Study Guide for Prologue Through Chapter 4
Study Guide for Prologue Through Chapter 4 Psych 1010
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Study Guide: Prologue – Chapter 4 Prologue Birth of Psychology – Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 Leipzig, Germany opened the first psychology laboratory to test the atoms of the mind Structuralism – attempt to learn the structure of the human mind through introspection (“looking inward”) formed by Wundt and Titchener o Introspection proved unreliable due to its practice of selfresponse which varied depending on person, experience, intelligence, and verbal ability Wundt and Titchener originally defined psychology as “the science of mental life” According to Watson and Skinner, psychology was “the scientific study of observable behavior” Behaviorism – belief that psychology should only study behavior without emphasis on mental processes (can only study what can be observed); formed by Watson and Skinner Today, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes o Behavior – anything a creature acts o Mental processes – internal, personal experiences individuals infer from behavior Biopsychosocial Approach – combines all levels of psychology Perspective of Psychology Function/Description Neuroscience Study of how the body and brain control emotions, memories, and sensory experiences Evolutionary Study how traits influence genetic survival Behavior Genetics Study how genes and environment promote individual differences Psychodynamic Study how behavior comes from unconscious drives and conflicts Behavioral Study how humans learn observable responses Cognitive The encoding, processing, storing, and retrieving of information SocialCultural Study how behaviors and mental processes differ across situations and culture Clinical Psychology – studies, assesses, and treats those with disorders (also known as Psychotherapy) Psychiatry – provides medical treatment and therapy to those with diseases Chapter 1 Intuition – an immediate and automatic thought or emotion Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Hindsight Bias – the tendency to think one knew the outcome of a situation after having learned the results (“To know it all along”) Overconfidence – the tendency to believe one knows more than they actually do o Humans tend to overestimate performance and the accuracy of their knowledge o Can lead to problems in eyewitness testimony as humans cannot solely rely on intuition and common sense Tendency to Perceive Order in Random Events – tendency to believe one can create a prediction from a random sequence Scientific Method – A process to test ideas, observe them, and analyze the results through selfcorrection Theory – a predicted explanation of behaviors or events using previously known principles and observations Hypothesis – a testable prediction created from a theory that helps to accept or revise it Operational Definition – a phrase specifically worded to define a research variable Replication – to repeat a research study using the same operational definitions but different participants and situations in order to determine if the original findings extend further than the first experiment Case Study – a descriptive technique in which individuals and/or groups are studied directly and in depth to find and understand universal principles o Can be unrepresentative of entire population o Example: Phineas Gage Case Study Naturalistic Observation – method of observing and recording behavior in natural environments without manipulation or control of the situation Survey – method of receiving selfreported ideas or behaviors of a group through questioning a random sample o Can be used to study multiple cases yet is less in depth than other methods Population – the entirety of a group being studied which samples are drawn from Random Sample – a fairly representative group of an entire population where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment o Selection of participants is usually by chance Correlation – a measure of the extent that two factors vary together and how much either factor predicts the other Correlational Coefficient – statistical index of the relationship between two factors o Can range from 1.00 (completely negative correlation) to 1.00 (completely positive correlation) Experiment – a method of research where an investigator manipulates factors to observe their effects on a certain behavior or mental process Experimental Group – the group in an experiment that is exposed to treatment or tested factors Control Group – the group in an experiment not exposed to the tested factors which allows for a comparative group in order to evaluate the effect of the treatment Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Both groups (control and experimental) share same characteristics except for the manipulated and tested factor Random Assignment – a way to assign participants to either the control or experimental groups by chance in order to limit differences between the groups at the start of the experiment Measures of Central Tendency – use a single score to represent the whole o Mean – the average of a distribution that can be shifted by an outlier o Mode – the most frequent number in a data set o Median – the 50 percentile or middle score Measures of Variation – represent the relationship of numbers in a data set o Range – the difference between the largest and smallest score in a data set o Standard Deviation – the measure of how scores vary