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WSU / Psychology / PSY 3120 / What part of the brain is responsible for complex aspects of vision?

What part of the brain is responsible for complex aspects of vision?

What part of the brain is responsible for complex aspects of vision?

Description

School: Wayne State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Brain and Behavior
Professor: M. rodgers
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Psychology 3120, Brain and Behavior, Week 1 to Week 6
Description: These notes cover Exam 1
Uploaded: 02/10/2016
4 Pages 41 Views 1 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_j3pt30ox6mnm-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6ww82tn326wb-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6ww82tn326wb-4}.lst-kix_m5iiogshw09-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_m5iiogshw09-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-3 0}.lst-kix_1v9qctcrpnye-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_xlvo39zbyi8a-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_j3pt30ox6mnm-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-2 0}.lst-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-6,decimal) ". 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li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_quz2vt24ylfv-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_quz2vt24ylfv-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_quz2vt24ylfv-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gw6z268tetc0-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_6ww82tn326wb-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6ww82tn326wb-6 0}ul.lst-kix_quz2vt24ylfv-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_69dm0stqoyqz-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_quz2vt24ylfv-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_quz2vt24ylfv-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_quz2vt24ylfv-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gw6z268tetc0-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_pv8cr218zm26-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv8cr218zm26-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv8cr218zm26-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_l2myobheyaqv-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_pv8cr218zm26-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv8cr218zm26-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv8cr218zm26-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pv8cr218zm26-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ji3viafn754-0 > li:before{content:"● 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> li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ji3viafn754-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_rlk25toxdrxz-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ggxxhunj6dg-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p55z49u39tw8-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_p55z49u39tw8-1,lower-latin) ") "}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_20apbopyqpb5-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-2}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6ww82tn326wb-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6ww82tn326wb-4,lower-latin) ") "}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1f0jefpj645q-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j3pt30ox6mnm-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1v9qctcrpnye-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_xlvo39zbyi8a-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-8,lower-roman) ". 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"}ul.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-7 0}ul.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-0 0}ol.lst-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-1 0}ul.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6ww82tn326wb-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6ww82tn326wb-1 0}ul.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6a698jyzbc0d-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-5 0}ul.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-2 0}ul.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_30vdnog1rr29-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_30vdnog1rr29-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-7}.lst-kix_9uuok6a6goxj-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5peilns2384-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w6ujn8wev2lo-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_h1sq9zaj1mt8-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-1}.lst-kix_h1sq9zaj1mt8-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p55z49u39tw8-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_p55z49u39tw8-3,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-3 0}.lst-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kdebme5n4ahu-8}.lst-kix_h1sq9zaj1mt8-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dal9simb02dm-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_gck80lpvzzzd-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1f0jefpj645q-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1f0jefpj645q-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-3}.lst-kix_dal9simb02dm-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_rjkveku28re5-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9hr0jnhgf833-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9hr0jnhgf833-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9hr0jnhgf833-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_rjkveku28re5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rjkveku28re5-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rjkveku28re5-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rjkveku28re5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rjkveku28re5-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rjkveku28re5-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rjkveku28re5-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rjkveku28re5-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kob0uqie5dr4-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kob0uqie5dr4-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kob0uqie5dr4-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kob0uqie5dr4-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_a60c1tnf91ku-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a60c1tnf91ku-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a60c1tnf91ku-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a60c1tnf91ku-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bmy59jxxlqfq-5 0}.lst-kix_4tvgdgxxiep0-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_a60c1tnf91ku-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4tvgdgxxiep0-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_a60c1tnf91ku-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9uuok6a6goxj-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_a60c1tnf91ku-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a60c1tnf91ku-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a60c1tnf91ku-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9uuok6a6goxj-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_x565ys2ax6xo-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x565ys2ax6xo-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x565ys2ax6xo-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4tvgdgxxiep0-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9uuok6a6goxj-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_x565ys2ax6xo-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x565ys2ax6xo-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x565ys2ax6xo-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x565ys2ax6xo-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tki8ulvd3t2t-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_9uuok6a6goxj-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_tki8ulvd3t2t-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_6ww82tn326wb-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6ww82tn326wb-6}.lst-kix_4tvgdgxxiep0-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wgpkmyh09zg9-0}ul.lst-kix_x565ys2ax6xo-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x565ys2ax6xo-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1f0jefpj645q-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1f0jefpj645q-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1f0jefpj645q-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1f0jefpj645q-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1f0jefpj645q-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1f0jefpj645q-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9hr0jnhgf833-6 > li:before{content:"- 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EXAM AND SUMMARY If you want to learn more check out Which study focuses on the investigation of best way to live together?
If you want to learn more check out How do the republicans view freedom and order?

