New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Abnormal Psychology Study Guide Exam 1

by: AJ Ponte

Abnormal Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 psych 2510

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Psychlogy > psych 2510 > Abnormal Psychology Study Guide Exam 1
AJ Ponte
GPA 3.94
Survey of Abnormal Psychology
Julianne Ludlam

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide covers all major aspects in chapters 1-4 that will be on the exam.
Survey of Abnormal Psychology
Julianne Ludlam
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Survey of Abnormal Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This page Study Guide was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psych 2510 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Julianne Ludlam in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see Survey of Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


Reviews for Abnormal Psychology Study Guide Exam 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/09/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology History and Background Criteria of Abnormal Behavior 0 from cultural societal norms o Norms related to mental disorders can serve those in power 0 Problem with this criteria I Societal and cultural norms change I Deviance is highly influenced by context quotGoodness of fit I Helpful if used with caution when looking at culture and age 0 Behavior is or maladaptive 0 People can have mild forms of dysfunction and not be psychopathic 0 Behavior causes or suffering 0 However some disorders don t cause the person distress o Often it is normal for an individual to be distressed 0 Sometimes the criteria of is used 0 Definition of abnormal behavior Behavior that is inconsistent with the individual s developmental cultural and societal norms creates emotional distress andor interferes with daily functioning o critiques that metal illness quotis a myth there are only quotproblems of living Psychological disorder prevalence o Psychological disorders are common 47 of individuals will receive treatment in their lifetime 0 The most common are anxiety 29 drugalcohol dependence 15 and depression 20 Historical Perspectives o 3 models used to explain psychological problems 0 Supernatural 0 Biological o Psychological 0 Ancient views 0 Evil spirits were cured by quottrepanningquot or trephination which is drilling a hole in an individual s skull to let evil spirits escape o Demonology and exorcism a spirit can control your behavior 0 Greek and Roman views 0 Medical concepts biological reasoning o Hippocrates father of modern medicine I No more demonology Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology I Believed in environmental and physical factors that attributed to psychological problems I Imbalance of humorous fluids I Roots of hysteria wondering womb theory 0 Middle Ages 0 Witchcraft demons exorcism 0 Treatment blood draining beatings burned at the stake o In cahoots with the devil divine punishment 0 Ship of Fools symbol of evil I They would build ships and put mad people on them and send them off to die Development of Asylums 0 Limited improvement around the 14005 0 Asylums or quotMad Houses like Bedlam o Chained people in dirty places and bad hospitals 0 Nineteenth Century 0 quotMoral Treatment Asylums used this model 0 o worked to change asylums 0 William Tuke English man helped change conditions Nineteenth Twentieth Century 0 Portuguese neurologist Antonio Egas Moniz frontal labotomy 0 New Finding Syphilis and general paresis had similar delusions and hallucinations to mental illnesses 0 Used Penicillin to treat symptoms 0 identified many disorders 0 Biological or somatogenic model I Diagnosis often more important than the actual treatment 0 Today the biological model is most dominant 0 New finding Talk Therapy 0 quotTalking Cure with 0 Led to psychoanalytic humanistic behavioral cognitive traditions Current Trends 0 Four major classes of psychotropic medications o Antidepressants o Antipsychotics o Antianxiety Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology 0 Mood Stabilizers Outpatient therapy is way more common than inpatient therapy and being institutionalized Prevention interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they can develop 0 is the field that examines the impact of culture race ethnicity and gender on behaviors and thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin nature and treatment of abnormal behavior 0 O O 0 Insurance health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature scope and cost of medial or psychological services I Therapists and clients typically dislike managed care programs because they feel they shorten therapy and unfairly favor treatments whose results are not always lasting with insurance coverage reimbursements for mental disorders tend to be lower than those for medical disorders directed insurance companies to provide equal coverage for mental and medical problems however many companies found ways around this designates mental health care as 1 of 10 types of quotessential health benefits that must be provided by all insurers and they must provide preventative programs for no additional cost 0 Providers psychiatrists clinical psychologist counseling psychologist social workers etc Models of Abnormality Biological Model 0 Brian and physical processes lead to abnormal behavior 0 quotMedical model 0 Consider problems with brain anatomy or brain chemistry 0 Brain chemistry 0 O O Abnormal behaviors can come from problems with neuronal communication Four major parts of a neuron are cell body dendrites axon and exon terminals Neuronal communication includes an electric impulse that moves from the cell body down the axon then a chemical reaction in the synapse or the gap between neurons The I Neurotransmitters chemical messengers released from presynaptic neuron into the synapse and can be inhibitory or excitatory I Postsynaptic neuron contains receptor sites that receive the NT Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology I Reuptake when leftover NTs are taken back into the neuron and put into new vesicles Certain proteins are needed to help get the NTs absorbed back into the axon 0 Medication