or deviate from the mean An observed difference is reliable when o There is nonbiased sampling o Observations are consistent o And more cases and data points are measured Statistical Significance – statistical statement of the likelihood that a result occurred by chance o Data must be reliable o The difference between groups must be significantly large Statistical significance indicates likelihood but not the importance of the result Chapter 2 Everything psychological is simultaneously biological Phrenology – study of bumps on the skull to reveal the idea of localization of function (that different parts of the brain have certain functions) proposed by German physician Franz Gall in the early 1800s Biological Perspective of Psychology – concerned with relations between biology and behavior Neuron – a nerve cell; the building block of the nervous system The Structure of a Neuron o Cell body and branching fibers o Dendrite – the neuron’s branch that extends and receives messages to conduct impulses toward the cell body o Axon – an extension of the neuron that passes messages from its branches to other neurons and muscles and glands Dendrites listen and axons speak o Myelin Sheath – a fatty tissue that covers axons on some neurons allowing for faster transmission of neural impulses between nodes Glial Cells – also known as “glue cells” that support and protect neurons and aid in neural transmission Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Action Potential – a neural impulse or electric charge that travels down an axon in the exchange of negatively and positively charged particles o Neurons create electricity from chemical events and exchange ions Resting Potential – the axon is in a state in which positive sodium ions are outside the membrane and negative potassium ions are on the inside o Selectively Permeable – the surface of the axon is selective about what passes through it o Depolarization – the axon opens allowing negative ions in and, in a chain effect, negative ions enter the rest of the axon’s segments causing the charge difference on its outside and inside to disappear Synapse – the area between the tip of an axon that is sending a chemical message and the dendrite or cell body of the neuron that is receiving the message Neurotransmitter – a chemical messenger that crosses the synaptic gap between neurons and binds to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, affecting whether or not the neuron will form a neural impulse o Neurotransmitters are received by the dendrites into certain receptor sites by “key and lock” in which the neurotransmitters fit perfectly into the sites Reuptake – the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the sending neuron o The remaining chemicals are taken back into the neuron to be used again later Neurotransmitter Function Malfunctions Acetylcholine Muscle action, learning, Neurons producing memory acetylcholine deteriorate in those with Alzheimer’s Dopamine Movement, learning, Oversupply found with attention, emotion Schizophrenia, Undersupply found in tremors, loss of motor control with Parkinson’s and ADHD Serotonin Mood regulation, hunger, Undersupply found with sleep, arousal depression (antidepressants usually raise serotonin level) Norepinephrine Alertness, arousal Undersupply found with depressed mood GABA Inhibitory Undersupply found with seizures, tremors, insomnia Glutamate Excitatory, memory Oversupply found with migraines and seizures Agonist – increases neurotransmitter action by filling receptor sites and activating them like neurotransmitters would o These can act as natural painkillers Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Antagonist – molecule that inhibits neurotransmitter action by filling the receptor sites so neurotransmitters cannot enter and activate the neuron Nervous System – a network of electrochemical communications containing all nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems o Central Nervous System – includes the brain and spinal cord o Peripheral Nervous System – includes the rest of the system and the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body Nerves – part of the peripheral nervous system that are bundles of axon that form neural cables with central nervous system’s muscles, glands, and sense organs Information travels throughout the nervous system through three types of neurons 1. Sensory (Afferent) – carries information from the sensory receptors or the body’s tissue to the brain and spinal cord 2. Motor (Efferent) – carries information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, tissues, and glands 3. Interneurons – contained within the brain and spinal cord, these neurons communicate internally and process information between the sensory inputs and motor outputs Peripheral Nervous System o Somatic – control skeletal muscles and voluntary movements o Autonomic – controls the glands and muscles of internal organs (selfregulated) Sympathetic – mobilizes energy and arouses (including fightorflight response) Parasympathetic – calms and conserves energy aiding in rest and digestion Central Nervous System o Neural Networks – the brain’s neurons combine into work groups “Neurons that fire together, wire together” o Spinal Cord – connects the peripheral nervous system to the brain and is filled with interneurons o Reflex – a simple and automatic response to sensory stimulus Endocrine System – the slower chemical communication system in which a set of glands releases hormones into the