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Microbiology 210 Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Katharyn Taylor

Microbiology 210 Exam 3 Study Guide Microbiology 210

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Biology > Microbiology 210 > Microbiology 210 Exam 3 Study Guide
Katharyn Taylor

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This is my personal detailed study guide for the learning objectives that Elizabeth gave us in the powerpoint notes! I hope this is helpful, and good luck on the exam!
Elizabeth McPherson
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Microbiology 210 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Elizabeth McPherson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 04/09/16
MICROBIOLOGY  210  –  EXAM  3  STUDY  GUIDE   •   TYPES  OF  SYMBIOSIS  –  living  together   o   MUTUALISM  –  both  organisms  benefit     o   COMMENSALISM  –  one  benefits,  other  is  unaffected  by  the  other’s  presence   o   PARASITISM  –  one  benefits,  other  is  harmed   •   NORMAL  MICROBIOTA  –  microbes  that  live  in  and  on  you  normally,  and  don’t  typically   cause  you  any  harm  (normal  flora,  indigenous  microbiota,  etc.).  These  organisms  are   found  on  every  body  ‘surface’   o   Resident:  with  you  most  of  your  life.  These  guys  are  moved  in  permanently   o   Transient:  can’t  survive  on  the  body  long-­‐term.  They  are  outcompeted,  killed  by   the  body’s  defenses,  or  unfit  chemically  or  physically  to  stay   •   NORMAL  MICROBIOTA  CAUSING  DISEASE  –  they  don’t  really  do  this  unless  one  of  these   three  things  happens.  When  they  do  so,  they  are  called  ‘opportunistic  pathogens’   o    Unusual  site  –  moved  to  a  place  they  don’t  normally  colonize   o    Immune  suppression  –  your  immune  system  would  usually  keep  the  microbes  in   check,  but  when  it  is  compromised,  they  take  over  the  area   o   Shifts  in  normal  microbiota  populations  –  in  the  ‘microbial  antagonism’  system,   the  different  types  of  microbes  compete  for  resources  and  space  on  your  body.   When  the  populations  shift,  one  can  become  overly  abundant   •   TYPES  OF  RESERVOIRS  –  sources  of  pathogenic  infection   o   Animal:  domesticated  and  wild.  The  more  similar  the  animal  is  to  us,  the  more   likely  we  are  to  be  able  to  catch  their  diseases   o   Human:  actively  diseased  and  carriers  (have  no  obvious  symptoms)   o   Nonliving:  soil,  water,  or  food   •   CONTACT  TRANSMISSION     o   Direct  Contact  Transmission:  handshake,  kiss   o   Indirect  Contact  Transmission:  drinking  after  someone,  sharing  toothbrush   o   Droplet  Transmission:  droplets  through  air  (within  a  meter)  like  from  a  sneeze   •   VEHICLE  TRANSMISSION   o   Airborne  Transmission:  dust  or  droplets  that  travel  more  than  a  meter   o   Waterborne  Transmission:  streams,  public  pools   o   Foodborne  Transmission:  meat   •   VECTOR  TRANSMISSION   o   Mechanical  Vector  Transmission:  on  the  bodies  of  bugs  (when  they  land  on  stuff)   o   Biological  Vector  Transmission:  in  blood  that  bugs  transfer  (mosquito,  tick,  etc.)   •   CONTAMINATION  &  INFECTION  RELATIONSHIP  –  contamination  is  the  presence  of   microbes  somewhere,  while  infection  is  the  successful  establishment  of  a  pathogen   colony.  Contamination  has  to  occur  for  infection  to  occur,  however  a  contamination  can   be  unharmful  (resident  microbiota)  or  fought  off  by  the  body’s  defenses.  When  the   contamination  is  not  warded  off,  and  a  pathogen  becomes  established,  it  is  infection   •   PATHOGEN  PORTALS  –  how  pathogens  get  in  and  out  of  the  body:  breaks  in  the  skin,   growing  on  mucous  membranes,  or  passing  through  the  placenta   •   ADHESION’S  ROLE  IN  INFECTION  –  microbes  used  adhesion  factors  (attachment   proteins)  to  stick  to  host  cells  better.  Essentially,  they  have  to  be  able  to  attach  to  a  host   cell  in  order  to  infect  it.  