Exam 1 Notes
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2162 EDFI 3020
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Angiolelli on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PS 103 at Westminster College taught by Dr. E Cohen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Exam 1 Pericles Funeral Oration- Unique about Athens- worth fighting for? Athens was noted as the most civilized society in the world at its time. The Athenian people prided themselves on the fact that they did not have to mimic other governments. Indeed—Athenian people enjoyed the leisure of equal protection of the laws and did not have to quarrel with one another over their personal activities. Pericles praised Athenian Navy forces and militia on welcoming foreigners to Athens. Athenian culture was the showcase model for other nations. Thrasymarchus defined justice as the advantage /interest of the stronger. He derived this notion from the idea that Government weather they be democracies, tyranny etc. Made laws for people to abide by. When people did not abide by the government of laws and regulations, they subsequently were deemed ujust. Thrasymachus did not so much define justice as he made a de-legitimize . Of justice. Consequently, he deemed unjustice more advantageous than justice. Socrates try to counter by saying that justice what is wisdom any good doing while I’m justice with ignorance and vice. He said that governments only ruled an interest of the people and subsequently made laws in the people’s interest. Thrasymachus contended further that if the government passed an unjust law that they were not the stronger at that time. Socrates said that every art had an interest. For example, the art of medicine and is aimed at healing and the art of music is aimed at making music. The art’s interest is never aimed at itself. Machiavelli’s The Prince notes several main goals. His story is a guidebook for princes. His writing differs from other writers because he looks at a guidebook for Princes from the perspective with the quote that a man surveying a landscape conceive the entire way upper Mountain that’s representing the people being able to understand a prince and conversely hey man from the top of A mountain is able to survey the entire landscape below him consequently resulting in a prince being able to understand the people. Thus, Machiavelli a regular man is able to understand hey prince. Subsequently, Machiavelli acquired this knowledge over the course of many years the separating himself from other men. He is known as the father of political pragmatism. He honed in on the idea of Civic virtue what she defined it as effective political leadership. Machiavelli States that the princes who thinks more of ease than of arms has lost his empire. He also contends that hey Prince who thinks more of virtue event of the leading soon meets what destroys him. He coins of the simple term it is better to be feared than loved. Make war not love. A Prince should and instill fear yet avoid hatred wilst he can be feared but not hated so long as he avoids the property and women of his men. Aristotle contends that humans are naturally political social animal because they have the ability to utilize language and morals. They consequently form A City state, which he believes is the best form of government. Language is one of the most important things humans that brings us together and we are thus social and political animals. The social contract is an idea that revolves around forming a society through consent. Consequently, Human beings have a normative ability to reason and consent and have some rights and some reason prior to making contractual obligations. Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, all contend that the social contract revolves around consent. While consent is a integral aspect, levels of consent vary. For Hobbes, total consent is transferred to the monarch who is the artificial head of state. For Hobbes two contracts are formed- one with the people and one with the government—thus, we can overthrow the Gov. if they are unjust. While Rousseau acknowledges a contract being formed, he contends that a contract and forming a society is what brings about ‘amour proper’ and consequently destroys us. social Contract The traditional social contract views of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau crucially relied on the idea of consent. For Locke only “consent of Freemen” could make them members of government (Locke 1689, §117). Now in the hands of these theorists— and in much ordinary discourse—the idea of “consent” implies a normative power to bind oneself. When one reaches “the age of consent” one is empowered to make certain sorts of binding agreements—contracts. By putting consent at the center of their contracts these early modern contract theorists (1) were clearly supposing that individuals had basic normative powers over themselves before they entered into the social contract (a point that Hume  stressed), and (2) brought the question of political obligation to the fore. If the parties have the power to bind themselves by exercising this normative power, then the upshot of the social contract was obligation. As Hobbes (1651, 81 [chap xiv,¶7) insisted, covenants bind; that is why they are “artificial chains” ( Hobbes- Law of nature is to use all necessary tactics to defend yourself. However we should seek peace and consequently give up rights and be governed and maintain peace. The state of nature is a state of war because people are greedy and subsequently the state of nature is a war of all against all (bellum omnium contra omnes in Latin) and will be nasty, poor, brutish and short. The sovereign holds absolute authority and determines all laws, punishments, defends the commonwealth, selects advisor, and all doctrines citizens will believe, and carries our all aforementioned powers for the common good. Right of nature to defend yourself. Locke- law of nature; we have a right to life, liberty, and property. Because we have those rights we will be somewhat good- not moral but good. We are all free and equal but we don’t have the right to do everything. We can create a state of war by having conflict with one another over something we both want. We have the responsibilities not to harm another individual or their property. We create a government to protect ourselves and make laws and regulations and have an impartial judge when problems arise. The proper “compact” is