LECTURE 1: If you want to learn more check out What are annuities for?

Don't forget about the age old question of What does money refer to?

Behavioral Neuroscience: The biology of behavior, experience, emotions and the mind

  • Biological explanations of behavior fall into four categories

We also discuss several other topics like What are the features that define the jazz age?

4 Categories:

  • Physiological:
  • Relates behavior to activity of the brain and other organs
  • Ontogenetic:
  • Describes development of structure and behavior
  • Evolutionary:
  • Reconstructs evolutionary history of a behavior or structure
  • Functional:
  • Describes why a structure or behavior is evolved as it did

Don't forget about the age old question of When does a competitive market exist?

4 Types of Questions: (Niko Tinbergen)

Proximate mechanism

  1. Causation: What are the stimuli that elicit the responses, and how has it been modified by recent learning? (Physiology)
  2. Development: How does the behavior change with age and what early experiences are necessary for the behavior to be shown? (Ontogeny)

Ultimate mechanism

  1. Evolution: How does behavior compare with similar behaviour in related species, and now might it have arisen through process of phylogeny (Phylogeny)
  2. Function: How does the behavior impact on the animals chances of survival and reproduction? (Adaptation)

Two fundamental discoveries for biological psychology

  • Genes and DNA (Watson and Crib and Wilkins and Franklin)
  • Natural Selection (Darwin and Wallace)

Basic tenets of Natural Selection:

  1. Not all individuals survive to reproduce
  2. Inherited characteristics influence which survive and reproduce and which do not
  3. High Survival, High Population
  4. Evolution refers to a change in frequency of various genes in a population over generations

Genetic Principles:

  • A gene part of chromosome and composed of DNA
  • DNA serves as a model of synthesis of RNA
  • RNA serves as a model for synthesis of protein

Types of gene include:

Sex-linked genes:

  • Genes located on sex-chromosomes; present in bothm but effect on 1 sex only

Autosomal genes:

  • All other genes except for sex-linked genes

  • Genes change thru mutations: change in one or more bases of DNA molecule

Epigenetics:

  • A field that is concerned with changes in gene expression without modification of the DNA sequence
  • Changes in gene expression are essential to learning and memory

LECTURE 2

Pseudoscience (Phrenology): Relate shape of skull to behavioral traits

Researchers of how brain structure and behavior works:

  • Pierre Paul Broca: Broca region in brain that is responsible for speech
  • Wilder Penfield: Mapped brain with electric stimulation to determine focus of epileptic seizures
  • Camillo Golgi: Continuous neural reticulum
  • Santiago Ramon: Nervous system composed of discrete nerve cells

Ivan Pavlor- Jerzy Konorski

  • Suggested synapses that strengthen with use

Kare Lashley -Donald O. Heblo

  • Neurons that fire together, wire together

Pet scans: Inject radioactive glucose to visualize activity

MRI: Allows structural function analysis in living patients

fMRI (Functional) : measure O2 use during MRI scans while performing some task

  • Both genes and environment interact to shape human behavior

LECTURE 3

Neural Physiology

Neurons: Nerve cells

Glia cells: Stabilize brain, help with neurotransmission

Neurons contain: membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, ER, Ribosomes