Hosts  evolve  ways  to  ‘unstick’  microbes,  and  microbes  evolve   new  ways  to  stick  to  and  invade  hosts   •   BIOFILM  FACILITATING  CONTAMINATION  &  INFECTION  –  biofilms  are  groups  of   organisms  that  interact  with  each  other.  Biofilm  interactions  can  be  symbiotic,  and  as  a   group  the  organisms  may  be  more  equipped  for  contamination  and  infection   •   INFECTION  –  successful  invasion  of  the  body  by  a  pathogen   •   DISEASE  –  decrease  in  the  host’s  fitness  due  to  a  pathogenic  infection   •   MORBIDITY  –  synonym  to  disease,  decrease  in  health   •   PATHOGENICITY  –  ability  of  a  microbe  to  cause  disease.  Harmless  (normal  flora),   opportunistic  (can  cause  harm  in  the  wrong  place),  or  pathogenic  (causes  harm)   •   VIRULENCE  –  degree  of  pathogenicity,  or  ‘talent’  at  causing  a  disease  in  a  host.  A   microbe  is  virulent  if  it  has  a  characteristic,  or  multiple  characteristics,  that  are   advantageous  for  invading  a  host  and  establishing  itself   2   •   SYMPTOMS  –  disease  characteristics  felt  by  the  infected  patient   •   SIGNS  –  outward  characteristics  observed  by  those  who  observe  the  patient   •   SYNDROMES  –  group  of  signs  and  symptoms  that  are  characteristic  of  a  disease   •   STAGES  OF  INFECTIOUS  DISEASE   o   Incubation  –  no  signs  or  symptoms   o   Prodromal  Period  –  microbe  is  growing  at  a  faster  rate,  first  signs  and  symptoms   o   Illness  –  peak  of  microbe  presence,  feeling  the  worst   o   Decline  –  immune  system  is  decreasing  bacterial  load,  still  feel  bad   o   Convalescence  –  getting  back  to  normal,  eradicating  pathogen   •   VIRULENCE  FACTORS:  help  make  a  microbe  virulent,  a  better  pathogen   o   microbial  extracellular  enzymes  –  secreted  by  pathogen  to  help  maintain   infection  and  invade  host  cells  (coagulase,  kinases,  collagenase,  etc.)   o   toxins  –  harms  tissues  and  triggers  harmful  immune  responses  (exotoxins   destroy  host  cells,  while  endotoxin  stimulates  detrimental  immune  responses)   o   adhesion  factors  –  allows  to  adhere  to  host  cells   o   antiphagocytic  factors  –  evades  detection  by  immune  system  (capsule)   •   INCIDENCE  –  number  of  new  disease  cases  at  the  same  time  in  an  area   •   PREVALENCE  –  number  of  cases,  new  and  already  existing  at  the  same  time  in  an  area   •   ENDEMIC  –  constant  number  of  cases  in  an  area   •   SPORADIC  –  here  and  there  the  disease  pops  up   •   EPIDEMIC  –  large  number  of  cases  occurs  all  at  once  in  an  area   •   PANDEMIC  –  large  number  of  cases  occurs  all  at  once  across  several  continents   •   HEALTHCARE  ASSOCIATED  INFECTIONS:  DEVLEOPMENT  –  Hospitals  and  doctors’  offices   are  full  of  infected  people,  as  well  as  immunocompromised  people  so  it  is  not   uncommon  for  diseases  to  be  swapped  or  acquired  there.  Nosocomial  diseases  are   acquired  in  the  healthcare  facility,  while  a  superinfection  is  an  escalation  of  a  person’s   preexisting  infection  due  to  inhibition  of  some  resident  microbiota   o   EXOGENOUS  HAI  –  pathogen  acquired  from  the  health  environment   o   ENDOGENOUS  HAI  –  arises  from  opportunistic  normal  microbiota   o   LATROGENIC  HAI  –  infection  from  medical  procedure   3   CHAPTER  15   •   FIRST  LINE  OF  DEFENSE  –  external  (skin  and  mucous  membranes)   •   SECOND  LINE  OF  DEFENSE  –  internal,  nonspecific  blood  borne  chemicals  and  killing  of   invaders  in  general   •   THIRD  LINE  OF  DEFENSE  –  specifically  targeting  unique  species  of  pathogens   •   SKIN:  WHY  IT  IS  GOOD  AT  ITS  JOB  –  lots  of  layers  of  dead,  tightly  packed  cells.  Sheds  and   microbes  fall  off  with  it.  Very  salty  from  sweat,  inhibits  growth  of  lots  of  microbes   •   MUCOUS  MEMBRANES  –  you  have  these  guys  in  all  of  the  body  cavity  openings.  