Test 1 Guide
● Russia was renamed to the USSR in 1922
● Russia was made up of 15republics
● The Russian republic took up ¾ of the Soviet Union
● The hammer and sickle on the soviet flag symbolize the union between the working class and the peasants under the communist union
● The five pointed star on the communist flag symbolizes the unity of all the people on all five continents of the world under communism
● Perestroika:economic reforms
● Glasnost: openness
● Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were the first three Soviet republics to break away from the USSR
● The collapse of communism and end of the Soviet Union occurred in 1991 with Gorbachev’s resign
● Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania were the three Soviet republics that never joined the CIS. Georgia left in 2008, and Ukraine left in 2014 If you want to learn more check out Is nominal data mutually exclusive?
● 10 republics currently make up the CIS
● Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus were the original three members of the CIS ● The Russian Federation is considered the successor of the Soviet Union ● Near Abroad include all 14 former republics, Far Abroad includes all other countries of the world
● Moscowis the capital city of the Russian Federation
● Causes of low standard of living for Soviets in the late 1970’s
high military budget/spending
Don't forget about the age old question of What is lateralization?
● The BRICS countries include Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa ● Military Superpower: A country who can launch a nuclear attack and have enough missiles for a second strike
● The first step in the Soviet Union rising to military superpower status, was Stalingrad ● The Soviet Union achieved military superpower status in 1972 when SALT I was signed ● Basket I of the Helsinki Accords included the US officially accepting the countries of
eastern Europe as part of the communist world. Basket III included the Soviet Union’s promise to respect human rights of its citizens in their own country. ● Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania were the Soviet Union’s former “satellite” countries of eastern Europe
● Global Power: A country that can intervene on its own in any part of the world ● Bipolar World: two superpowers
● Unipolar World: one superpower If you want to learn more check out What is an auxillary olfactory sense organ in the back of the mouth cavity?
● Multipolar World: many dominant nations
● Declared nuclear states: US, USSR, Great Britain, France, China, North Korea, India, and Pakistan
● Undeclared nuclear state: Israel
● Flexible Response: NATO would go nuclear on the battlefield if the Soviets ever invaded a (western) European country (nuclear weapons were a deterrent) ● Inadvertent Escalation: war begins with conventional forces and escalates to nuclear war
● Marxism is the official name of Soviet ideology If you want to learn more check out How does the tripardic method happen?
● Comintern was organized in 1919 by Lenin to remain in power and preserve communism. Comintern offered support through labor unions to any communist leaders in major countries, through any means, legal or not
● Russia changed its foreign policy toward the US (peaceful coexistence) to prevent nuclear war and make the Soviet Union economically stronger
● Russia’s invasion of Afghanistan was a major factor in ending Detente between the US and USSR in 1979 Don't forget about the age old question of What is the smallest stimulus that you can detect?
● Warm Peace was the Bush foreign policy toward the Soviet Union, while Cold Peace was Reagan’s foreign policy toward the Soviet Union
● The Cold War officially ended in 1991 when Gorbachev resigned, ending communism and the Soviet Union. The signing of the treaty at the Meeting of Malta is also considered the end of the Cold War.
● The Soviet Union viewed Detente as equality with the US, an opportunity for arms negotiations, and trade opportunities Don't forget about the age old question of What do consonants mean?
● The US believed that Detente would stop the USSR from spreading communism ● North Korea, China, Cuba, Vietnam, and Laos are currently the only remaining communist countries
● Bourgeoisie: Those with a university education (nurses, teachers, engineers, etc.) ● Proletariat: Those without a university education (electricians, carpenters, etc.) ● Brezhnev Doctrine: Once a country became communist, it remained communist
forever. Russia had an obligation to save communist governments in danger of falling. This was first used to justify the invasion of Czechoslovakia.
● Reagan Doctrine: If there is any group of rebels living in a communist country, and they want to overthrow their government to make it noncommunist, the US will help them. This was primarily used in Nicaragua and Afghanistan
● The OPPOSITE of the Reagan Doctrine, is the National Liberation Movement