can block the reuptake process and increase the amount of NTs in the brain 0 I Serotonin emotions thoughts behavior 0 Hormones abnormal functioning of endocrine system I Dopamine exploratory pleasureseeking behavior 0 Hormones glands control growth reproduction sexual activity heart rate energy reactions to stress I GABA overall arousal stress anxiety 0 Hormones Ex Cortisol I Norepinephrine mood emotions o What causes problems with brain anatomy or chemistry 0 abnormalities come from genetic inheritance o mutated genes that attribute to disorders are a result of normal evolutionary principles 0 abnormal functions come from viral infections for example schizophrenia may be related to exposure to certain viruses during childhood or before birth 0 Treatments usually try to alter the physiology of the brain using drugs psychosurgery and ECT o 4 major drugs are antidepressants antipsychotics antianxiety and mood stabilizers Psychodynamic Model 0 Sigmund Freud psychoanalysis and the focus of the unconscious 0 Focus on early childhood experiences 0 Belief that the d pleasure impulses Egoreaity coping and Superegomorality block id influenced behavior 0 Freud s Psychosexual stages of Development 0 Oral mouth is chief means of satisfaction 0 Anal attention centered on controlling bowels and bladder o Phallic sexual organs are source of gratification o Latency lack of overt sexual activity or interest 0 Genital mature expression of sexuality 0 Defense Mechanisms everyone uses them but it is a problem when you used them too much or one specific one a lot Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology 0 Denial rationalization repression projection sublimation reaction formation undoing 0 Treatment 0 Goal insight and catharsis 0 Working through 0 Free association dream analysis not used today 0 Transference Contemporary psychodynamic theories and therapies o Ego psychology 0 Object relations theory 0 Selftheory 0 Brief or shortterm psychodynamic therapy 0 Interpersonal therapy Important ideas shaped by psychoanalytic theories 0 Childhood experiences shape adult personality 0 Unconscious influences on personality 0 Defense mechanisms help to control anxiety 0 We all experience internal conflict Psychodynamic is current ideas vs psychoanalytic which was Freudian psychology Behavioral Model 0 Behavior is learned through classical and operant conditioning and social learning 0 Can create mental disorders 0 Classical conditioning of fear response is associated with phobias Little Albert 0 Operant conditioning negative reinforcement is important to the creation of disorders 0 Social learning or modeling learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcers Bobo doll Cognitive Model 0 Aaron Beck quotPerception is our reality 0 Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck are famous cognitive clinicians o Focuses on the thought process 0 Abnormal behaviors result from distorted cognitions faulty assumptions or illogical thinking 0 Depression is a great example 0 all or nothing thinking jumping to conclusions overgeneralizing o ogica thinking processes are when people consistently think in illogical ways and keep arriving at selfdefeating conclusions 0 Treatment Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology 0 Goal to change cognitive distortions negative thoughts and errors in logic causing problems 0 Cognitive therapy therapists help clients recognize the negative thoughts and guide clients to change their thinking process 0 Criticisms easily tested and researched combines easily with behavioral methods but doesn t help everyone may not result in lasting change CognitiveBehavioral Model 0 Helps explain phobias o Adds focus on internal thoughts to concept that behavior is learned Humanistic Model 0 Carl Rogers natural tendency to grow and achieve and basic human need for unconditional positive regard without UPR we are incapable of selfactualization o Clientcentered therapy 0 Genuineness o Empathy o UPR unconditional positive regard 0 Treatment 0 Clientcentered therapy client takes the lead during therapy a warm and supportive approach 0 Therapist fosters growth on the part of the client 0 Empathy is crucial o Criticisms little research support but positive impact on clinical practice Sociocultural Model 0 Emphasizes environmental social and cultural factors in the development of psychological disorders 0 Family Social Theorists 0 Social labelsroles 0 Social connections 0 Family structure and communication 0 Group couples family therapies o MulticulturalTheorists 0 Growing field 0 How culture race and ethnicity affect behavior and thought 0 Behavior must be considered in cultural context 0 Prejudice and discrimination contribute to disorders 0 Rosenhan s pseudopatient study normal people admitted themselves into hospitals claiming of hearing voices and were labeled schizophrenic Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology Integration the Biopsychosocial model 0 There are many possible causes for psychological disorders and they often interact 0 Biological genetic brain malfunctions o Psychological thought emotional changes learned behaviors 0 Social family societal cultural 0 Today s leading models vary widely and none of the models has proved consistently superIor DiathesisStress Model 0 Disorders caused by an interaction between 0 Diathesis vulnerability underlying traits temperament genetic or biological predispositions and thought patterns 0 Stress precipitating immediate stressful circumstances like life experiences sad events o If you have a preconceived vulnerability and add stress onto that you will develop a psychological disorder Research Methods Clinical Research 0 Research systematic search for facts through careful observations and investigations 0 Clinical research relies on the scientific method to look for general principles 0 Three types case studies correlational method and experimental method 0 Internal validity able to create conclusions based on a study 0 External validity able to generalize outside of study Case Studies 0 ndepth description of an individual or treatment 0 Benefits source of new ideas about behavior tentative support for a theory challenge a theory s assumptions show value of new