Think   your  nose,  throat,  lungs,  genitals,  eyes   •   MUCOUS  MEMBRANES:  WHY  THEY  ARE  GOOD  AT  THEIR  JOB  TOO  –  tightly  packed  living   cells  that  continually  shed  as  well.  Covered  in  sticky  mucus  to  trap  microbes.  Lysozyme   is  found  there  as  well  to  prevent  microbe  growth   •   LACRIMAL  APPARATUS  –  produce  and  drain  away  the  tears  that  cover  your  eye.  Tears   have  lysozyme,  and  when  you  blink  it  spreads  tears  across  your  eye,  and  washes  the   surface  of  the  eye  with  new  ones.  The  old  tears  flow  into  the  nasal  mucus  line  and  are   swallowed  with  the  other  old  stuff  from  the  mucous  membrane  surface   •   NORMAL  MICROBIOTA  –  outcompete  potential  pathogens  by  taking  up  space  and   nutrients,  changing  the  pH  of  the  environment  with  byproducts,  and  symbiotically   providing  the  body  with  nutrients  that  support  a  healthy  immune  system   •   PEPTIDES  –  also  called  defensins.  On  skin,  mucous  membranes,  and  neutrophils   •   BLOOD  ON  DEFENSE   o   PLASMA  –  sequester  iron  from  microbes.  Proteins  include  complement  and   antibodies,  necessary  for  specific  defense   o   LEUKOCYTES  –  granulocytes  and  agranulocytes   •   PHAGOCYTOSIS  –  Chemotaxis,  Adherence,  Ingestion,  Maturation,  Killing,  Elimination   •   INTERFERONS  –  proteins  released  by  the  host  to  inhibit  viral  infection  spread.  Type  1  is   the  kind  that  warns  neighboring  cells  that  a  ‘martyr’  cell  has  been  infected     •   COMPLEMENT  –  Classical  pathway  (antibody  activated),  Alternate  pathway  (pathogenic   products  activate),  or  Lectin  pathway  (microbial  polysaccharides  activate)   4   •   INFLAMMATION  IS  A  GOOD  THING  –  this  is  a  response  to  tissue  damage.  It  is  the  dilation   and  increased  permeability  of  blood  vessels.  Phagocytes  migrate  to  clear  the  area  and   the  tissue  is  repaired  before  the  swelling,  redness,  heat,  and  pain  subsides   •   FEVER  IS  A  GOOD  THING  –  pyrogens  make  the  hypothalamus  increase  the  body’s  core   temperature.  Blood  vessels  in  the  peripheral  parts  of  the  body  contract  and  cause  chills.   When  pyrogens  decrease  the  hypothalamus  will  reset  you  start  to  sweat  and  go  back  to   normal  metabolic  rate   CHAPTER  16   •   ADAPTIVE  IMMUNITY  FAST  5  –  specificity,  inducibility,  clonality,  self,  and  memory   •   WHITE  BLOOD  CELL  TYPES  IN  ADAPTIVE  IMMUNITY  –  B  cells  (arise  and  mature  in  red   bone  marrow),  and  T  cells  (arise  in  red  bone  marrow  and  mature  in  thymus)   •   ADAPTIVE  IMMUNITY  DIVISIONS–  Lymphatic  system  (physical  parts  of  adaptive  immune   system),  Antigens  (molecules  that  trigger  adaptive  immune  response),  antibodies,  and   chemical  signs   •   LYMPH  FLOW  VS  BLOOD  FLOW   o   Lymph  –  organs  are  red  bone  marrow,  thymus,  nodes,  spleen,  tonsils  and  MALT.   One-­‐way  system  that  takes  lymph  to  concentration  of  lymphocytes   o   Blood  –  more  circulatory,  brings  nutrients  through  vessels  and  removes  wastes   •   RED  BONE  MARROW  –  primary  lymphoid  organ.  Origin  of  both  B  and  T  cells.  B  cells   mature  in  this  marrow   •   THYMUS  –  primary  lymphoid  organ.  Where  T  cells  mature   •   LYMPH  NODES  –  filter  lymph   •   SPLEEN  –  filters  blood  and  removes  harmful  substances  from  the  blood   •   TONSILS  –  secondary  lymphoid  organ   •   MALT  –  contains  most  of  the  body’s  lymphocytes.  Parts  include  appendix,  vagina,   bladder,  mammary  glands,  and  Peyer’s  patches  in  small  intestine   •   ANTIGENS  –  recognized  as  foreign.  Stimulates  attack.  3D  shape,  epitope,  is  the  antigenic   determinant,  or  what  is  recognized  as  not  self.  Complex  molecules  are  more  easily   recognized  as  foreign,  so  they  are  better  antigens   5   •   EXOGENOUS  ANTIGEN  –  part  of  a  microbe  that  had  not  invaded  a  cell  before  being   presented  on  the  cell  exterior.  Many  of  these  are  bacterial.  