bloodstream o Hormones – chemical messengers made by the endocrine glands that travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues in the body Hormones can act on the interest of sex, hunger, and aggression Adrenal Gland – glands above the kidneys that release hormones to give the body arousal during periods of stress o Norepinephrine/Epinephrine (Noradrenaline/Adrenaline) – hormones that increase heart rate, blood sugar, and blood pressure o Adrenal glands receive messages from sympathetic nervous system that provide energy for fightorflight response Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Pituitary Gland – under the influence of the hypothalamus, these glands regulate growth and other endocrine glands (“master gland”) o Oxytocin – promotes social trust and birthing (“the bonding hormone”) Brainstem – the central core of the brain that starts where the spinal cord goes into the skull and is responsible for automatic survival instincts and coordination o Medulla – the base of the brainstem that control heartbeat and breathing o Pons – coordinate automatic and unconscious movements Thalamus – the center of sensory control at the top of the brainstem that helps send messages to sensory areas in the cortex and responds to the cerebellum and medulla (“sensory switchboard”) Reticular Formation – the nerve network which travels through the brainstem and into the thalamus, controlling arousal Cerebellum – “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem that processes sensory input, coordinates voluntary movement and balance, and enables nonverbal learning and memory The brain processes most of the information outside of conscious awareness Cerebral Cortex – interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres to control information and process it o This is wrinkled in order to create more surface area for the 20 billion neurons on the brain Frontal Lobes – associated with speaking, muscle movement, and making plans or judgments Parietal Lobes – receive sensory input concerning touch and body positioning o Includes the sensory cortex Occipital Lobes – receive information from visual fields in which visuals are sent to the opposite side of the body Temporal Lobes – receives auditory information from opposite sides of the body Motor Cortex – at the back of the frontal lobes, this part of the brain controls voluntary movements o More complex animals have more cortical space to integrate and associate information Somatosensory Cortex – found at the front of the parietal lobes and registers body touch and movement sensations Association Areas – involved in higher executive mental functions including learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking o Complex activities translate throughout different areas in the brain Plasticity – the ability of the brain to alter itself through reorganization after being damaged or to build new pathways based on experience o ConstraintInduced Therapy – works to get a damaged area of the brain to work again by forcing someone to use the weaker parts of their body and brain Brain and spinal cord neurons do not regenerate and some brain functions are preassigned to certain areas Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons Corpus Callosum – a band of neural fibers that connects the hemispheres of the brain and sends messages between them Split Brain – the corpus callosum is severed, isolating the hemispheres o Can cure wholebrain seizures o Perceptual tasks, inference making abilities, and intuition are in the right hemisphere and speech, logic, detail attention, and calculation are found in the left Chapter 3 Consciousness – awareness of oneself and their environment, coordinated brain activity Cognitive Neuroscience – study of brain activities links to cognition including memory, perception, thinking, and language Dual Processing – when information is processed at the same time on different conscious and unconscious tracks (high track follows deliberate actions while the low track follows automatic actions) o The benefit of having dual tracks is not having to think about every action performed at one time Parallel Processing – the processing of multiple aspects of a situation at the same time; accounts for the brain’s natural way of processing information concerning many functions Selective Attention – to focus conscious awareness on a certain stimulus o Cocktail Party Effect – the ability to pay attention to one conversation despite multiple other conversations happening around you Inattentional Blindness – the failure to see objects when attention is directed somewhere else The conscious mind is in one place at a time Sleep – a cyclical and natural loss of consciousness based on a 24 hour clock and a 90 minute sleep cycle Circadian Rhythm – the biological clock consisting of regular bodily rhythms that occur over a period of 24 hours o Rhythm can vary depending on the person and their age o From daytime to nighttime, the body tends to differ in temperature, energy, and mental sharpness REM Sleep – rapid eye movement sleep stage during which vivid dreams and wild brain activity happens o During this time, heart rate rises and breathing is rapid despite relaxed muscles Alpha Waves – brain waves slow while in a relaxed and awake state NREM1 o Hallucinations – fake sensory experiences NREM2 o Sleep Spindles – quick bursts of rhythmic brain activity Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts NREM3 o Delta Waves – large and slow brain waves