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Midterm Study Guide Soc 1 O'Connell

by: Priscilla orellana

Midterm Study Guide Soc 1 O'Connell Sociology 1

Marketplace > University of California - Irvine > Sociology > Sociology 1 > Midterm Study Guide Soc 1 O Connell
Priscilla orellana

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Here is a study guide for the Soc 1 Winter 16 midterm for O'Connell! I created this based on O'Connell's lectures and topics/terms my TA went over in my discussion section.
Intro to Sociology
Chuck O'Connell
Study Guide
Soc 1, O'Connell, UCI, UC Irvine, Intro to Soc, Intro to sociology, midterm, Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Priscilla orellana on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 1 at University of California - Irvine taught by Chuck O'Connell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 668 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of California - Irvine.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
Week 1 • We study sociology in order to understand society in order to see how human behavior is shaped by culture which itself is shaped by the needs of human beings (social groups) • Culture/society is constant but also dynamically changing at the same time. Week 2 • How do we study sociology? o Observation, watching what people do o Surveys: ask questions about behavior and reasons for their behavior. This can be written, by phone, or door-to-door. o Documents: analyzing emails, wills, government records o Experiments: manipulate a situation and see what people do (observe). This one is hard to use because it’s heavily regulated by the government and can cost a lot of money § Ethnomethodology: subfield of sociology, study of how people recreate social order when the social order has been disrupted. Example: Harold Garfinkel, told his graduate students to go to UCLA campus and play tic tac toe with strangers, told them to erase one of the strangers’ marks and draw in a mark so that they would win. Most told the graduate student that’s not how you play, when a female graduate student did it to a male stranger, they took it as a flirtatious move • Difficulties of sociological research: o The problem of reactivity: when people know they’re being watched, they may change their behavior, which will lead to unreliable results o The problem of ethics: people have the right to privacy and to be free from harm, people could potentially be harmed from direct observation or from publication of the research o The problem of deviance: not everyone follows the “rules” of society o The problem of power: top 20% of the population can use their wealth and power to hide themselves from these types of studies. They also have the resources to hire intellectuals to write stories justifying the rule of the powerful, in order to minimize rebellion. § Important statistic to know: The top 20% of society owns 85% of wealth (money, property, investments etc.) o The problem of bias: we are social products of society, we have ingrained cultural biases which may affect how we conduct or interpret the research • Video: “The Secret War (BOMBIES) America’s War on Laos” o Film about a country in southeast Asia called Laos o U.S. sent out bombs specifically meant to hurt people. They did this in order to calm the rebel forces in Laos, they figured that the rebels were supported by the local people, so if they injured the locals, they would need to be taken care of, which would then decrease the number of people able to help the rebel forces o Bombing ended in ’73 but there are still undetonated bombs there to this day, in trees, school playgrounds etc. People in the community meet with mining advisors in order to prevent more casualties. o This shows the arrogance of power of the U.S., by disrespecting people’s rights to decide what is good for their own country • Culture: shared ways of doing things. These shared ways involve values, beliefs, and rules of behavior (mediates our sense of morality and logic). • Personality: consists of your tendencies to think, feel, and behave in certain ways (culturally approved ways) • Culture is created by people (personalities). Once culture is created, it becomes a system that shapes personalities. • Conflict theory: o The mass acceptance of values as a form of cultural tyranny that promotes political conservatism, inhibits creativity, and gets people to accept their lot because they believe in the system, rather than joining to it (pg. 86) • Order theory: o Functionalist theory, these ideas that maintain structure of power are functional. In order for institution of education to function, it needs to separate the TA’s from the professors in order to work. • Power: the capacity of ability to direct or influence the behavior of others or the course of events. These are 3 types of power: 1. Cultural Power 2. Political Power 3. Economic Power • Power is distributed through institutions. The 4 main institutions are: 1. Family 2. Educational 3. Religious 4. Political Week 3 • Video: People in France are given free healthcare and college education, government pays for people to help out new parents with household chores and childcare, while hospitals in the US turn away people who are not covered by their own health insurance. • Rules of culture: 1. Least important of these rules are “folkways”, the ways of the people, if you violate them you’re not necessarily moral. Example: Eating chicken with your fingers 2. More series level of norms: “mores”, rules that are more serious and people will get upset if you violate these. Example: cross dressing, particularly for males 3. Most serious are “taboos”, if you violate you are the “scum of society” and will be ostracized/severely punished. Examples: cannibalism, child abuse, incest. • Dominant culture (from weeks 3 & 4): o In the United States: W.A.S.P. (White Ango-Saxon Protestant) § W: White, institutions favor those people socially and legally considered “White”. To be judged as “white” is a legal matter, not just a social thing created by people. § A/S: Anglo-Saxons. Tribe