therapeutic techniques and examine unusual or rare problems 0 Limitations reported by biased observers relies on subjective evidence low internal validity provides little basis for generalization low external validity Correlation method 0 Use subjectsparticipants have a sample vs population 0 Correlation the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other 0 Graph of correlation shows quotline of best fit and the direction and magnitude of the relationship 0 Correlation coefficient r Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology 0 Statistic that shows direction and magnitude 0 Between 1 and 1 0 Advantages high external validity and can replicate o Disadvantages lack internal validity no conclusions can be made 0 CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION o Epidemiological studies incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a population 0 Incidence is the number of NEW cases in an area 0 Prevalence is the number of cases 0 Longitudinal studies observing same individuals over time Experimental Method 0 Research procedure in which a variable is manipulated independent variable and the manipulation s effect on another variable dependent variable is observed 0 EXPERIMENTS ARE THE ONLY WAY TO EXAMINE CAUSATION 0 Designed to eliminate confounding variables using 0 Control groups participants not exposed to the independent variable 0 Random assignment ensures each participant has equal chance of being assigned to experimental or control group 0 Blind design for controlling bias I Single blind subjects don t know what group they re in I Double blind subjects and researchers don t know I Triple blind third party doesn t know 0 Advantages high internal validity able to create conclusions can have good external validity and can replicate studies on other samples 0 Disadvantages costly timeconsuming laborintensive 0 Alternative Experimental designs 0 Quasiexperimental designs no random assignment groups already exist 0 Natural experiments nature creates the IV 0 Analogue experiments abnormallike behavior produced in lab usually when ethics would disallow realworld study 0 Singsubject experiments single participant observed before and after N applied ABAB Statistical significance 0 Plt 05 less than 5 probability that the findings were due to chance 0 Results meeting this threshold are considered statistically significant Clinical Significance o How much change has occurred during the course of treatment and has an individual moved from dysfunctional to functional Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology 0 quotsmall effect means not clinically significant Clinical assessment 0 Process of gathering information about a person and his environment to make decisions about the nature status and treatment of psychological problems 0 Three broad categories of standardized assessment tools 0 Clinical interviews 0 Clinical tests 0 Clinical observations 0 Reliability how well a psychological assessment instrument produces consistent results each time it is given 0 Testretest reliability 0 nterrater reliability agreement 0 Validity the degree to which a test measures shat it is intended to assess 0 Face validity the tool appears to be valid 0 Predictive validity tool tells future predictions 0 Concurrent validity agree with other measures 0 Ex MyersBriggs type indicator 0 Not reliable 0 Good face validity 0 Not good predictive validity 0 Only concurrent with extroversion and introversion scores Clinical Interviews 0 Unstructured or structured interview 0 Set of questions designed to elicit information o a set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client s abnormal functioning Clinical Tests 0 Projective Tests rely on idea that people project needs conflicts and personality onto ambiguous stimuli 0 Ex I Rorschach inkblot test I TATthematic apperception test person is asked to tell a story based on a picture I Sentence completion and drawing tasks 0 Personality Inventories standardized questionnaires measuring broad characteristics 0 Ex MMPIZ most widely used personality inventory that has 10 clinical scales Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology I Hypochondriasis depression conversion hysteria psychopathic deviate masculinityfemininity paranoia psychasthenia schizophrenia hypomania social introversion 0 Response Inventories usually based on selfreported responses and focus on one specific area of functioning o Affective inventories beck depression inventory 0 Social skills inventories 0 Cognitive inventories o Psychophysiological tests measure physiological response as an indication of psychological problems 0 Ex Polygraph o Inaccurate and unreliable o Neurological and neuropsychological tests 0 Neurological tests directly assess brain function by assessing brain structure and activity M RI still image fM RI and PET scan brain activity 0 Neuropsychological tests indirectly assess brain function by assessing cognitive perceptual and motor functioning I HalsteadReitan Benderdrawing test can localize brain area that has impairments Wisconsin Card Sort 0 Intelligence tests indirectly measures intellectual ability IQ 0 Ex WAIS WISC and StanfordBinet Clinical Observations o Systematically observe a patients behavior 0 Naturalistic clinicians observe clients in their everyday environment 0 Analog they observe them in an artificial environment like an office of a lab 0 Selfmonitoring clients are instructed to observe themselves 0 Has changed overtime to become more developed and more dimensional o Clinicians need two types of information categorical and dimensional o Criticisms 0 Over medicalization overuse o The power of labels 0 Reflects the beliefs of one historical era 0 Political issues and influence Treatment and Tx Effectiveness o Empirically supported and evidence based treatment therapy that has received clear research support for a particular disorder and has corresponding treatment guidelines Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal Psychology 0 Metaanalysis reviewers combined the findings of 375 studies by using special statistical techniques 0 Patients showed more improvement than 75 to 80 of notreatment controls


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.