during deep sleep Sleep protects (ancestors were in more danger during dark hours, sleep kept them safe) Sleep helps to recuperate by restoring the immune system and repairing brain tissue Sleep aids in the restoration and rebuilding of the memories throughout the day’s experiences o Memories are processed in the hippocampus and sent to the cortex or frontal lobes for storage Sleep feeds creative thinking Sleep supports growth as the pituitary gland releases a muscle growth hormone during sleep Inadequate sleep can cause a loss of brainpower, a gain in weight, to get sick, to be irritable, to feel old, and an increase in accident risk through impaired attention and slower reaction rate Things that can alter the amount of sleep one receives include o Light o Eating late or drinking alcohol or caffeine o Getting up at the same time everyday o Exercise o Checking the clock o Counseling for anxiety and depression Psychoactive Drug – chemical that alters perceptions and moods Tolerance – a decreased effect after continued use of the dose of a drug requiring larger doses in order to get the same effect Addiction – compulsive drug or behavior craving despite the consequences Withdrawal – distress after one stops taking an addictive drug Depressants – drugs that decrease neural activity and slow the body’s functions o Alcohol – slows sympathetic nervous system, reduces memory formation, impairs selfcontrol, and acts as a disinhibitor o Barbiturates – reduce anxiety and impair memory and judgment o Opiates – temporary reduction of pain and anxiety; large doses can produce euphoria Stimulants – drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions, increasing heart rate and blood sugar o Amphetamines – cause mood swings and energy changes o Nicotine – stimulating and addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco People smoke due to culture/media/peers, the stimulating effects, and the difficulties in stopping o Cocaine – a stimulant from the coca plant that produces temporary increased alertness and euphoria, blocking reuptake and flooding synapses with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Methamphetamine – causes energy swings and euphoria while lessening baseline dopamine levels over time o Ecstasy – synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen which produces euphoria and social intimacy with long term harm to dopamine and serotonin producing neurons o Caffeine – gives energy and disrupts sleep giving headaches, fatigue, and irritability with withdrawal Hallucinogens – psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and create hallucinations o LSD – also known as acid, this drug interferes with serotonin levels o THC – active ingredient found in marijuana that binds with the brain’s cannabinoid receptors and causes mild hallucinations, relaxation of impulses, and a euphoric mood Biological Influences Psychological Influences Genetics Lack a sense of purpose Variations in Stress neurotransmitters Disorders (such as Identical twins more likely depression) to share drug use disorder Temperament Are substances inherently addictive and should they be avoided at all costs? o Only 10 to 16 percent of those who try drugs become addicted Drug Use Does recovery require therapy? o Recovery rates do not greatly differ from quitting on one’s own Is addiction applicable to behaviors unrelated to chemicals? o Addiction may be tied to the dopamine reward center and so chemical processes can be responsible for addicting SocioCultural Influences behaviors Peers Chapter 4 Media glorification Behavior Genetics – the study of the power and limitations of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and how heredity and environment contribute to the differences between humans Chromosomes – structures like thread that are made of DNA and contain genes o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – a molecule that includes the genetic information found in chromosomes Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Genes – biochemical structures of heredity inside chromosomes that synthesize proteins which build the body Protein assembly can be influenced or inhibited by the environment Genome – the instructions for creating an organism with the genetic material inside the organism’s chromosomes o There are 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs in the body; half are from each parent Behavior geneticists conduct two types of experiments through the study of twins and siblings 1. Control heredity and vary the environment 2. Control the environment and vary heredity Identical (monozygotic) Twins – develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two and creates identical genetic organisms o These twins have the same genes but can vary in the number of copies of those genes that they have o Different placentas in the womb may provide different nourishment for each twin Fraternal Twins – two separate fertilized eggs with separate genes yet the same prenatal environment Shared genes can correspond to shared experiences o Identical twins are more alike in their behaviors, interests, fears, and brainwaves than fraternal twins o Identical twins are treated more similarly than fraternal o Bouchard Minnesota twin studies examine twins separated at birth The environment that is shared by a family’s children has no clear impact on their personalities o Environment influences religion, values, manners, attitudes, politics, and habits o Siblings only share half of their genes