02/08 (lecture) 99:50 am
Serial position effect
Memory construction errors
Peer review of Dunlosky et al. response paper in lab
You need a paper copy or you will be asked to leave the class
Language and Thought: Module 28
Basics of language
Debate over language development
Statistical learning of language
Critical periods of language
Other species and language
What is language?
Languageconsists of the use of symbols to represent, transmit, and store meaning/information
Symbolsinclude organized patterns of sounds, visual representations, and movements Meaningincludes concepts, quantities, plans, identity, feelings, ideas, facts, and customs What is language made of?
Phonemesare the smallest unit of sound
Morphemesare the units of meaning
Grammarrefers to the rules for using words, including semantics, definitions, connotations, and syntax
Chairs has 6 letters but only 4 phonemes: CHAIRS If you want to learn more check out What is the tawantinsuyu?
Ths s wht lngge lks lk wtht vwls
Across all languages
Morphemes Smallest meaningful unit of language If you want to learn more check out What are the forms of public speaking described by aristotle?
Can be a word (dog, run, party)
Prefix/suffix (er, pre, ful)
Derive meaning from sound
Thift is meaningless
Theft has meaning
Rules for how words should be ordered into sentences Differ for questions and statements
Is this a lecture?
This is a lecture
Need more than just semantics and syntax
When do we learn language?
The beginnings of language
Early milestones of language development
Birth 1 month
Crying is the predominant sound
1 2 months
Laughing and cooing sounds
May include laughing
Welcome relief from crying
6 7 months
Babbling; repetitive vowelconsonant combinations Consonant vowels
Repetition of sounds
Imitation Don't forget about the age old question of What theory explains drivers of human behavior?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why are volcanoes in subduction zones so dangerous?
May repeat words
Not really using language
Around one year
One word stage
Around 2 years
Two word stage
The beginning of language
Single word expresses
Telegraphic Speech: refers to the twoword stage of language development in children ages 1824 months
Receptive languageis the ability to understand words
At eight months of agebabies begin to store words in memory
At nine to ten months of agebabies typically understand 1020 words At thirteen months of agebabies typically understand 100 words
Learn from environment
Language is reinforced
Well taught well spoken
Language acquisition device
Poverty of stimulus
Environment matters! Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between dna & rna?
The more a mother (the parent) talks to the child the more they are to learn words and language.
The Nativist View:
Grammar rules are acquired before exception mastery
Rulegoverned errors are made (overregularization)
Comprehension and production are guided by the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) The Interactionist View
Four key ideas
Language follows rules as a part of cognition
Language includes internal and external factors
Infants are born with biological preparedness to pay more attention to language than to other information
The infant's brain has generalized tools used across all cognitive domains NOT languagespecific neurological model
02/10 (lecture) 99:50 am
Language continued: Module 28
The idea that our specific language determines how we think
For example, Benjamin Whorf (18971941) proposed that because the Hopi do not have past tense form for verbs, it is hard for them to think about the past Close but not entirely right…
Languages influence on thought
words vary depending on culture
Japanese has more words for interpersonal emotions If you want to learn more check out What are the antioxidant enzymes?
English has more words for selffocused emotions
Words for color **see slides for example**
Explaining Language Acquisition: Nature and Nurture
The role of genes
We seem to have an inborn (genetic) talent for acquiring language, though no particular kind of language is in the genes
The role of experience
We also seem to have a “statistical” pattern recognition talent. Infants recognize patterns in syllable frequency and sequence, preparing them to later learn words and syntax.
Tragic case of child neglect
Not exposed to speech
Was able to learn basic social skills and nonverbal communication
Never fully able to learn a language
Brain damage and language
Aphasia: an impairment in the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by damage to the brain.
Broca’s area, in the left temporal lobe
productive language problems hard to come up with words
Wernicke’s area, left temporal lobe
Comprehension problems difficult to produce coherent speech
According to one study with immigrants, beginning a language later made it harder to learn pronunciation and the grammar of the second language
It is important to begin appropriate language/exposure/education early so that language centers of the brain continue to develop
Language is age sensitive because of pruning
Unused neural connections wither away
Sounds and syntax for languages not used
Strengthens connections for language(s) used
Do other species use language?
Receptive definitely use human language
Productive It depends…
Is bee dance language?
Bee’s watching the dance
Bee flies to flowers
**see slides for pictures**
Teaching non human primates sign language
Vocabulary and syntax like a toddler
Some can understand syntax (you tickle vs tickle you)
New word combinations
Teach young new language
Animals have some grasp of language, but not the same applications and complexities as do humans