derived by two contracts—one that unites us as a society and one that unites us with the government- thus we can change government without falling into a state of war like Hobbes contends we will because changes will be internal. Violations are to be addressed in that the magistrate will act fair and when he does not we must appeal to God. Reason to leave state of nature was so men wouldn’t have to be their own judges Locke opposes tyranny on the grounds that we are all free and equal and do not have powers over another human. Therefore, if a government was to impose tyranny we would have the ability or obligation from our natural right to life to change that. Consequently, MLK contends that we have a moral obligation to disobey unjust laws. He is an extremist preaching and comparing himself to the Apostle Paul who preaches outside his home area and Christ who loved all. He said that his people waited too long and that the oppressor will never freely relieve the oppressed and that an unjust law is unjust when it affects a minority who did not have a right to change it or address it (ie: Blacks couldn’t vote). Rousseau: His view differs in that the natural state is that men are driven by pity and live in a caveman state and don’t associate with humans. Consequently, when men come together they develop morals which Rousseau thinks is good, however, because they have a faculty of perfectibility, when they come together and develop ‘amour propre’ (vanity) and then destroy ourselves. Inequality in society cannot be compared to natural inequality because inequality in society is not natural and continues human drive to continue to gain power. Burke’s ideals differ in that he disagrees that a contract is necessary because if there was one it is that we are to preserve culture for future generations and look at our elder’s ideals and traditional government. In his Reflections on the French Revolution he contends that gradual societal change is best and that those changes gain us more freedom and that revolutionary changes potentially limit our freedom. That is why he opposed the French Revolution because it was fought by common souls for radical change; he does acknowledge that we are entitled to certain rights and if a social contact gave us them then we get them but only the ones we traditionally had; thus, a Frenchman’s right may be different from an Italian man or German man’s rights. That is why he supported the American Revolution because he agreed it was fought by upper-crust men who fought over an original English right “No taxation without representation.” Politics- empirical science- new radical change unworkable and immoral if based only on reason. Hobbes Power natural- wits art mind etc Instramenatal- friends, wealth, reputation, etc’ Reason helps us escape st nature Fear makes us want to Make peace give up rights St nature solitary nasty, poor, brutish, short No security Law of nature is know innately—discovered by reason third law of nature states that it is not enough simply to make contracts, but that we are required to keep the contracts we make. The fourth law of nature is to show gratitude toward those who maintain the contract so that no one will regret having complied with the contract. Locke Difference between parental and governmental power- governmental power allows soverign power to make laws, carry out laws and punishments, defned the commonwealth from foreign threats, and carry out aforementioned powers that work for the common good. Richard Hooker- Laws of Ecclesticial Poltie claims that equality is the basis of civil society. Right to reparations- state of nature you can make terms over transgressor that fit punishment- solution is to make a government that has a magistrate who will be fair and impartial. Perfect State of Freedom and equality God made all men equal and no man is better than another man- The laws of nature indicate that men are good and human life liberty and property should be protected. All men in a state of nature until they consent to be governed. Man in state of war- right to destroy the man Only when natural rights threatened does a state of war exist War can exist within a civil society when the laws are perverted and don’t make justice; however, you may need to appeal to Ultimate Judge, God- as Jephthah did in the Bible. Slavery is essentially a state of war between conquered and conqueror. A man cannot enslave himself; Jews did but did not give total control. Slavery is wrong. Man who deserves death can be enslaved as long as it is not totally unjust in the state of nature; if it is the man can kill himself. Labor yields right to property; answers claims of diggers who says world was given to man in common. You own self and labor. Grow strawberries on land- l and s yours. Can’t just grow food and let it rot. Money helps give goods a value- it won’t rot. Use money to buy more. Right to property- pre political. Locke writing at a time colonialists were going to America if you couldn’t get land in England you could get it in America- bc they only lived hunter and gatherer- they didn’t improve it with labor they could own nuts they picked for example but not the land so Englishmen could come over cultivate the land and the own it Rousseau Anarchism Libertarian Left Ralph Nader Try to abolish capitalism and state Acknowledge that state will be pushed against the elite Anarchists don’t rely on the idea that the state will be just Anarchists in Chicago advocated in 1800’s for 8 hour working day Hay Market Massacare Makunin- Anarchist abolish the state Fanny Kaplan was put to death for trying to kill Lenin Equality- not possessions but power Dependent on participation via direct democracy Impossible to say what an anarchist constitution would look like Demand full power for people No you cannot guarantee it- but it didn’t work people could vote it away like it never existed David Hume Studied Greek and English history and found no reference of government- To Hume all governments were founded by coercion—either fraud, force, etc. He thinks the governed never even tried to challenge the rulers He thinks there’s no conscious implicit, or explicit government Men never think more of the origin of government than they do the theory if gravity They just accept government as a way of life as their ancestors did In our natural state we want to be free but realize through reason we can’t and some force must bear on us.
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