New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 4-6

by: Maddie Butkus

Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 4-6 phys 215

Marketplace > Ball State University > phys 215 > Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 4 6
Maddie Butkus
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Completed Study Guide for Exam 2
Human Physiology
Dr. Kelly-Worden
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Human Physiology

Popular in Department

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views.


Reviews for Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 4-6


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/09/16
Physiology 215 Spring 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide 1. The action potential a. Phase 1-Depolarization- cell becomes more positive inside - sodium b. Phase 2-Repolarization- cell returns to the resting membrane potential - potassium c. Phase 3-Hyperpolarization- the cell becomes more negative inside than the resting membrane - potassium 2. EPSP verses IPSP An excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a temporary depolarization of postsynaptic membrane potential caused by the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell. A postsynaptic potential is defined as excitatory if it makes it easier for the neuron to fire an action potential. They are the opposite of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), which usually result from the flow of negative ions into the cell. An Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (commonly abbreviated as IPSP) is the change in membrane voltage of a postsynaptic neuron which results from synaptic activation of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. A postsynaptic potential is considered inhibitory when the resulting change in membrane voltage makes it more difficult for the cell to fire an action potential, lowering the firing rate of the neuron. 3. Glial cells (types, location and roles) a. Astrocytes i. Most abundant glial cell ii. Involved in fetal neuronal development iii. Involved in blood-brain barrier formation iv. Keep neurons in the proper spatial relationship v. Repair of brain injuries/scar formation vi. Uptake glutamate and GABA and prevent misdirection of neurotransmitter (sponges) vii. Uptake excess K+, maintaining synaptic function viii. Form connections with neurons promoting synaptic transmission b. Oligodendrocytes (CNS) and Schwann Cells (PNS – Peripheral) c. Microglia i. Immune defense cells ii. Release toxic chemicals iii. Phagocytes iv. May be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases d. Ependymal cells i. line the walls of the ventricles ii. form the specialized choroid plexus epithelium iii. secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) iv. Possess cilia 4. Strychnine a. Strychnine binds to the glycine receptor b. Glycine receptor is a chloride channel c. Strychnine binds the closed state inhibiting inhibition. d. The resultant spinal hyperexcitability is what makes strychnine a poison e. Strychnine poisoning is ultimately the result of suffocation or exhaustion 5. Botulism a. Caused by Clostridium botulinum or Clostridium barati and Clostridium butirycum b. seven distinct botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) c. Botox is botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) d. Each BoNT is specific for a site on either VAMP or SNAP e. Botox binds the t-SNARE, SNAP, preventing ACh release f. How does one get botulism? g. eating contaminated foods h. Bad botox injection (very rare) 6. Tetanus a. Caused by clostridium tetani (a bacteria) which produces “tetanospasm” or tetanus toxin b. Clostridium tetani is strictly anaerobic c. does not possess the enzymes necessary to reduce oxygen d. in the presence of oxygen, eventually the bacteria dies e. Bacteria enters the body through a puncture wound f. Tetanus toxin- binds VAMP and cleaves it causing inhibitory neurons to become inactivated g. Lock-jaw- muscles spasm and cannot relax 7. Cocaine: Blocks dopamine (DA) reuptake 8. Amphetamine a. Reversal of the DA transporter b. Prevents uptake of DA into the vesicle c. Inhibits DA formation 9. Types of neurotransmitters a. Amino Acids (fast action ion channel) i. Aspartate ii. Glutamate iii. Glycine iv. GABA b. Amines (fast action ion channel) i. ACh ii. Dopamine iii. Epinephrine iv. Norepinephrine v. Serotonin vi. Histamine c. Peptides (slow action- second messenger) i. Substance P ii. Endorphin 10. Actions and roles of: a. Serotonin: i. Sensitization