o Genetic differences between siblings are amplified as people react to the children differently o Siblings are born into slightly different families (i.e. the oldest sibling is born when the parents are at their youngest) Temperament – characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity that is genetically influenced o Temperament does not generally change from infancy to adulthood Heritability – the proportion of variation among individuals that is attributed to genes or the extent to which differences between people are due to genes Molecular Genetics – the study of molecular structure and function of genes o Genes are selfregulated – they go on and off in response to their environment Evolutionary Psychology – the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind through natural selection Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Natural Selection – the inherited and variegated traits that contribute to reproduction and survival which are most likely passed on to continuing generations Men tend to spread their genes while women try to survive (in the past, childbirth was more dangerous and deadly) o Critics say there are less differences between men and women in gender equal societies and there are exceptions to the rules Criticisms o Hindsight reasoning occurs – psychologists start with the effect and work backwards o Why should behavior be explained based on ancestors? o Attribute too much to genes over social consequences Responses o Organisms are not hardwired but flexible and adaptive o Rely only on principles of natural selection o The study of how we came to be does not dictate how we should be Chapter 4 Continued The idea of “use it or lose it” is if you don’t use parts of your brain, you lose the abilities they dictate Experiences activate and strengthen neural connections o Rosenzweig experiment studied rats in confinement versus rats in a communal playground and found that rats living in an enriched environment developed heavier and thicker brain cortexes than the confined rats Two children in the same family are equally different from each other as are children selected randomly from a population (Plomin/Daniels) Mainly during childhood and adolescence, humans seek to fit into groups (Harris) The three things that affect child development are o Parents – influence education, discipline, responsibility, orderliness, and interaction with authority figures Extreme cases (such as neglect) show more prominent environmental shifts in behavior while kids in supportive families become less hostile than others o Peers – influence learning, cooperation, popularity, and interaction among other young people o Culture – behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people who pass these things on to the next generation Varies over time in factors such as language, pace of life, gender equality, technology, romance and divorce rates Norms – accepted or expected behavior of a culture o Culture Shock – experience of feeling lost in an unfamiliar culture about what behaviors are appropriate Individualism – giving priority to private goals over group goals while defining one’s identity in terms of their own personal attributes and pursuing competition with others Collectivism – priority is to the goals of the group and people define themselves in terms of their group and mutual support systems The differences within a group are greater than the differences between individual groups Western cultures tend to place value on independence in child raising while Eastern cultures’ priorities are obedience, respect and sensitivity in children. Asian cultures raise children to be more emotionally and physically close Sex – biologically influenced traits that people associate with males or females Gender – socially influenced traits by which people define men and women; culturally associated roles Aggression – physical or verbal behavior with the intent to harm someone physically or emotionally o Men tend to be more physically violent (Bushman, Huesmann) o Men commit more violent crimes o Men are generally thought to hunt, fight, and support war more than women o Relational aggression (intended to harm a relationship or social standing) is more commonly seen with women Social Power o Men place greater importance on power and achievement and tend to be more socially dominant o Men tend to get paid more in the same job as a woman o Women in politics experience less success Social Connectedness o Males tend to be more independent and females are interdependent o Women are better wired to improve social relationships o “Men prefer working with things and women prefer working with people” o Women tend to turn toward others for support (“tend and befriend”) o Both men and women seek help from women to talk about feelings Role – set of norms about social position defining how one ought to behave Gender Role – expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males and females o Can vary by time, place, and culture Social Learning Theory – learning of social behaviors through observing and imitating and being rewarded or punished socially Biological Influences Psychological Influences Shared genome Genes and environment Genes interaction Prenatal environment Early experiences Sex related genes Temperament and gender Beliefs, feelings, expectations Individual Development SocioCultural Influences Parents and peers Individualism vs. collectivism Gender norms
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