used to be called “Angles”, a Germanic tribe that settled in England. Another tribe called the “Saxons” also came and brought their Germanic language which is the basis for modern English. § P: Protestant. Most prevalent religion in America has been Christianity. At the founding of the U.S., Protestant Christianity was the most culturally prevalent. Some of its value has been secularized in today’s society. Example: Protestants wanted to reform Christianity, didn’t believe confession, believed that if you had good qualities such as success in business, being sober, and a hard work ethic you would be “on the right path” (to heaven). These became cultural characteristics in Americans. Week 4 • Language and thought o We think in words, and we acquire language from other people. Language defines our reality, so whoever teaches you language has an influence on your perception of reality. Example: Department of defense uses “collateral damage” as a term for civilian casualties, which makes it seem less drastic since collateral usually refers to money in terms of property such as your home. • Socialization o Definition: process of learning the values and norms of the culture o We are “socialized” to our culture through interaction. As we interact with people we learn that they have expectations on how you should behave, which are based on the values and norms of the culture. So, as you are socialized and learn the expectations of society, you learn the values and norms of the culture o Paradox: we are shaped by culture, but at the same time we create and shape our culture. Culture shifts over time as people modify it, so we are continually getting re-socialized to our culture. o In the process of interaction, we learn culture AND develop our self-identity § Charles Cooley: our self-identity is a “looking-glass self”. Looking glass is an old-fashioned term for mirror, so he was saying that our notion of who we are is obtained by using others as a mirror to get an idea of what they think of us. Through several interactions we take those “mirror images” (that we hopefully interpret correctly) to develop a self-image. • Power of groups: o While we all have individual identities, we go through life as being part of groups whether it is family, church, school, workplace etc. A group gives you a status (position). Every status comes with a role, which is a set of expected behaviors. The group tells you what to do, so your behavior is essentially already determined and you have little area to express individuality Week 5 • Stratification o Definition: social and economic inequalities. It is about individual differences in social honor/prestige o As by the functional/order model: § Inequality exists because it is functional for society. We have different tasks that need to be completed in order to operate, and not all the tasks are equal. Some require extra intelligence, great deal of motivation, extensive training, and lots of responsibility, so you have to offer a huge reward (prestige and wealth) in order to motivate people to pursue these jobs. Note: not all jobs that require a lot of work have a lot of prestige, example: farm work and sanitation. § Say that there are 3 factors that determine your prestige 1. Wealth: NOT INCOME. Assets, property owned, especially if it has been in the family for a long time (“old money”). Earning the money versus winning it in the lottery is also more prestigious. 2. Occupational 3. Educational: depending on what school you went to (community versus ivy league), what level of degree completed, and if it was completed in a timely manner. o As by the class conflict model: § Stratification is about power of one group to exploit the labor of others § Comes about by monopolizing the means of production (means necessary to produce things). § Argues that the value of most things in the world is based on the value of the labor expended in creating the thing. • Film “The Take”. Topic: wage theft o Happens when bosses take away wages for hours the workers contractually earned. About $1.5 billion are stolen yearly o Currently no effective way of punishing bosses who steal wages. Many bosses are stealing from undocumented immigrants. When these immigrants organize and demand their wages, the bosses threaten to call ICE on them. o In many states, tipped workers have lower wages such as $5/hr o Majority of minimum wage workers are women, and people of color. Week 6 • Video: Canadian documentary on a factory in Argentina run by the workers themselves o Argentina went into bankruptcy and froze all bank accounts, citizens were left with no money or life savings and protested the system. Destroyed/vandalized banks and rioted. o Factories were the backbone of the Argentinean economy, then they were shut down because they were not profitable. Employees took over these factories instead of taking unpaid wages. They did this by the inspiration of the ceramic factory Zanon, which was also taken over the by workers themselves. They are fighting for “expropriation” since they do not legally own the factories, and the government is trying to evict them. Even schools, ship building factories, ice cream factories and health clinics are being taken over by the workers. o Old factory owners are now trying to regain control of the factories they were once in control of. New presidential election is now trying to promote old capitalist ways and trying to oppose this “new economy” that is emerging by these autonomous workers. “My dreams do not fit on your ballet”. o Very first factory to be taken over by workers was Brookman Suit Factory, taken over by the women that sewed the garments. Owners decided to abandon the factory because the workers were trying to get better salaries and working conditions, and that’s when the workers took over. Judge ordered for them to be evicted and people rioted and formed picket lines all around the building. Government then voted in favor of the expropriation bill proposed by the workers which gave them ownership of the suit factory.


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