ii. Deficiency within depression iii. Involved in drug “Prozac” b. Dopamine: i. Type of neurotransmitter ii. Excessively released in people with Schizophrenia c. Norepinephrine: i. Type of neurotransmitter 11. Substance P and the pain pathway a. Peptides- slow acting neurotransmitter – second messenger 12. Habituation a. Decreased responsiveness to repeated stimuli b. Modification of Ca2+ channels c. Decrease opening, decrease release 13. Sensitization: a. Increased responsiveness to mild stimuli b. Enhanced Ca2+ entry, enhanced release c. Serotonin d. cAMP e. Blocked K+, increased action potential 14. Wernike’s (Language comprehension, speech pattern) and Broca’s (speech) areas of the brain 15. Reflexes (lab and lecture) 16. Working memory a. Temporarily holds and interrelates information associated with a current task b. Prefrontal cortex 17. Short verses a. Seconds to hours b. Either transferred into long term or forgotten c. Example i. Phone number d. Transient changes in synaptic activity 18. Long term memory: a. Days to years b. Greater elongation and branching c. CREB i. Gene activation 1. Immediate early genes (IEGs) 2. Protein synthesis- causes branching to grow d. CREB 2 i. Represses CREB activation 19. Consolidation: a. Conversion of short term into long term memory 20. Declarative: a. The “what” memories b. People, places, things, c. Facts, objects and events 21. Procedural a. Cerebellum b. Primary and somatosensory motor cortexes c. Visual processing areas 22. Gray matter in the brain: a. Cerebral cortex b. Gray matter (nonmyelinated) c. Cell bodies and gray matter 23. Sleep: state of consciousness, controlled by hippocampus 24. Consciousness: a. Aware of external world b. Different states i. Maximum alertness ii. Wakefulness iii. Sleep iv. Coma 25. Somatosensory receptor types a. Tonic Receptors: do not adapt or adapt slowly. Maintain information about a stimulus b. Phasic Receptors: rapidly adapt. No longer respond to maintained stimulus c. Tactile (touch) receptors: in the skin. 26. Myelination: lipid covering 27. Conductivity 28. Myelin disorders: a. MS – CNS b. Guillian-Barre - PNS 29. Role of brain region a. Thalamus i. Somestic input to association areas; contributes to limbic system ii. Emotional input to prefrontal cortex, awareness of emotions iii. Somesthetic input to postcentral gyrus; signals from cerebellum and basal nuclei to primary motor and motor association areas iv. Anterior group: part of limbic system v. Visual signals to occipital lobe b. Hypothalamus: i. control center for the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system ii. Hormone secretion iii. Thermoregulation iv. Hunger and thirst v. Sleep vi. Emotion vii. Uterine contraction and milk ejection c. cerebral cortex i. covers the surface of the cerebral hemispheres ii. stellate and pyramidal cells iii. gray matter (nonmyelinated) 1. cell bodies and gray matter d. reticular formation e. basal ganglia (area of gray matter) 30. The limbic system: a. Motivation, emotion and memory 31. Roles of the CNS: a. Regulate internal environment b. Emotions c. Movements d. Consciousness e. Higher cognition 32. The blood brain barrier: a. Brain capillaries and astrocytes i. Tight junctions ii. Transporters b. Hypothalamus 33. Glucose and the brain: a. Aerobic b. Cannot store glucose c. Glucose and Oxygen are both needed to make ATP 34. The synapse 35. Phantom: activation of a sensory pathway at any point gives rise to the same sensation that would be produced by stimulation of the receptors in the body part itself. 36. Referred pain: body system is mapped with multiple dermatomes each one associated with a different spinal nerve. These same spinal nerves also carry fibers that branch off to supply internal organs and sometimes pain originating from one of these organs is “referred” to the corresponding dermatome supplied by the same spinal nerve. (pain originating in heart might be felt in left arm or shoulder) 37. Parkinson Disease – Degeneration of dopamine producing neurons of the substantia nigra – Substantia nigra dopamine neurons inhibit basal ganglion activity – Loss of inhibition leads to involuntary muscle contraction – Presence of tremor of the hands and pill rolling motions of thumb and fingers – MPP+ 38. Afferent: Afferent division a. Information to the CNS 39. Efferent: a. Instructions from the CNS b. Somatic i. Innervate skeletal muscle 40. Autonomic: a. Innervate smooth muscle i. Cardiac muscle ii. Glands b. Sympathetic c. Parasympathetic


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.