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UND / Psychology / PSYC 111 / What do phonemes mean?

What do phonemes mean?

What do phonemes mean?

Description

School: University of North Dakota
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Virginia clinton
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Introduction to Psychology week 5 Notes
Description: These notes cover week 5 notes including module 28
Uploaded: 02/10/2016
5 Pages 22 Views 1 Unlocks
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02/08 (lecture) 9­9:50 am


What do phonemes mean?



Review

­ Serial position effect

­ Encoding failure

­ Storage decay

­ Retrieval failure

­ Interference

­ Motivated forgetting/repression

­ Memory construction errors

Announcements:

­ Peer review of Dunlosky et al. response paper in lab

­ You need a paper copy or you will be asked to leave the class

Language and Thought: Module 28

Overview:

­ Basics of language

­ Language development

­ Debate over language development

­ Statistical learning of language

­ Critical periods of language

­ Linguistic determinism

­ Bilingual advantage


What do consonants mean?



­ Other species and language

What is language?

­ Language​consists of the use of symbols to represent, transmit, and store meaning/information

­ Symbols​include organized patterns of sounds, visual representations, and movements ­ Meaning​includes concepts, quantities, plans, identity, feelings, ideas, facts, and customs What is language made of?

­ Phonemes​are the smallest unit of sound

­ Morphemes​are the units of meaning

­ Grammar​refers to the rules for using words, including semantics, definitions, connotations, and syntax


What do morphemes mean?



Phonemes:

­ Chairs has 6 letters but only 4 phonemes: CH­AI­R­S If you want to learn more check out What is the tawantinsuyu?

Consonants ­ Vowels

­ Ths s wht lngge lks lk wtht vwls

­ Across all languages

Morphemes ­ Smallest meaningful unit of language If you want to learn more check out What are the forms of public speaking described by aristotle?

­ Can be a word (dog, run, party)

­ Prefix/suffix (­er, ­pre, ­ful)

Grammar ­ Semantics

­ Derive meaning from sound

­ Word learning

­ i.e.

­ Thift is meaningless

­ Theft has meaning

Syntax

­ Rules for how words should be ordered into sentences ­ Differ for questions and statements

­ Is this a lecture?

­ This is a lecture

­ Need more than just semantics and syntax

When do we learn language?

The beginnings of language

­ Early milestones of language development

­ Birth 1­ month

­ Crying is the predominant sound

­ 1 ­ 2 months

­ Laughing and cooing sounds

­ Vowel sounds

­ May include laughing

­ Welcome relief from crying

­ 6 ­ 7 months

­ Babbling; repetitive vowel­consonant combinations ­ Consonant vowels

­ Repetition of sounds

­ Imitation Don't forget about the age old question of What theory explains drivers of human behavior?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why are volcanoes in subduction zones so dangerous?

­ May repeat words

­ Not really using language

­ Around one year

­ One word stage

­ Around 2 years

­ Two word stage

­ Telegraphic stage

The beginning of language

­ First words

­ Holophrases

­ Single word expresses

­ Complex ideas

­ Water

­ Naming explosion

­ Telegraphic Speech: refers to the two­word stage of language development in children ages 18­24 months

­ Receptive language

­ Receptive language​is the ability to understand words

­ At eight months of age​babies begin to store words in memory

­ At nine to ten months of age​babies typically understand 10­20 words ­ At thirteen months of age​babies typically understand 100 words

Language Debate!

­ Skinner (environment/empiricism)

­ Learn from environment

­ Language is reinforced

­ Well taught well spoken

­ Chomsky (nature/nativist)

­ Language acquisition device

­ Poverty of stimulus

­ Environment matters! Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between dna & rna?

­ The more a mother (the parent) talks to the child the more they are to learn words and language.

The Nativist View:

­ Grammar rules are acquired before exception mastery

­ Rule­governed errors are made (overregularization)

­ Comprehension and production are guided by the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) The Interactionist View

­ Four key ideas

­ Language follows rules as a part of cognition

­ Language includes internal and external factors

­ Infants are born with biological preparedness to pay more attention to language than to other information

­ The infant's brain has generalized tools used across all cognitive domains ­ NOT language­specific neurological model

02/10 (lecture) 9­9:50 am

Language continued: Module 28

Topics:

­ Linguistic determinism

­ The idea that our specific language determines how we think

­ For example, Benjamin Whorf (1897­1941) proposed that because the Hopi do not have past tense form for verbs, it is hard for them to think about the past ­ Close but not entirely right…

­ Statistical learning

­ Critical periods

­ Aphasia

­ Animal languages

Languages influence on thought

­ words vary depending on culture

­ Japanese has more words for interpersonal emotions If you want to learn more check out What are the antioxidant enzymes?

­ English has more words for self­focused emotions

­ Words for color **see slides for example**

Explaining Language Acquisition: Nature and Nurture

­ The role of genes

­ We seem to have an inborn (genetic) talent for acquiring language, though no particular kind of language is in the genes

­ The role of experience

­ We also seem to have a “statistical” pattern recognition talent. Infants recognize patterns in syllable frequency and sequence, preparing them to later learn words and syntax.

Genie

­ Tragic case of child neglect

­ Not exposed to speech

­ Was able to learn basic social skills and nonverbal communication

­ Never fully able to learn a language

Brain damage and language

Aphasia: an impairment in the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by damage to the brain.

­ Broca’s area, in the left temporal lobe

­ productive language problems ­ hard to come up with words

­ Wernicke’s area, left temporal lobe

­ Comprehension problems ­ difficult to produce coherent speech

Critical periods:

­ According to one study with immigrants, beginning a language later made it harder to learn pronunciation and the grammar of the second language

­ It is important to begin appropriate language/exposure/education early so that language centers of the brain continue to develop

Language is age sensitive because of pruning

­ Unused neural connections wither away

­ Sounds and syntax for languages not used

­ Strengthens connections for language(s) used

Do other species use language?

­ Receptive ­ definitely use human language

­ Productive ­ It depends…

Is bee dance language?

­ Bee’s watching the dance

­ Bee flies to flowers

­ **see slides for pictures**

Teaching non human primates sign language

­ Vocabulary and syntax like a toddler

­ Some can understand syntax (you tickle vs tickle you)

­ New word combinations

­ Teach young new language

Bottom line:

­ Animals have some grasp of language, but not the same applications and complexities as do humans

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