Psych 355 study guide
Psych 355 study guide PSY 355
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 355 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Kristy Dean in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Psychology & Culture in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
PSYCH 355 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Intro to culture & psychology (Ch. 1, Class 1&2) o How is “culture” defined? Any kind of information that is acquired from other members of one’s species through social learning that is capable of affecting an individual’s behavior Group of individuals who are existing within some kind of shared context o How do the definitions for “culture” and “society” differ? Society is a system of interrelationships among people This includes forms of government, an economic system, or a family system o In class, an iceberg was used to portray culture. What does the iceberg symbolize? The tip of the iceberg represents culture that we see on the surface & the part of the iceberg that is underwater represents all of the underlying factors that go into a culture o What does WEIRD stand for? Studies that are based on Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic cultures o What are the consequences of primarily studying people from WEIRD cultures? This is only a small representation of the world’s population Questions of if we can generalize the results of a study to other cultures o If a person’s perspective on psychology was described, would you be able to identify it as consistent with the general psychology perspective (“universalist” perspective) or the cultural psychology perspective? Cultural Evolution (Ch. 3, Class 3/4/5/6) o Why are there cultural differences? Ecological variation ways that physical environments affect culture Indirect & direct: o Directly affect what kind of foods are available affect the kinds of foraging behaviors o Indirectly affect how the societies are structured & the values that people come to adopt Evoked culture- all people have certain biologically encoded behavioral repertoires that are potentially accessible to them, and they are engaged when the appropriate situational conditions are present o Ex) all individuals are capable of acting intimidating when they are being threatened Transmitted culture- people learn about cultural practices through social learning or by modeling others who live near them o Ex) you observe a neighbor planting wheat seeds & notice the benefits that she earned, you might adopt this cultural practice “Geographical Eye Over Africa” Itohan- southern Nigeria, farming area with a lot of rainfall, value education for everyone, hunt livestock Sadia- northern Nigeria, very dry farming area, everyone in the family works on the family farm, don’t value education o Theories describing how we transmit cultural information Gene analogy- cultural information replicates like genes, meaning it replicates to the next generation just like genes do from parents to kids Success of meme (basic unit of culture) is dependent on o Longevity- length of time meme exists o Fecundity- degree to which meme is transmitted o Fidelity- accuracy of transmissions (direct replication) behavior is the same every time we transmit it Disease analogy- cultural information spreads like a virus/disease Mutation of ideas- as diseases are spread, they mutate/change; cultural info is seen as the same as people spread cultural info it changes o Ex) changing something of a recipe & then passing the new recipe on to someone else Extrapolations- revisions occur because of distinct mental representations General gist is preserved use of different words but basic meaning is preserved o How is cultural information transmitted successfully? Info that are easily communicated (usually through language) between people Info that is helpful to others Info that elicits an emotional reaction Info that is minimally counterintuitive statements that are surprising & unusual but not too outlandish o How/why are cultures changing? Individualism vs collectivism Individualism- cultures with practices/customs the encourage individuals to place their own personal goals before those of the group o Ex) college-age kids being encouraged to move out of their parents’ homes; employees being given individual offices/cubicles Collectivism- encourage people to place more emphasis on group goals o Ex) marriages being arranged by parents; extended families living under one roof How are these dimensions useful? o General guide of discussing, organizing, and predicting aspects of culture Limitations? o Overgeneralizing individuals & their cultures vary Increased interconnection Technological innovations allow ideas that emerge in one culture to have an influence on people in other cultures; this hastens the process of cultural evolution Ex) import/export of foods around the world Changing societal policies within a culture Ex) one-child policy of China to reduce population growth o Why do cultures stay the same? Power of early conditions Ratchet effect- modifying & improving upon earlier cultural information The Frontier Spirit Study Participants from Japan (Hokkaido U. & Kyoto U.) and the U.S. (U of M) write about a recent emotional event emotions coded as involving personal/social aspects Results: o U.S. more personal o Japan (Kyoto) more social o Hokkaido inbetween (both social & personal) Research Methods (Ch. 4, Class 7/8/9) o Toolbox analogy Tool= a psychological phenomenon Does the tool exist across cultures? Is the tool used similarly? Is the tool used to the same degree? **figure 1.5 in book** o How do the types of questions a cultural psychologist asks influence the specific cultures they study? Help choose cultural samples based on theoretical variable that is being investigated o Operational definition- the actions/operations that will be used to measure/control the concept being studied Ex) measuring/manipulating extraversion o Study Designs Correlational- predict/examine associations between concepts Experimental- identify cause between variables Independent variable- variable that is manipulated/changed Dependent variable- variable that is measured Quasi-experimental- comparing existing groups (cultural background is NOT manipulated); can’t claim causality o Cultural Research Concerns Trying to maintain methodological equivalence is the main concern when doing research in order to fully uncover cultural differences/similarities Translating materials Back-translation: o Have one translator translate original English questions to desired language o Have another translator translate the translated questions back to English o Compare the two English versions in order to make sure the questions meaning is maintained after translation to a different language Response biases Socially desirable reasoning- people are motivated to be evaluated positively by others, so they might disguise their true feelings to appear more socially desirable by their culture Moderacy bias- choosing an item close to the midpoint of the scale o Ex) choosing a 5 on a 7-point scale Extremity bias- choosing an item close to the end of the scale o Ex) choosing a 7 on a 7-point scale Acquiescence bias- tendency to agree with most statements o “Body Ritual Among the Nacirema” Making the familiar unfamiliar to highlight ethnocentrism in the field Ethnocentrism- tendency to judge people from other cultures by comparing them to the standards of one’s own culture Derived from basic cognitive & evaluative processes association, comparison, categorization learned early, prompt judgement o Unpackaging- identify the underlying variables that give rise to different cultural differences Development and Socialization (Ch. 5, Class 10/11/12) o Attachment styles Secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant Strange Situation Paradigm & behavioral patterns seen by U.S. children in each attachment style Secure: explored while playing w/caregiver; showed distress & sought proximity when caregiver left (departure stage); showed decreased distressed & sought proximity during reunion w/caregiver Anxious-ambivalent: did not explore while playing w/caregiver; showed distress & sought proximity when caregiver left; still showed distress & sought proximity during reunion w/caregiver Avoidant: explored while playing w/caregiver; did not show any distress & did not seek proximity when caregiver left; no change in behavior when caregiver returned (union stage) How do they differ across cultures? Secure is more common in U.S.; anxious-ambivalent more common in Japan; avoidance more common in Germany Focus on Japan Anxious-ambivalent mostly derives from amae (dependence on those you indulge us) Mizuta et al., 1996 o Japanese & U.S. kids ages 4-5 ½ o Examined kid’s behavior pre-separation & at reunion o Results: emotional component of anxious-ambivalent similar in both cultures, but the behavioral component was a bit different meaning anxious-ambivalent is an existential universal Focus on Israel Attachment among kids living on an Israel kibbutz Q: is communal, kibbutz living (& corresponding inconsistentcy) a factor in more A-A attachment? Results: certain situational factors foster/impair consistent sensitivity (# of caregivers, sleeping arrangement) o Parenting styles Authoritarian- places high demands on kids, strict rules, low levels of warmth, little open dialogue between parent & kid Authoritative- child-centered; parents try to understand kids’ feelings but encourage them to be independent while maintaining controls on their behaviors Permissive- being very responsive, warm & involved with one’s kids; placing few limits & controls on their behaviors Why don’t the strict, parent-centered perspectives seen in other non-U.S. cultures fit into the authoritarian category? Different parenting styles based on development stage the child is in o Ex) Asian cultures show indulgence w/few demands/expectations on infants/toddlers until they reach school age How warmth/responsiveness is communicated by parents varies across cultures “Role of training” effort to have kids adhere to socially desired