Viruses  can  be  exo  or  endo   •   ENDOGENOUS  ANTIGEN  –  part  of  a  microbe  that  was  inside  the  cell  before  being   presented  on  the  cell  exterior   •   AUTOANTIGEN  –  markers  on  our  own  cells  that  help  the  body  identify  itself   •   THYMUS  &  T  CELLS  –  T  cells  mature  under  the  Thymus’s  influence.  The  T  cell  is  mature   after  500,000ish  copies  of  a  T-­‐cell  receptor  (TCR)  has  been  replicated  and  imbedded  in   the  membrane  of  the  individual  cell   •   T  CELL  RECEPTORS  –  each  T  cell  has  a  different  shaped  TCR.  They  only  recognize  a   certain  epitope,  and  only  epitopes  on  an  MHC  presenting  protein   •   MHC  I  –  found  in  all  cells’  membranes  except  red  blood  cells  because  they  don’t  have   nucleus.  These  present  endogenous  antigens   •   MHC  II  –  found  in  antigen  presenting  cells,  so  only  cells  that  are  able  to  ‘hunt’  a  microbe,   digest  it,  and  present  the  pieces.  These  present  exogenous  antigens   •   TYPES  OF  T  CELLS   o   Cytotoxic  T  Lymphocyte  –  kills  infected  or  abnormal  cells   o   Helper  T  Lymphocyte  –  helps  regulate  B  cell  activity  and  cytotoxic  T  cells  by   providing  necessary  signals  and  growth  factors  (Th1  with  T  cells,  Th2  with  B)   o   Regulatory  T  Lymphocyte  –  represses  adaptive  immune  response  to  prevent   autoimmune  action   •   CLONAL  DELETION  –  this  helps  avoid  immune  action  against  the  self.  In  their  ‘training,’   the  B  and  T  cells  are  exposed  to  autoantigens,  and  the  ones  that  react  are  destroyed.   That  way,  the  only  cells  left  are  the  ones  that  will  react  with  foreign  things,  not  self   •   B  CELL  SPECIFICTY  –  each  B  cell’s  receptors  are  unique  to  that  cell.  Every  B  cell  has   500,00  of  the  same  receptor  on  it,  but  there  are  at  least  10  different  B  cells  in  your   body,  all  with  a  different  specific  BCR   •   IMMUNOGLOBULIN  MOLECULE  –  act  against  the  epitope  that  ‘fit’  into  the  B  cell   •   5  ANTIBODY  CLASSES  -­‐    IgM,  IgG,  IgA,  IgE,  IgD   •   IMMUNE  SYSTEM  CYTOKINES  –  soluble  proteins  that  are  intercellular  messages     6   •   TYPES  OF  ACQUIRED  IMMUNITY     o   Naturally  Acquired  Active  Immunity  –  body  responds  to  antigens  that  it  acquired   organically,  like  when  a  kid  gets  chicken  pox  from  another  kid  at  school   o   Naturally  Acquired  Passive  Immunity-­‐  antibodies  are  transferred  from  mother  to   offspring  through  the  placenta  or  breastfeeding   o   Artificially  Acquired  Active  Immunity  –  a  vaccine  containing  antigens  for  the  body   to  respond  to  itself   o   Artificially  Acquired  Passive  Immunity  –  a  vaccine  containing  antibodies  for  the   body  to  acquire  and  put  into  practice  when  the  time  comes   MAKE  SURE  TO  LOOK  AT  THAT  CHART  SHE  EMAILED  US  WITH  THE  ABOVE  CHAPTER     Email  me  if  you  need  it,  and  I  will  try  my  best  to  get  it  to  you  in  a  timely  manner   CHAPTER  17   •   VACCINATION  HISTORY  –  in  response  to  smallpox  epidemics,  12  century  Chinese   variolation,  Edward  Jenner  created  vaccination.  Nobody  knew  how  or  why,  just  that   these  worked.  By  late  1900s,  vaccines  led  to  eradication  of  smallpox.  Hopeful  future  for   worldwide  eradication  of  polio,  measles,  mumps,  and  rubella   •   VACCINE  TYPES  –  Attenuated,  Inactivated,  Toxoid,  Combination,  Recombinant  Gene   •   VACCINES  IN  CONTACT  IMMUNITY  –  being  vaccinated  means  you  are  less  likely  to   become  diseased,  even  in  contact  with  a  reservoir  or  another  infected  person   •   VACCINES  IN  HERD  IMMUNITY  –  by  protecting  yourself  from  infection,  you  are   protecting  everyone  who  comes  in  contact  with  you  from  becoming  infected   •   ACTIVE  IMMUNIZATION  –  giving  patient  antigens  for  their  immune  system  to  learn  how   to  deal  with  so  the  response  will  be  quicker  at  a  ‘real’  exposure   •   PASSIVE  IMMUNOTHERAPY  –  giving  patient  antibodies  that  are  already  formed   7  


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