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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Early Africa - Class Notes

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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Early Africa - Class Notes

School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Africa, Egypt, world civilizations, notes, and chapter outline
Name: Early Africa
Description: Chapter outline of the first part. The second part is Egypt!
Uploaded: 02/10/2016
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background image EARLY AFRICA –WORLD CIVILIZATIONS  African Geography and Climates  The continent –rises from the surround waters, coastal lowlands, deserts (in the north, northwest, and  southwest), inland plateaus, to highlands and mountains in the vast interior. Africa’s interior isolation is caused 
by climate. The continent is divided by 5 climatic and vegetative zones: 
1) The Mediterranean and the extreme south lie outside of tropical zones and enjoy temperate weather and  good soil  2) The Sahel, the dry and treeless steppes that cross Africa from the Atlantic to the Indian Oceans 
3) The deserts –Sahara, Namib, and Kalahari 
4) The rain forest extends on either side of the equator in the west and center 
5) The Savanna, south of the Sahara, north of the rainforest in the West, and in most East, Central and 
South Africa  Neolithic Revolution  Between 11000 and 3000 BCE, rainfalls were much higher than they are today –grassy steppe lands, woodlands and abundant lakes and rivers covered the “wet Sahara.” There were 4 linguistic groups  1) Khoisan: Inhabited part of East Africa, including Tanzania and Kenya. Remained hunters and foragers. 
Adopted a unique technology with stone tools for variety of applications such as sewing, digging, 
cutting, and hafting in missile heads. Learned to make sculpt pots and bowls out of stone. Forced to 
move into drier regions of southern Africa by Neolithic food producers.  2) Nilo­Saharan and Afro­Asiatic speakers: inhabited regions near the Nile River valley, far south 
(Egypt). Prior to the wet phase, they were hunter­gatherers. The wet phase allowed them to move 
westward and southward from the Nile Valley, eventually occupying most of the Sahara. Around 10,000
BCE, many crossed the Sinai Peninsula and became known as the Semites –those that spoke Akkadian, 
Arabic, Aramaic and Hebrew. Ninth millennium ­domesticated cattle. A thousand years later, used stone
pottery and cultivated indigenous seed crops. Those that lived along rivers and lakes, abandoned hunting
to be fishers and farmers. 
3) Niger­Congo speakers: The 4 th  group. Inhabited southern Sahara woodlands of West Africa during the  wet phase. Around the 6 th  millennium, they converted to farming.  By the late Pre­Common Era, the Sahara reverted to desert. Many moved southward and northward.  Descendants of Afro­Asiatic, the Berbers, altered to farming the desert or to desert nomadism. Other Afro­
Asians and Nilo­Saharans continued farming and fishing. 
The Niger­Congoans moved southward into the Savanna and used their boat building skills to navigate 
numerous rivers and streams and cleared openings in the forest with stone axes. 
The Bantu Speakers, a  subgroup, steadily expanded south and east and in 1000BCE emerged from the forest into the drier savannas. 
They acquired iron technology and learned to breed livestock and grow grains. They established a small series 
of kingdoms and by 400BCE they reached the southern top of the continent in present day South Africa.  After 5500BCE, the Afro­Asians who migrated further down the Nile River, settled as farmers along the  floodplain. They were the ancestors of the ancient Egyptians. Began growing wheat and barley, and later river 
fishing. By 5000BCE, villages appeared. A thousand years later, their descendants cleared the area and several 
Neolithic stated competed for control over a region that stretched from Lower Egypt to Upper Egypt.  Mid of 4 th  Millennium, three kingdoms emerged as main political leadership in the Upper Nile Valley:  1) Nekhen 

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School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Africa, Egypt, world civilizations, notes, and chapter outline
Name: Early Africa
Description: Chapter outline of the first part. The second part is Egypt!
Uploaded: 02/10/2016
2 Pages 16 Views 12 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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