                            Less than glia cells

                            Conduct impulses, glia cells do not (impulse)

Glia Cells: 1/10 the size of average neuron

5 types of Glial Cells:

  1. Astrocyte: (star) supplier of blood; new synapses; modulate neural responses
  2. Microglia: Garbage pickers of NS; travel to injured sites
  3. Radial Glia: Guide migration of neuron and growth of their axons and dendrites during embryonic development
  4. Oligodendrocytes: myelin in brain and spine -help signal transfer faster
  5. Swann cells: myelin outside of brain and spine

Blood-Brain Barrier: Mechanism that surrounds the brain and blocks chemicals from entering

                                - because neurons in brain generally do not regenerate

  • Glucose, aa, certain hormones are brought to the brain cia active transport (with use of ATP)

  • Blood-barrier essential to health, but pose difficulty in allowing chemicals to pass the barrier

LECTURE 4

Synaptic Transmission

  • Neurons communicate by transmitting chemicals at junctions, called synapses

 (Charles Scott Sherington)

  • Neurotransmitters: Chemical transmitter of messages

 

  • Ionotropic Receptor: Faster onset and decays

  • Metabolic Receptor: Don’t directly change polarization; contain G-protein; secondary messengers leading to change in membrane potential

Neurotransmission Steps:

  1. Synthesis of NT stored in vesicles
  2. Ca2+ induced vesicles containing NT and NT released to synaptic cells when neuron fires
  3. NT bind to receptor on postsynaptic cell
  4. Ions released and induce AP
  5. Reuptake of neurotransmitter by transporter protein

NMDA receptor (ionic glutamate w/ Mg2+ block) = ligand dependent (glutamate) & voltage dependent (depolarization)

  • NMDA- important for LTP (long term polarization)
  • Ca2 and released Mg2+ block trigger 2nd messenger cascades

Cleaning of NT from Synaptic cleft:

  1. Presynaptic terminal reuptake NT with transporters
  2. Enzymes break down NT before reuptake
  3. Diffusion away from cleft

Auto receptors on pre-synapse:

  • Metabolic Receptors: Auto receptors for same NT released

                                  Hetero for NT from diffrent neurons

*Secondary messenger system to regulate amount of NT synthesized and released

  • Auto Receptors: Receptor that detect the amount of transmitter released and modify further synthesis and release

  • Postsynaptic Neurons: Respond to stimulation by releasing chemicals that travel back to presynaptic terminal where they modify further release

Electrical Synapses: Operate electrically

  • Faster than chemical transmissions
  • Direct contact between membranes of two neurons
  • Depolarization occurs in both cells  (2 neurons acting as if they were one)

Depending on postsynaptic receptor, this causes an GPSP or IPSP

Synaptic Plasticity: Changes is in rearrangement of brain

                               Daily changes are on level of synapse

                               Adding synapses increases strength, removing them weakens - requires

                               protein synthesis

Astroglia Modulating Connectivity

  • Build blood-barrier, hel NT to not diffuse away (enhances AP)

Activity- Dependent Plasticity:

  • From activity patterns of pre- and postsynaptic cells

Acetylcholine:

  • Movement, learning and memory. REM Sleep
  • Has ionotropic and metabotropic receptors

  • Muscann receptor (metabotropic): in brain especially cortex
  • Nicotinic receptor (ionotropic) : necessary for muscular movement

Monoamines: mostly metabotropic receptors

  • DAT: Presynaptic dopamine transporter; transport  DA back into terminal intact
  • Monoamine oxidase (MAO) return NT back to neurosynaptic membrane

             MAO -A: DA, NE, & G-HT

             MAO -B: preferably DA

  • Dopamine: Functions
  • Movement
  • Attention
  • Learning
  • Reinforcing effects of drug abuse
  • Psychosis/Schizophrenia

Areas that produce dopamine:

  • Substantia nigra
  • Ventral tegmental area

Metabotropic Receptors - D1 & D5 receptors; excitatory

                                            D2,3,4 inhibitory

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