behaviors (“training” kid how to act based on what the culture sees as socially desirable behavior) o How do the developmental goals of independence & interdependence influence children during the “terrible twos”? Kids of cultures that value independence (U.S./individualistic cultures) show a stage in development at age 2 when they act out and establish their independence as a person Kids of non-western cultures don’t see this because kids are raised w/cultural goals of interdependence (collectivistic cultures) kids try to fit in & belong instead of showing their independence o Adolescence ALL cultures view adolescence as a distinct period of life (separate from childhood & adulthood) adolescence is an EXISTENTIAL UNIVERSAL Cultural differences in experiences of adolescents Many cultures showed adolescents acting rebelliously BUT adolescence as a developmental stage w/rebellion & violence DOES NOT meet criteria to be categorized as a FUNCTIONAL UNIVERSAL o A lot of cultural variation What cultural features are associated w/increased distress during adolescence? Individualism- more conflict between kids & parents seen in individualistic societies Learning how to accept adult roles o Easier & more straightforward when there are fewer role distinctions (ex: in farming societies there is only one role available farming) o In modern societies, range of roles is staggering/overwhelming more people delay making commitments which then extends the period of adolescence & this then increases stress & confusion of adolescents Sleep Arrangement Study o U.S. vs India o Had to choose sleeping arrangements for a family of: father, mother, 3 sons (8, 11, 15 yrs old), and 2 daughters (3, 14 yrs old) in a house w/3 rooms o Scenarios: Room 1= parents & 3 yr old girl; room 2= 14 yr old girl & 8 yr old boy; room 3= 15 & 11 yr old boys Room 1= father & 8 yr old boy; room 2= girls & mom; room 3= 15 & 11 yr old boys Room 1= parents; room 2= girls; room 3= boys o Moral principles: Incest avoidance- postpuberty family members of the opposite sex don’t share a room Protection of young- young needy kids can’t be left alone at night Female chastity anxiety- unmarried postpubery women always chaperoned to protect from engaging in sexual activity that’s viewed as shameful Respect for hierarchy- postpuberty boys given social status to not have to sleep w/parents or younger kids Autonomy ideal- young needy kids need to learn to be self-reliant & take care of themselves o Indians seemed to value incest avoidance, protection of vulnerable, female chastity anxiety, and respect for hierarchy o Americans seemed to value incest avoidance, sacred couple, and autonomy ideal o Results: Different cultural values guided Indians & Americans in deciding about sleeping arrangements Americans- protect privacy of married couple, encourage development of independence among kids Indians- keep young/postpuberty girls from being alone, offer older boys option of not having to sleep w/parents or younger kids Preschool in Three Cultures o Japan (Komatsudane) Remove shoes before entering the school Parents say goodbye at the door b/c they are considered “guests” of the school & would have to put on special “guest shoes” to enter the school 9am morning calisthenics to get blood flowing & by doing the exercises together it gives the kids and teachers a sense of oneness at the start of each day “Daily Monitors” child who helps teachers during the school day Large class sizes desired to facilitate socialization among the kids Only one 20-minute lesson per day Teacher does nothing to correct any of the kids’ behavior during the lesson believe kids should handle their own problems & they should be allowed to fight in order to learn empathy Lunch time: sing a song, say a formal prayer in formal Japanese, when kids are done eating they are allowed to have free play o China (Dong-fen) Offers a boarding program for parents who work a lot kids go home on Wednesday nights and weekends Every Monday the school has nurses come to school to do check up on kids b/c when the kids go home on the weekends, they tend to be spoiled by their parents and grandparents this can be in the form of too many sweets given to the kid & the kid can then get a stomach ache Preschool allows the kids to have a chance to socialize with other kids (b/c of one child rule in china) & teachers correct the mistakes made by parents who spoil their kids at home 26 kids & 2 teachers All kids in class go to the bathroom together at the same time & toilets are troughs that run along the room Lots of control & regiment during classroom time believe kids should learn from an early age to study hard Kids are told not to talk during lunch & they should focus completely on eating like they would completely focus when they study o U.S. (St. Timothy’s in Hawaii) Full & half day for kids 2-5yrs old, kindergarten, and elementary school Lots of security at the school 18 kids & 2 teachers Ask kids to express themselves via words and make their own choices on activities
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