is what is expressed and  seen  

▪ 2. what are the major principles of natural selection- darwin! survival of the fittest all life comes from a common ancestor- dominant widespread traits are favored  by environment- natural selection favors flexibility- if you aren’t flexible you die niches affect variability if you change an environment then you change what is  favorable for the environment- variability is favored because the environment  changes

What factors affect gene expression?

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the regulations of advertising?

▪ personal survival and species survival-  

⁃ self interest- if a robin is in a tree and a hawk comes by it keeps quiet to  help itself- by not speaking out it increases its chance of the hawk coming  back is bigger so it notifies the rest of the robins to save the species

▪ three basic needs- protection, replication, and renewal if there is damage to the  cell

▪ brain

▪ forebrain midbrain and hindbrain

▪ four divisions of cerebral cortex- grey and white matter- frontal, parietal,  occipital,and 2 temporal

⁃ frontal- higher order cognition- planning ahead social behavior ⁃ parietal- humunculus- creepy man thing- senses- skin touch whatever ⁃ occipital- vision- goes to back and is processed

⁃ temporal- hearing and language

Why people take cocaine?

▪ hindbrain- medulla-heart and breathing pons and cerebellum- controls voluntary  movement

▪ apraxia- a movement disorder

▪ agnosia- can’t recognize stimulus- can describe a phone- agnosia of language is  don’t know what someone is saying

▪ aphasia- number linguistic disorder- stokes- can’t have an actual conversation ⁃ nonfluent- can’t talk- fluent can talk but can’t comprehend

▪ left hemisphere- language- right is visual and spacial things

▪ split brain- cut at corpus callosum and two brain sides can’t communicate ⁃ corpus callosum- transfers info If you want to learn more check out What if there is no oxygen?

⁃ lateralization- functional differences between the two sides of the brain ▪ all or none law- once you reach action threshold of neuron if your intensity is  greater or less if you hit -55 is threshold it’ll spike no matter what -70 is resting

potential +40 something is action potential  

⁃ SSRI- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor- depression- they’re an  agonist for seratonin- block presynaptic neuron for sucking up serotonin  so there is more flowing in the synapse

⁃ agonist for dopamine is cocaine- blocks it from taking in dopamine and  causes extreme pleasure

▪ neuroepinephrine- action sesratonin- happiness dopamine- pleasure ▪ naloxone- blocks or reduces the pain aleviating of endorphins or placebos  ⁃ they fake fix pain so it blocks that

⁃ they won’t fix pain

⁃ use for heroin overdose- blacklist they do it to Reddington when he feels  pain

▪ which brain part is linked to wanting- nucleus accumpens mediated by dopamine  ▪ brain part linked to liking- frontal cortex- mediated by endorphins  ▪ dopamine hypothesis- pleasure is involved with the activation of nucleus  assumepens and is linked to dopamine If you want to learn more check out Maturity is what?

⁃ why people take cocaine

⁃ alcohol is a downer and it doesn’t work on dopamine system so there is a  general reward system- dopamine isn’t the only thing that makes you  happy

▪ necessary components of homeostasis- set point, sensor, comparator, restitution  response mechanism

▪ parasympathetic- up on heat sweat- sympathetic gets colder and shivers  ▪ vasoconstriction- sympathetic We also discuss several other topics like Where is the retroperitoneal located?

▪ sympathetic is fight or flight- more oxygen to muscles stuff shuts down to  conserve energy

▪ parasympathetic calms body down after that

▪ sympathetic- fight flight- short term activation- bodily functions shut down- when  this happens for a longer time period it’ll be destructive- wear and tear chronic  anxiety

▪ glucose to glycogen liver receptors say don’t eat

▪ glycogen to glucose liver receptors say eat- release glycogen from stores if your  blood pressure is too low- crave carbs

▪ other controls- leptin and neuropeptide y- leptin secreted by fat cells and excess  nutrients- when fat cells are full they secrete leptin and you feel full- send signal  to hypothalamus and inhibit neuropeptide why which tells us we are full metabolic receptors interact with liver

▪ outside environmental- influenced by people around us

▪ hypothalamus is with neuropeptide y

▪ dual control theory- lateral area- lowers the body weight set point- if it’s  damaged you get super thin- force-fed rats

⁃ ventromedial area- raises body weight- get super fat if it’s damaged ▪ thrifty gene hypothesis- way back when genes used to favor fat people  because food wasn’t readily available and it was coldWe also discuss several other topics like How do we measure uncertainty?

▪ Sleep- EEG beta activity- speeded heart rate and respiration and EEG delta slow waves slow rolling eye movements and slow arousal and heart rate ▪ REM rapid eye movement is similar to being awake- you’re active and you’re  body surpasses need to act out dream- basically paralized if not sleep walk ▪ rem vivid dreams other than that they’ll be fragmented

▪ why we need to sleep and dream- consolidates memory and renews cells releases growth hormone- keeps you safe from preditores  

▪ rem weird dreams

▪ mating

⁃ females show social aggression and males show physical  

⁃ territory  

⁃ sexual dimorphism- polygamy  

▪ jealousy- men care about sexual loyalty and females care about emotional loyalty  ▪ anorexia- 2 types- restrictive- restrict calorie intake and binge purge laxative  exercise and vomitting

⁃ cultural problems  

⁃ thought women would eat food and they thought they’d get pregnant so  they were scared We also discuss several other topics like What is john james audubon known for?

⁃ control and personal autonomy- want control over their body

⁃ genetics

⁃ twins more common in identical twins  

⁃ anorexia often comes with OCD and anxiety

▪ temporal simmation- stimulus if presented in succession if they’re below  threshold- achieve action potential with a lot of frequencies

▪ spatial summation- two or more sub threshold stimuli presented at the  same time in two separate places- many neurons fire to achieve effect ▪ agonists-chemicals enhance neurotransmitters and antagonists- impede  neurotransmitter activity

▪ voodoo death- think they’re cursed and their sympathetic nervous system goes  nuts and they die  

▪ clinically- damage of brain and see what is going on after- pole head guy ▪ catscan and EEG other ways

▪ parts of brain can be damaged but the rest can still work

▪ localization in brain- when using brain whatever part is used is more accurate  ▪ neglect syndrome- don’t know left side of body is there

▪ left hemisphere is responsible for language but it can only see what is on your  right visual field

▪ left controls right eye and visa versa  

▪ drawing is controlled by the right hemisphere and they can only see from the left  eye

▪ ESSAYS- sunday night 8pm check email

▪ essay question evolution- pic

⁃ if one individual is exposed to something and it dies then they’ll all die so  they need variation

⁃ some will reproduce faster because it’s better adapted

⁃ traits should be passed from parents to offspring

⁃ when things happen over generations it’ll evolve

⁃ variation can come from chromosomal variation during sexual  reproduction

⁃ mutations durring dna replication

⁃ evidence- organisms can transform through selective breeding- fossils ⁃ hypothalamus primal needs sex food- frontal cortex development in  humans make us better than ancestors and more logical

⁃ organisms genomes and molecular structures- we are related to chimps  ▪ needs for survival

⁃ protection replication renewal\

look at pics learn to draw flowchart

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